the use of difficulty learning assessment in assessing the concept

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JPPI, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 2017, p. 11-21 e-ISSN 2477-2038

Jurnal Penelitian dan Pembelajaran IPA

THE USE OF DIFFICULTY LEARNING ASSESSMENT IN ASSESSING THE CONCEPT MASTERY OF BIOLOGY TEACHER CANDIDATES ON DEVELOPMENT STAGE OF ANIMAL EMBRIOLOGY

(Accepted 21 June 2016; Revised 31 Mei 2017; Published 31 Mei 2017) Aa Juhanda Department of Biology Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Sukabumi, Indonesia Email: [email protected]

Abstract This study aims to obtain a description of the mastery of the concept of biology teacher candidates through the study of learning difficulties in the concept of development stage of animal embryo. The subjects of the study were 43 students of semester 6 of academic year 2013 which contracted embryology subjects. The instruments used consist of diagnostic questions (essays and multiple choice questions) and interview format. Data analysis was done quantitatively and qualitatively. The results showed that the mastery of the concept of students on aspects of C1 (remember) is 53% (enough); C2 (understanding) of 77% (good); C3 (applying) of 98% (excellent); And C4 (analyze) of 58% (enough). In addition, some students who experienced difficulty showed a positive response to their learning difficulties. Keywords: Assessment of Learning Difficulties, Concept Mastery, Stages of Animal Embryology Development

11

INTRODUCTION In

of

low mastery of the concept of IPA is

teaching and learning process there are

caused by the use of low mindset in the

students who can get high learning

formation of conceptual IPA system.

results and there are also students who

The absence of improved quality of

get low learning outcomes. Some of

science education is related to the

them can take their learning activities

unresolved problems in science learning

smoothly and successfully without any

The absence of improved quality of

difficulty. However, on the other hand

science education is related to the

not a few students who actually in

unresolved problems in science learning,

learning

various

Including science education is still

difficulties. Student learning difficulties

oriented only on knowledge products,

are indicated by the presence of certain

less oriented to the process of science;

obstacles to achieve learning outcomes

More

and can be psychological, sociological,

through

and physiological so that ultimately can

discussions without being based on the

lead

results of practical work (Susanto,

to

the

Liliasari (1999) revealed that the

to

implementation

experience

achievement

of

learning

achievable under the proper (Daryanto,

science

teaching

lectures,

is

devoted

questioning,

or

2002).

2010). Furthermore, Aschlock (Wulan,

Lecturers as educators need to

et al., 2010, 2010) States that students

analyze the learning difficulties to

who always get a low learning outcomes

diagnose students' learning difficulties.

are referred to as students who have

Learning difficulties are a condition

learning difficulties.

where students can’t learn properly.

Learning difficulties because of

Wiersma and Jurs (Darmiyati, 2007)

students are not able to associate new

Believes that diagnosis is a teaching

knowledge with old knowledge so as to

plan for a student, and otherwise is

cause incomprehension or vagueness of

based on a thorough diagnosis of the

a lesson. Similarly in biology that is part

shortcomings

of the Natural Science (IPA), Symptoms

students. Remember the importance of

of learning difficulties will be seen when

conducting

students can’t concentrate more, most

learning

students get low grades, students show

Gronlund (Darmiyati, 2007) confirmed

lethargy, and most students do not

that the diagnostic assessment was

master the material that has been

developed to examine the unresolved

submitted (Hamalik, 2004).

learning

JPPI, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 2017, p. 11-21 e-ISSN 2477-2038

and

advantages

diagnostic activities,

difficulties

activities

so

Linn

with

of

in and

ordinary Juhanda

12

formative assessments. In conducting

subject

diagnostic activities requires not only a

Muhammadiyah Sukabumi Academic

diagnostic approach but also a form of

year 2013. Subject selection is done by

assessment tool that can diagnose

using purposive sampling technique.

student

The

learning

difficulties.

The

FKIP

data

Universitas

were collected

using a

assessment of learning difficulties in this

diagnostic question consisting of essays

study is an assessment given to students

and

by giving diagnostic tests to students, to

questions based on Bloom's revised

see

the

taxonomy from C1 (remembering) to C4

material given. This assessment is given

(analyzing). Implementation of research

as an ingredient in order to provide

conducted by first providing essays on

guidance to students who have learning

prospective students of teachers, then

difficulties (Wulan et al., 2010). It will

analyzed into a test of ability in the form

be used to diagnose the learning

of multiple choice. The deductions

difficulties in stage development of

contained in the multiple choice test are

animal

the development of the student's answer

students'

difficulties

embryology

with

concept.

