The Use of Accounting Information in the Business Decision Making

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Economy Transdisciplinarity Cognition www.ugb.ro/etc

Vol. 17, Issue 2/2014

63-75

The Use of Accounting Information in the Business Decision Making Process on Small and Medium Enterprises in Banyumas Region, Indonesia Atiek Sri PURWATI, Irianing SUPARLINAH, Negina Kencono PUTRI Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto, INDONESIA [email protected] Abstract : This research provides preliminary evidence on the effect of accounting information content on SMEs in making business decisions, particularly investment in Indonesia. The use of accounting information to encourage SMEs to prepare good Financial Statements, thus increasing the ability to attract investment in the entity. The object of research is the rural banks that channel funds in the form of investments in SMEs, and SMEs as users of the services of rural banks. Research using survey methods, with respondents investment analysts in rural banks and SMEs in Indonesia. Results showed that that the information relating to the business conditions of SMEs will be a consideration for investors in deciding the acceptance or rejection of the filing of the investment. In addition, information obtained from financial statements is also useful as a basis for investment decision. The financial statements are arranged in a simple, and able to describe the condition of the company as a whole and outlines, including information relating to the risk of SME organizations. Nevertheless, the majority of respondents stated that the company's financial statements are classified as SMEs not in accordance with the rules applicable accounting standards. Rural banks party as investor will provide a better appreciation when SMEs are able to provide financial statements in accordance with applicable accounting standards. Meanwhile, from the SME survey shows SMEs are interested in the presence the use of financial statements in accordance with applicable accounting standards, even they also have an interest in the use of accounting software in the preparation of the financial statements. However, for the preparation of the financial statements relating to the filing of investment to rural banks, SMEs are still having problems. They think that it is quite difficult and need to be given training or assistance in the preparation of financial statements in accordance with standards. Keywords: accounting information, small and medium enterprises, investment and business decisions

Introduction Rural banks have special characters that have various forms of financial services and investment savings and loans that are primarily intended to serve small businesses and rural communities with simple systems and procedures and in accordance with the requirements or SMEs [1]. The implication is that a solid partnership and mutuality are rural banks became advantages compared with commercial banks. The existence of rural banks for people in rural areas are expected to be at the forefront of financing the SME sector. However, commercial bank lending to SMEs is still low it is caused by several things including (1) the limited information regarding SME (2) high risk of SMEs and (3) the still high interest bank loans due to the inefficient, profit targets must be achieved and (4) the existence of the price mechanism in the leader and follower price decline in interest rates [2]. Broadly speaking, the accounting standards for SMEs in Indonesia require to prepare Balance Sheet, Statement of Income and Retained Earnings, Statement of Cash Flows, and Notes to Financial Statements. GAAP implicitly suggest SMEs to prepare the content or the content of financial statements consider reporting associated with risk information. It is stated in Chapter 8. Financial Statements Notes to paragraphs 25-38 of the Main Source of Information About Uncertainty Estimation, and Chapter 10. Investments in Certain Securities on the Recognition and Measurement [3]. This research provides preliminary evidence on the effect of accounting information content on SMEs in Indonesia in making business decisions, particularly investment in Indonesia, especially in 63

Banyumas Region. Research using survey methods, with respondents investment analysts in rural banks and SMEs in Banyumas Region, Indonesia. The object of research is the rural banks that channel funds in the form of investments in SMEs, and SMEs as users of the services of rural banks. The use of accounting information to encourage SMEs to prepare good Financial Statements, thus increasing the ability to attract investment in the entity. This research is important because the use of accounting information has implications for SMEs in Banyumas Region, Indonesia as a publisher of information in order to have a better added value in the assessment process of investment banking. While the bank will facilitate the process of investment analysis and preparation of other business decisions. [4] 1. Literature Review 1.1. Small and Medium Enterprises in Indonesia Small and Medium Enterprises SMEs in Indonesia is an abbreviated term referring to a type of small businesses that have a net worth of at most Rp 200,000,000, excluding land and buildings, and a standalone business. According to the Presidential Decree no. 99 Small Business 1998 is the definition of economic activities are small-scale business sectors which constitute the majority of small business activities and need to be protected to prevent unfair competition. Criteria for small businesses according to Law no. 9 of 1995 is as follows: a. Have a net worth of at most Rp. 200,000,000 (Two Hundred Million) excluding land and buildings. b. Has annual sales of Rp. 1,000.000,000 (One Billion Rupiah). c. Owned by Indonesian citizen. Meanwhile, the characteristics of small and medium enterprises in Indonesia, in general is: a. Management stands alone, in other words there is no distinct separation between the owner and manager of the company. The owner and manager are in SMEs. b. Capital provided by the owner or a small group of capital owners. c. Operations is generally the local area, although there are also SMEs have overseas orientation, in the form of exports to trading partner countries. d. The size of the company, both in terms of total assets, number of employees, and small infrastructure. e. Standing alone, is not a subsidiary or branch of the company that is not owned, controlled by, or affiliated directly or indirectly with Medium or Large Enterprises. f. Shaped the efforts of individuals, business entities which are not legal entities, or business entity with legal status, including cooperatives. 1.2. Accounting Standards Implementation for SMEs in Indonesia Indonesian Institute of Accountants (IAI) establish and publish the accounting standards for SMEs with the aim of answering the phenomenon that not all business entities carrying out public accountability. SMEs is one of the entities that face the dilemma associated with public accountability, particularly on the entity's financial statements. The accounting standards formation and ratification is expected to help SMEs accounting system for the provision of better yet simple (Setiady, 2012). SMEs and the informal sector other people's economy - which is sometimes called the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) - have viability in Indonesia. SMEs in Indonesia has proven to still be able to survive the current financial crisis hit Indonesia. Based on the data of 2008, SMEs accounted for GDP share of Rp. 2,121.3 trillion, or 53.6% of the total GDP of Indonesia. The number of SMEs in Indonesia grew up to 99.98% of the business units are available. Nevertheless, the development of SMEs in Indonesia are often obstacles in the form of capital. Therefore, the government through the Ministry of Cooperatives and Small and Medium Enterprises (KUKM) provide funding assistance through the program's Business Credit (KUR), which is channeled through the banking sector in Indonesia. In addition to the problem of capital, SMEs also face problems related to the application of professional management. SMEs lack of understanding about the importance and need to be equipped with the financial statements of a business. Accounting

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system for SMEs is generally very simple and tend to ignore the rules of the financial administration of the standard (default). In fact, the financial statements are accurate and the standard will help them in their business development efforts quantitatively and qualitatively. Therefore, IAI has prepared Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and standards for SMEs in the form of SAK ETAP (Entities Without Public Accountability) that have been enacted effective January 1, 2011. The GAAP principles and standards important to note that the SME business management more effective, efficient and accurate, so that SMEs can manage their business in a professional and berekembang greater. SAK ETAP is a principle, procedures, methods or rules of preparation of financial statements in entity without public accounting is a business entity that is not (yet) listed on the stock market or not in the process of filing in the capital markets and the entity is not a financial institution . Business entity in question here is for business units of small and medium scale economies [3]. When the accounting standards applied by SMEs, the banks would respond positively, making it easier for banks to assess the business feasibility of SMEs to obtain credit support business development. In addition, SMEs will certainly have the data (financial) accurately useful for SMEs in an effort to further increase productivity, effectiveness and efficiency of the business. These financial statements are the accounting process that is used as a means of communication establishment process financial data and information between the company's activities. Financial statements are the raw materials in the chain of reasoning or decision-making process that is needed SME businesses, and can serve as a manifestation of accountability of management to run its business in a professional manner. 1.3. Being Factors and Investment Considerations in Distribution Credit Party or Banking in Indonesia Factors which many investors consider investing in is Neutral Information, Accounting Information, and demographic aspects also influence investment decisions of investors [5]. Meanwhile, according to Law no. 7 of 1992 as amended by Law no. 10 of 1998 (the Banking Act) defines the supply of money or credit as equivalent claims based on a borrowing agreement or contract between the bank and other parties that requires the borrower to repay the debt after a certain period of time with interest. In addition to an understanding of the credit referred to above, the Banking Act also recognized the existence of Financing based on Syariah principle which is the provision of funds by bank conducting business based on sharia principles, in the form of investment. Financing based on Syariah Principles provide cash or the equivalent claims that, based on an agreement between the bank and the other party requiring the party to repay the money or the bill after a certain period of time in exchange or for the results. In the distribution of investment and credit, several factors into consideration by the banks. An assessment of the business prospects include assessment of the following components: potential for business growth; market conditions and the competitive position of the debtor; quality of management and labor problems; support group or affiliation; and the efforts made by the debtor to preserve the environment. Meanwhile, an assessment of the borrower's financial performance include assessment of the following components: profit; capital structure; cash flow; and sensitivity to market risk. Then an assessment of the ability to pay includes assessment of the following components: timely payment of principal and interest; availability and accuracy of the financial information of the debtor; completeness of loan documentation; compliance with the credit agreement; appropriateness of the use of funds; and reasonableness of the source of payment obligations.