The

multiple

the

choice

essay

items

to

learning outcomes from this is very

processing using Anates Version 4.1.0

important to achieve in order to prepare

software

competent human resources in the future

includes validity, reliability, difficulty,

era.

distinguishing, and distortion analysis of

METHOD

the problems used in the assessment of

To

Test

20

concept has a wide scope. Achieving

from

question.

of

(2003)

data

Which

This research uses descriptive

learning difficulties. Then it will be

method. Subjects used in this study are

calculated using the formula Arikunto

6th semester biology students as much as

(2013) as follows.

43 students who contracted embryology % Occurrences = ∑ aspects of the emergence of the concept x100% ∑ All mastery of concept The next stage is categorized based on the formula Arikunto (2008) as follows. Table 1. Category of Percentage Occurrence of Cognitive Level Problem Bloom's Taxonomy Revised At BSE High School Biology Percentage Predicate 81-100% Very well 61-80% Vell 41-60% Enough 21-40% Less ≤ 21 % Very less JPPI, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 2017, p. 11-21 e-ISSN 2477-2038

Juhanda

13

Data processing of interview result is done by using formula from Arikunto (2013) which then interpreted using category based on Koentjaraningrat (1997). Table 2. Category of Percentage Koentjaraningrat (1997)

Percentage 0% 1%-25% 26%-49% 50% 51%-75% 76%-99% 100%

Category Nothing Small Almost half Half Big Almost entirely All

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This

by

stage is about the essay about the

identifying embryological concepts that

concept of development stage of animal

are

teacher

embryo. Table 3 shows sub-concepts

candidates. When this identification was

and indicators on the concept of

done, then made learning indicators

development stage of animal embryo

difficult

research

development of the animal. The next

for

begins

biology

related to the stage of embryological Table 3. Sub Concepts and Indicators on Development Stage of Animal Embryonic Concept No Sub concepts Indicator 1. Basic Concept of embryology Explain the concept of embryology 2. Stages of embryonic Mention the stages of animal embryo development development 3. Stages of cleavage Describes cleavage goals Mention the cleavage field Determine the number of cleavage clearance cells Identify the type of cleavage 4. Stages of Blastula Understand the stages of blastula development Mention the type of blastula Analyze the relationship between the layer of blastulasi with gastrulation 5. Stages of gastrulation Describe the gastrulation stage Mention the primary germinal layer of the gastrulation process Analyze the effects of gastrulation movement on organ formation Understand the process of gastrulation in one Animal 6. Stages of tubulation Explain the concept of tubulation Understand the process of tubular mechanism Mention the extraembricial tissue tubulation Results 7. Stages of organogenesis Explain the concept of organogenesis Mention the results of organogenesis in the JPPI, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 2017, p. 11-21 e-ISSN 2477-2038

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14

No

Sub concepts

Indicator

Epidermis Analyze the correlation of organogenesis to the mechanism of evolution 8. Application of stages of animal Apply the benefits of studying embryo development in the stages of embryological development everyday life Based on the analysis of essay

value of 0.56. This can be seen from the

items which given to the students then

percentage of students' answers in

obtained a score with an average of

answering questions. Recapitulation of

27.78. The level of reliability of the tests

the overall essay item analysis can be

conducted on the essay problem is

seen in Table 4.

sufficient because it has a reliability Table 4. Recapitulation of Analysis of Essay Item Average score Correlation 27,78 0,40

Reliability 0,56

The result of identification of

researchers in preparing the next step is

student answers, students can only

the preparation of multiple choice

respond to questions on certain sub-

questions. Furthermore, the predicted

concepts only. This shows the mastery

source of difficulty in making the

of student concepts on sub-concepts

problem specification has appeared on

were different. Students are more likely

the student's answer to this essay

to respond to essay questions about sub-

question.

concepts of basic understanding of

question, the question indicates that the

embryology and the application of

reliability, validity, and distinguishing

learning embryology. However, when

values are considered good enough and

faced with essays related to the stage of

satisfy the validity of a test. This can be

cleavage, the stages of blastulation

seen from the results of the reliability

stages, the stages of gastrulation, the

value is quite enough that is equal to

stages of tubulation and the stages of

0.40. The Validity is quite valid because

organogenesis, students have difficulty

it has a validity value of 0.67. The

Even from some who responded to find

results of this item analysis can be seen

the answers of students who are less

in Table 5.