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1.4. Role of Banks in Financing SMEs to Strengthen Risk Management Rural Bank as one of the micro-finance institutions to consider the potential and role. Rural banks has been much in demand by SMEs to finance their business activities. Rural banks role in financing SMEs can spur economic growth and reduce people's dependence on government assistance. In providing financing to the SME sector, the Bank still have to perform the steps "prudential banking" and perform risk management as outlined in the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP). Bank will perform the following steps: a. Precautionary Principle. In practice the principles of prudence, the Bank should consider: a) The main principle in managing credit risk are: i. Separation of credit officers; ii. Application of Risk Scoring System; iii. The separation of the management of non-performing loans. b) Credit Procedures healthy. Banks must conduct sound procedures, by doing: i. Determination of the Target Market; ii. Acceptable risk criteria; iii. Supervision of credit expansion; c) Type of business which is prohibited or avoided to be financed. b. Banks should have a Public Policy Credit, which contains rules, among other things: a) General Policy Credit, b) Precautionary Principle, c) Organizations and Credit Management, d) Credit Approval Policy, e) Documentation and Administration, f) Settlement non-performing loans, g) Supervision. In general Policy Credit, arranged that every credit decision process and must go through the standard steps, as follows: a) There is a loan application from the debtor in writing, b) Equipped with the required documents, c) Accompanied credit proposals, d) Created recommendation and credit decisions by the competent authorities, e) Notification credit decision (letter offering), f) Carry out a credit agreement legal, g) credit disbursement process, h) Implement monitoring and evaluation. c. Pre screening and selection of candidates for SME borrowers. Loan application can be processed if they have escaped pre screening, namely; a) Meets Target Markets, b) Not including the type of business that is prohibited, c) not included in the type of business that need to be avoided; d) Not included in the Black List of Bank Indonesia (BI); e) Not included in the list of Bad Debts BI; f) is included in the Black List Bank Intern. d. Banks also do a rating for the health of the debtor, through the Credit Risk Rating (CRR). Credit Risk Rating is a standardized assessment tool: for individual credit risk assessment, define the steps necessary treatment early on, setting the standard measure of risk that is acceptable Bank, estimating the likelihood of failure of loan repayment. If a rating has been through the process and meet the standards set value, then the proposal will be drawn up credit analysis, for consideration whether financed or not feasible given credit for. Proposals not credit analysis reports descriptive, but is the result of analysis that concluded the level of risk of borrowers (worthy or not), as well as recommendations and risk mitigation (which will be outlined in the form of loan structure, covenants, insurance dancollateral). Principles of credit analysis report preparation, must meet the elements: Objective, communicative (anyone who has read the same perception), contains basic information needed breaker credit, and simple. 2. Research Methods This research is survey research, using a questionnaire containing questions on matters considered by the banking and investment in the process of distribution or to the credit institution belonging to the category of SMEs. In addition, more specific questionnaire asking questions about the form and content of the financial statements of the content or SMEs that become the focus of attention of analysts invetasi on Islamic banking and is about to give investment or credit. Object of this research is in the area of rural banks and SMEs in Indonesia, especially in the region Banyumas. The subjects were investment analysts on rural banks and the SMEs entrepreneurs. The data in this study consisted of secondary data in the form of: a) data and operational profile rural banks in the former region Banyumas residency and SMEs in Banyumas; b) other relevant data that can be obtained from the rural banks, BI and internet browsing. The primary data in the form of: a) Data related to the variables of rural banks research on the information content of risk used in making investment decisions or credit on SMEs; b) Data from SMEs on the application of SAK ETAP, constraints and related factors in pegajuan funding support for his efforts. 66

Secondary data was obtained through the documentation and literature on rural banks and SMEs. Primary data were collected using questionnaires, observations and field surveys through direct interviews with the subjects and objects of research. The collected data is processed using the method of tabulation of data, display data and category data. The data that have been processed are presented also in the form of narrative text, the description of the logical and rational sistematatis accordance with the order and position of interest data. Before the data were analyzed, the quality of test data by: a) source triangulation, by comparing and checking the degree of confidence in the information obtained through time and different tools; and b) triangulation method, which checks the degree of confidence in the results of discovery research with multiple sources of data with the same method. 3. Result and Discussion 3.1. Population and Sample Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia in 2010-2013 experienced a significant development. In 2010 the number of SMEs in Indonesia showed the number of business units 53,823,732. In the next year, in 2011 the number increased to 55,206,444 SME business unit. The number of SMEs in Banyumas Region, Indonesia also showed an increase. The number of SMEs per March 31, 2013 showed the number 581,049 business units. This development is significant given the number of SMEs in Banyumas Region in the year 2010 as many as 578,564 business units (Disperindagkop, 2013). Department of Industry, Trade and Cooperatives (Disperindagkop) Banyumas classify types of businesses based on the amount of venture capital, excluding land and buildings into three categories: micro enterprises (<50 million Rupiahs), small businesses (> 50 million Rupiahs - 500 million Rupiahs), and medium-sized enterprises (> 500 million Rupiahs - 10 billion Rupiahs). The number of trading companies that carry out the registration in accordance with Law No. 2 1983 class according to both the business and the legal entity of the company from year to year tends to increase. Business license issued by Disperindagkop Banyumas Region during the year 2013-2014 mostly for small traders as many as 911 pieces, then for intermediate traders as much as 88 pieces, while for large traders issued permits by 2 pieces and 13 pieces for the modern market. Meanwhile, during the year 2012 Disperindagkop Banyumas Region license issuing 762 pieces consisting of 636 pieces for small companies, 118 pieces for 8 medium-sized companies and large enterprise license for. In 2012, middle-class company experienced substantial increases which increased 30 business units when compared with the previous year. Respondents in this study were classified as entrepreneurs in small and medium micro enterprises (SMEs) in the region of Banyumas Region, Indonesia. This research was conducted within approximately 35 days by the method of deployment and retrieval of questionnaires that vary depending on the willingness of respondents. Some respondents are willing to fill out a questionnaire distributed directly while doing an interview. However, some respondents requested that the questionnaire be left and taken the next day on the grounds of busy work. Here is the picture of the demographics of the respondent SMEs on research conducted in 2014. Table no. 1 SMEs Respondents Demographic Number Description (people)

Percentage (%)

Sex: Men Women Education: Primary school Elementary school High school Diploma College/undergraduate

67

44 20

68.8 31.2

8 18 19 11 8

12.5 28.1 29.7 17.2 12.5

Number (people)

Description Participation in accounting training: 0-1 times 2-3 times 4-5 times 6-7 times More than 8 times The average turnover: Less than 2,500,000 rupiahs 2,600,000 rupiahs – 5,000,000 rupiahs 5,100,000 rupiahs – 7,500,000 rupiahs 7,600,000 rupiahs – 10,000,000 rupiahs More than 11,000,000 rupiahs Age of businesses Less than 10 years 11 – 20 years 21 – 30 years 31 – 40 years More than 41 years