In

the

multiple-choice

precise. This is one of the obstacles of

Table 5. Recapitulation of Analysis of question item on the Application of Learning Difficulties Assessment JPPI, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 2017, p. 11-21 e-ISSN 2477-2038

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15

Average Score 13,40

Validity 0,67

Realibility 0,4

In the assessment of learning

Karnoto. This grouping is done just to make

difficulties obtained from 43 students who

it easier to know which students are the least

took the test there were 12 high school

accomplished indicators. When compared to

students, 19 medium group students, and 12

the conceptual mastery of each indicator

low group students. This grouping is done

between the assessment tools in the form of

based on data processing based on Anates

essays and multiple choices then the results

Version 4.1.0 software which developed by

can be seen in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Comparison of Mastery Concept of Students On the Essay Test and Multiple Choice Figure

the

choice on indicators 6, 8, 7, 12, 14, 15,

mastery of student concepts with essays

and 19). This is one of them because the

and multiple choice tests has similarities

essay test requires a more difficult task

and differences. The equation lies in the

than the multiple choice test. Essay test

mastery of indicators 10 and 20 that

work requires disclosure of answers

have

The

with the language itself so that the essay

difference in concept mastery lies in

requires students to think high level.

indicators other than 10 and 20. In

Meanwhile, at indicators 1, 2, 7, 11 and

general, the percentage of mastering

13 the difference lies precisely in

concepts on the essay test is less than the

mastery of the essay test concept higher

multiple choice test (see difference in

than the multiple choice test. The results

percentage of essay test and multiple

of mastery of the concept of students

the

1

same

shows

that

percentage.

JPPI, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 2017, p. 11-21 e-ISSN 2477-2038

Juhanda

16

revealed through the assessment of

Figure 2.

learning difficulties can be seen in

Figure 2. Concept Mastery of Student through the Learning Difficulties Assessment

Figure 2 shows that the highest

answers so that it can be said the

percentage of master student concept is

questions given at the time of interview

obtained by C3 (analyze) aspect of 98%

is a matter of multiple choice made in

(excellent), and the lowest on C1

the form of essay. Problems that are

(remembering) aspect is 53% (enough).

tested at the time of the assessment is

Meanwhile, the percentage aspect of C2

asked back to the student just not given

(understanding) is 77% (good) and C4

the option answers so that it can be said

aspect (analyze) is 58% (enough). The

the questions given at the time of

results of the interview aims to validate

interview is a matter of multiple choice

the findings of students who have

made in the form of essay. Low group (3

difficulty

students), medium group (1 student),

learning

to

learn.

This

interview was conducted using a snippet

and

test of several students based on the

selection of sample of cuplik test in each

grouping of students (focus group

group is determined based on the

discussion). Problems that are tested at

achievement of each student indicator.

the time of the assessment is asked back

The interview result can be seen in

to the student just not given the option

Figure 3.

JPPI, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 2017, p. 11-21 e-ISSN 2477-2038

high group (1 student). The

Juhanda

17

Figure 3. Result of Interview of Student Learning Difficulties to Concept Mastery

Based on Table 3 it is known

the

process

of

gastrulation

and

that all students (100%) have difficulty

blastulation stage which is the beginning

learning in answering C4 (analyzing)

of the stage of development of animal

questions, almost all students (83%)

embryos. Therefore, the results of this

have difficulty learning to answer C3

interview prove that the assessment of

(applying) questions, almost half of

learning difficulties can diagnose the

students (33% Learning difficulties in

students' learning difficulties in the

answering C3 questions, and no (0%)

concept of development stage of animal

students

in

embryology.

answering C3 (applying). The existence

The

who

have

difficulty

learning

difficulty

of these findings is actually difficult for

assessment used included diagnostic

students to answer between questions

tests (essay and multiple choice) and

with other problems are interrelated, for

interview

example when students are not exactly

recapitulation of essay item analysis

in answering the problem about the

conducted

stages of gastrulation because they do

contracted animal embryology subjects

not understand the stage of blastulasi.

obtained the result of reliability value of

Furthermore, when the students can’t

0.56 which belonged to enough. This

answer the question of tubulation, it

shows that the assessment of learning

because of they don't understand about

difficulties assessment tool is said to be

JPPI, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 2017, p. 11-21 e-ISSN 2477-2038

format.

on

the

The

result

students

of

who

Juhanda

18

valid enough to measure the objectives

students. Though aspect C1 is

to be measured. Problems can already be

capability as a result of learning process

said to have a sufficient reliability in

with reading, listening, doing and the

each test (Arikunto, 2010). In addition,

like (Nurhayati, 2015).

multiple choice test results also show

On

the

aspect

of

a

C2

good reliability and validity values and

(understanding), students can master the

meet the validity of a test. This can be

concept well. Almost half of the

seen from the results of the reliability

students have difficulty in answering

value is quite enough that is equal to

this question. According to Widodo

0.40. Validity is quite valid because it

(2006)

has a validity value of 0.67. The

constructing meaning or understanding

findings are in line with the opinion of

based

Wulan and Nurlaelah (2011) Who states

possessed, linking new information with

that assessment of student learning

existing knowledge, or integrating new

difficulties can be done either through

knowledge into existing schemes in

written

multiple

students' thinking. Therefore, students

choice), or through oral tests. Mastery of

who have been able to answer this

concepts acquired through the learning

matter means they already have that

difficulties assessment shows different

ability.