Percentage (%) 25 19 5 2 3

39.1 29.7 23.4 3.1 4.7

11 14 13 11 15

17.2 21.9 20.3 17.2 23.4

16 24 14 8 2

25 32.5 21.9 12.5 3.1

While SMEs to grow rapidly and show a positive development, but SMEs face many complex problems in practice. Saikh al (1998) found the fact that the biggest cause of failure in SME is bad planning, bad's management, lack of funding, the lack of experience of the manager and the biggest factor causing kegagalam on SME business is a bad recording quality, technology absorption and less tax high. Also slows down the growth of SMEs and SMEs cause business failure, the problems faced by SMEs are not recording accounting orderly manner. Entry made most SMEs are examined in this study is still in the form of a simple recording of accounting and not show patterns that correspond to the accounting standards. 3.2. Reliability and Validity Questionairre Tests Questionairre in this study consists of four parts. The first part in the form of questions regarding demographic. The second, a list of questions concerning matters related to the use of accounting information by the perpetrators of SMEs. The second part consists of 20 questions to answer questions divided into Likert scale (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high) and concludes with openended questions about the use of accounting information in the enterprise respondents. The third part be a list of questions concerning matters related to the successful performance of SMEs efforts with respect to the use of accounting information and consists of 7 question to divided into Likert scale (down drastically, down, stable, increasing, rising sharply) and concludes with open-ended questions about the success of the enterprise business performance of the respondents. The fourth part of the questionairre be a list of questions concerning matters related to credit analysis on rural banks by the perception of the perpetrator of SMEs. The questionairre consists of 16 questions to answer divided into Likert scale (strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree), and concluded with an open question about the perception credits analyst about credits and investments procedure. Validity and reliability testing performed on second questionairre until the fourth, respectively, using Cronbach's alpha test for reliability test and Pearson correlation to test the validity. Test results are shown in Table no. 2 below. Table no. 2 Test of Reliability Questionairre The use of accounting information The successful performance of SMEs efforts with respect to the use of accounting information Credit analysis on rural banks by the perception of the perpetrator of SMEs

Cronbach Alpha’s Value 0,926 Strong Reliability 0,769 Strong Reliability 0,539

Moderate Reliability

* If the alpha value from 0.5 to 0.7 means moderate sufficient reliability (Sufficient moderate reliability); while alpha value is > 0.80 sugested throughout the entire test item reliable and internally consistent because it has a strong reliability.

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Throughout the test reliability using Cronbach alpha reliability figures reflected the strong category and moderate reliability. Meanwhile, the validity of the test is done by using the Pearson correlation. Test results are shown in Table no. 3 below. Table no. 3 Test of Validity Pearson Correlation Value The use of accounting information: 1 0,658 2 0,769 3 0,906 4 0,384 5 0,282 6 0,435 7 0,289 8 0,289 9 0,350 10 0,337 11 0,486 12 0,410 13 0,458 14 0,285 15 0,459 16 0,239 17 0,468 18 0,406 19 0,393 20 0,245 The successful performance of SMEs efforts with respect to the use of accounting information: 1 0,403 2 0,383 3 0,105 4 0,501 5 0,416 6 0,301 7 0.021 Credit analysis on rural banks by the perception of the perpetrator of SMEs: 1 0,576 2 0,697 3 0,257 4 0,268 5 0,242 6 0,032 7 0,018 8 0,061 9 0,186 10 0,025 11 0,045 12 0,027 13 0,168 14 0,125 15 0,079 16 0,093

Validity Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid

Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid

Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid

Throughout the test for the validity of using the Pearson correlation showed the figures by category invalid.

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3.3. Regression Test Prior to regression testing, testing of classical assumption of normality of distribution consists of test data, test multikolinearitas and heterokedastisitas test data consisting of variables from queries use accounting information and business performance outcomes, as well as credit analysis on BPR by the perception of the perpetrator of SMEs and according to analysts at the investment and credit analysts. All the test results show that the data will be processed normally and pass from the multikolinearity testing and heterokedastisity testing. The next step is to do regression testing. Results of regression testing can be seen in Table no. 4 below.

Model

Table no. 4 Regression Results Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients

1 (Constant) The use of accounting information

B Std. Error 19,017 2,772 0,092

0,038

t

Sig.

Beta 0,293

6,860

0,000

2,416

0,019

a. Dependent Variable: The successful performance of SMEs efforts with respect to the use of accounting information

From the test results of the regression can be interpreted that the use of accounting information has a statistically significant influence on performance outcomes teradap effort. The model is structured as follows. Successful business performance = 19,017 + 0,092 The use of accounting information + e It can be interpreted that the factors in the use of accounting information affects business performance outcomes. Factors in the use of accounting information is a form of external or from the accounting standards, which consists of information about the cash, information about preparation, information about accounts receivable, information about debt, information about venture capital, information about sales, information about purchases, information about income, information about gains/losses, information on the number of goods, information regarding the sale and pricing of products, information on investment decisions, information from the Balance Sheet, the information from the Profit-Loss Report, Statement of Cash Flow information, information about tax reporting, information from the estimated sales , information from production estimates, information from the operational budget, breakeven analysis and information. Factors that influenced by these variables, associated with business performance outcomes is the development of product sales, total assets of the company at this time compared to the previous period, the total assets of the company compared with a loan burden of enterprises, expansion of the number of customers or buyers each month, the total development employees in enterprises, total wages to employees currently given than period ago, and total wages given to current employees than period ago. 3.4. Frequency and Test Results Difference Perceptions on the Financial Statements in Accordance with Accounting Standards for Submission of Credit and Investment between SMEs and Analyst at Rural Bank The first year of this study to test the perception of investment analyst at rural banks and the results show that the information relating to the condition of a business enterprise/SME organizations will be considered for the lender or investor in deciding the acceptance or rejection of the filing of investments/loans. Therefore, companies or institutions SMEs should start to pay attention to things relating to the condition of the business information. Support from relevant institutions, government and the environment where SMEs operate will give a positive value for the company/institution SMEs in the process of assessment by the lender or investor. With the support and attention to the condition of information relating to the condition of the company's business/SME institutions, creditors and parties expected or investors will invest and it is expected to address the issue of capital difficulties often faced by companies/institutions SMEs. In addition, taking into account the factors and improving business conditions companies/institutions, SMEs are expected to improve the quality of 70

products and or services, so as to expand or at least maintain their existing market. Management of production, management, labor, environmental maintenance, and support of a group or affiliated SMEs become a key enabler in improving the ability of marketing products or services and SMEs. In addition, the investment analyst stated that the information obtained from the financial statements will be used as the basis for decision making loans or investments. These financial statements are arranged in a simple, and able to describe the overall condition of the company and outline. Respondents noted that most of the company's financial statements are classified as SMEs not in accordance with GAAP. Rural banks party as creditor or investor would provide a better appreciation when SMEs are able to provide the financial statements in accordance with GAAP. In addition to the internal interests of SMEs, with the financial statements in accordance with GAAP will facilitate the rural banks in preparing credit and or investment decisions, as well as minimize the possibility of bad loans or investments that do not function properly. Meanwhile, the second year of this study, shows that SMEs provide adequate attention to information relating to the condition of the company's business/organization as well as information derived from the financial statements will be used as the basis for decision making loans or investments. The first part will discuss the 64 respondents answer on 6 statements in the questionnaire relating to the condition of the company's business information/institutions SMEs, with an answer using a Likert scale (strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree). Meanwhile, the second section discusses the respondents' answers on 10 questions on the information obtained from the financial statements will be used as the basis for decision making loans or investments. The results are shown in Table no. 5 below. Table no. 5 Frequency Response SMEs Respondents Question 1 Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 3