tests

(essays

and

percentage results. Students can master

understanding

on

the

initial

means

knowledge

In the aspect of the problem of

the concept very well on indicators

C4

about aspects of C3 (applying). This

difficulties in answering the question.

indicates that the students have mastered

Based on the results of interview

the concept not only understand it, But

validation of a group of students who

can use them in real.

have difficulty states that almost all

On

the

aspect

of

C1

(analyze),

students

suffered

agree that to answer this problem is

(remembering), students can memorize

difficult.

enough and recognize the concepts

characteristics of describing a problem

contained in the development stage of

or object to its elements and determining

animal embryology. It's just that the

how the interconnectedness between the

validation of the interview results shows

elements and the structure of magnitude.

that almost all students have difficulty in

The ability of students in answering this

answering the question. The existence of

type of problem shows that they already

these findings indicates that the concept

have a high-level thinking process.

of memorization is often forgotten by

Anderson & Krathwohl (2010) suggests

JPPI, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 2017, p. 11-21 e-ISSN 2477-2038

This

issue

has

the

Juhanda

19

Daryanto. 2010. Media Pembelajaran. Gava Media.Yogyakarta

that one of the indicators for measuring high-order thinking in the C4 (cognitive)

Hamalik, O. 2004. Proses Belajar Mengajar. Bumi Aksara. Jakarta

Is to analyze incoming information and divide or structure information into smaller sections to recognize patterns or

To, K. 2003. Anates Program analisis Soal Versi 4.1.0. Bandung.

relationships. CONCLUSION The

assessment

of

Koentjaraningrat. 1997. Metode-Metode Penelitian Masyarakat. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

learning

difficulties can reveal the mastery of a biology teacher candidate concept with

Liliasari, 1999. Membangun Keterampilan Berpikir Manusia Indonesia Melalui Pendidikan Sains. Pidato Pengukuhan Guru Besar Tetap dalam Ilmu Pendidikan Alam, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Bandung

different percentages. Aspects about C3 (apply) have the highest percentage compared with other aspects with very good category. The findings of interview results are in line with the level of student learning difficulties achieved

Nurhayati. 2015. Penilaian Berdasarkan Revisi Taksonomi Bloom. http://www.biologimu.com/201 5/03/penilaian-berdasarkanrevisitaksonomi.html. accessed on 12th March 2017).

through diagnostic questions. REFERENCES Anderson, L.W & Krathwohl, D.R. 2010. Kerangka Landasan Untuk Pembelajaran Pengajaran dan Asesmen. Penerjemah: Agung Prihantoro. Pustaka Belajar. Yogyakarta.

Susanto.2002.“Pembelajaran Konstruktivisme dan Kontekstual Sebagai Pendekatan dan Metodologi Pembelajaran Sains dalam Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi”. Makalah, UNM, Malang.

Arikunto, S. 2008. Evaluasi Program Pendidikan- Pedoman Teoritis Peraktis Bagi Mahasiswa dan Praktisi Pendidikan Edisi Kedua. Bumi Aksara. Jakarta

Widodo, A. 2006. Taksonomi Bloom dan Pengembangan Butir Soal. Buletin Puspendik. 3(2), 18-29.

Arikunto, S. 2013. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Rineka Cipta. Jakarta

Wulan, A. R. & Nurlaelah, E. (2011). Pedoman Penilaian Kesulitan Belajar Siswa SMP. Balitbang Depdiknas. Jakarta

Darmiyati. 2007. Pengembangan Model Asesmen Diagnostik dalam Upaya Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar Matematika di SD Kota Banjarbaru dan Kabupaten Tanah Laut Kalimantan Selatan. http://isjd.pdii.lipi.go.id/admin/j urnal/136707509531.pdf. accessed on 6th April 2017.

Wulan, et al. 2010. “Model Penilaian Kesulitan Belajar Siswa SD dan SMP”. Makalah Workshop HasilPenelitian Mutu Pendidikan Pusat Penilaian Pendidikan, Jakarta.

JPPI, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 2017, p. 11-21 e-ISSN 2477-2038

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Wulan, et.al. 2010. Model Penilaian kesulitan belajar siswa SD dan SMP. Laporan Penelitian Pusat Penelitian Pendidikan. Bandung.

JPPI, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 2017, p. 11-21 e-ISSN 2477-2038

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the use of difficulty learning assessment in assessing the concept

JPPI, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 2017, p. 11-21 e-ISSN 2477-2038 Jurnal Penelitian dan Pembelajaran IPA THE USE OF DIFFICULTY LEARNING ASSESSMENT IN ASSESSI...

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