19

17.3

29.7

29.7

4

45

40.9

70.3

100.0

Total

64

58.2

100.0

Question 2 Percent Valid Percent

Frequency

Cumulative Percent

Valid 2

1

.9

1.6

3

23

20.9

35.9

37.5

4

40

36.4

62.5

100.0

Total

64

58.2

100.0

Question 3 Percent Valid Percent

Frequency

1.6

Cumulative Percent

Valid 3

50

45.5

78.1

78.1

4

13

11.8

20.3

98.4

5

1

.9

1.6

100.0

64

58.2

100.0

Total

Question 4 Percent Valid Percent

Frequency

Cumulative Percent

Valid 2

6

5.5

9.4

3

40

36.4

62.5

71.9

4

18

16.4

28.1

100.0

Total

64

58.2

100.0

71

9.4

Question 5 Percent Valid Percent

Frequency

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

1

.9

1.6

1.6

2

18

16.4

28.1

29.7

3

36

32.7

56.2

85.9

4

8

7.3

12.5

98.4

5

1

.9

1.6

100.0

64

58.2

100.0

Total

Question 6 Percent Valid Percent

Frequency

Cumulative Percent

Valid 2

1

.9

1.6

1.6

3

30

27.3

46.9

48.4

4

33

30.0

51.6

100.0

Total

64

58.2

100.0

Question 7 Percent Valid Percent

Frequency

Cumulative Percent

Valid 2

1

.9

1.6

3

14

12.7

21.9

23.4

4

49

44.5

76.6

100.0

Total

64

58.2

100.0

Question 8 Percent Valid Percent

Frequency

1.6

Cumulative Percent

Valid 2

2

1.8

3.1

3.1

3

40

36.4

62.5

65.6

4

22

20.0

34.4

100.0

Total

64

58.2

100.0

Question 9 Percent Valid Percent

Frequency

Cumulative Percent

Valid 2

4

3.6

6.2

3

20

18.2

31.2

37.5

4

40

36.4

62.5

100.0

Total

64

58.2

100.0

Question 10 Percent Valid Percent

Frequency

6.2

Cumulative Percent

Valid 2

5

4.5

7.8

7.8

3

46

41.8

71.9

79.7

4

13

11.8

20.3

100.0

Total

64

58.2

100.0

Question 11 Percent Valid Percent

Frequency

Cumulative Percent

Valid 2

1

.9

1.6

3

17

15.5

26.6

28.1

4

46

41.8

71.9

100.0

Total

64

58.2

100.0

72

1.6

Question 12 Percent Valid Percent

Frequency

Cumulative Percent

Valid 2

5

4.5

7.8

7.8

3

39

35.5

60.9

68.8

4

20

18.2

31.2

100.0

Total

64

58.2

100.0

Question 13 Percent Valid Percent

Frequency

Cumulative Percent

Valid 2

10

9.1

15.6

3

29

26.4

45.3

60.9

4

25

22.7

39.1

100.0

64

58.2

100.0

Total

Question 14 Percent Valid Percent

Frequency

15.6

Cumulative Percent

Valid 3

15

13.6

23.4

23.4

4

49

44.5

76.6

100.0

Total

64

58.2

100.0

Question 15 Percent Valid Percent

Frequency

Cumulative Percent

Valid 2

5

4.5

7.8

7.8

3

43

39.1

67.2

75.0

4

16

14.5

25.0

100.0

Total

64

58.2

100.0

Question 16 Percent Valid Percent

Frequency

Cumulative Percent

Valid 2

13

11.8

20.3

20.3

3

39

35.5

60.9

81.2

4

12

10.9

18.8

100.0

Total

64

58.2

100.0

Meanwhile, the results of different test for respondent SMEs and analysts on rural banks can be shown in Table no. 6 below. Table no. 6. Results of Independent t Test between Respondent SMEs and Analyst at Rural Banks Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

F Equal variances Total assumed Score Equal variances not assumed

19.169

Sig.

t-test for Equality of Means

t

.000 -34.763

df

Sig. (2tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower

Upper

100

.000

-27.29030

.78505

-28.84781

-25.73278

-31.372 56.233

.000

-27.29030

.86990

-29.03275

-25.54784

From Table no. 6 it appears that there are significant differences (sig. 0.000) between respondents' perceptions of SMEs with the analysts on the perception of rural banks. These differences indicate that the BPR analysts, information relating to the condition of the company's business/organization as well as information derived from the financial statements will be used as the basis for decision making 73

loans or investments are important in the decision-making process credit and investment. Meanwhile, for SMEs, information relating to the condition of the company's business/organization as well as information derived from the financial statements will be used as the basis for decision making loans or investments earn points just enough attention. They assume that the financial statements with information that follows is important, but the level is not as high as its important or not at the level of interest of the analyst's perception of rural banks. Answers to the open questionnaire showed that respondents SMEs interested in the presence of financial statements used in accordance with GAAP ETAP, even they also have an interest in the use of accounting software in the preparation of the financial statements. Only, for the preparation of the financial statements and the related credit application or investment to rural banks, SMEs are still having problems. They assume that it is quite difficult and need to be given training or assistance in the preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP. Conclusions Accounting standards requires SMEs in Indonesia to prepare the Balance Sheet, Income Statement and Retained Earnings, Statement of Cash Flows, and Notes to Financial Statements. The standards implicitly suggests to formulate the contents of the financial statements to consider reporting associated with risk information. This study was a survey study involving 38 credit analysts and investment in rural banks in the former residency of Banyumas and 64 SMEs in the region Banyumas, Indonesia. The results showed that the information relating to the condition of the business organizations/companies SMEs will be considered by the lender or investor in determining acceptance or rejection of credit application/investment. Therefore, companies or institutions SMEs must start to pay attention to things, one of which related to information business conditions in which SMEs operate. Support from relevant agencies, government and the environment in which SMEs operate will give a positive value for SME companies in the assessment process by lenders or investors. In addition, taking into account the factors and improving business conditions companies/institutions, SMEs are expected to improve the quality of products and or services, thus expanding or at least maintaining their existing markets. Production management, management, labor, environmental conservation, as well as support groups or affiliates of SMEs be a major factor in improving the product and service marketing capabilities of SMEs. The results of the study also concluded that the respondents stated that the information obtained from the financial statements will be used as a basis for decision making loans or investments. Financial statements prepared simply be able to describe the overall condition of the company. However, most of the respondents stated that the financial statements of the company are classified as SMEs or ETAP ETAP not in accordance with GAAP. The survey results of this study indicate that according to the rural banks, the accounting standards has not been applied comprehensively to the SMEs in Banyumas, Indonesia. While the rural banks as a provider of credit and investment funds consider that the preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP ETAP by SMEs - including the preparation of a risk - will give a positive value and increase appreciation of the analyst in the credit approval process and investment. Meanwhile, of the SMEs in Banyumas, Indonesia survey results indicate the presence of SMEs interested to use financial statements in accordance with GAAP, even they also have an interest in the use of accounting software in the preparation of the financial statements. Only, for the preparation of the financial statements and the related credit application or investment to rural banks, SMEs are still having problems. They assume that it is quite difficult and need to be given training or assistance in the preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP. The results also show that the component of the accounting standards is a major consideration in the determination of credit and investments include matters relating to the capital, sources of credit payments, management of investment funds, as well as the provision of financial information that is relevant and reliable accounting information that is considered important for SMEs.

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For that, it needs further socialization with regard to the preparation of financial information in accordance with GAAP to SMEs in the region of the former residency of Banyumas, Indonesia. With increased understanding of the preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP, is expected to improve the competitiveness of SMEs and can help solve the problem of capital SMEs through cooperation with rural banks. In addition to the internal interests of SMEs, the financial statements in accordance with GAAP will facilitate the rural banks in preparing loan or investment decisions, and further reduce the possibility of bad loans or investments that are not fit for purpose. References [1] Sutopo, W., (2005), Hubungan antara LKM dan kontribusi usaha kecl dalam pengentasan kemiskinan, Manajemen Usahawan Indonesia, No. 01, XXX. Januari, hal 3-12 [2] Baas, T., Scrooten, (2005), Relationship and SME,s; A Theoretical Analysis, Working Paper, German Institute for Academic Research [3] Ikatan Akuntan Indonesia., (2009), Standar Akuntansi Keuangan: Entitas Tanpa Akuntabilitas Publik, Jakarta: DSAK-IAI [4] Purwati, A.S., Suparlinah, I., Putri, N., K., (2013), The Impact of Content Based Information on Entities Without Public Accountability's Financial Accounting Standards (SAK ETAP) for Investment Decision Making in SMEs: a Case of BPRs in Banyumas Residency, Indonesia, International Conference on Rural Development and Enterpreneurship. Purwokerto [5] Christanti, N., Mahastanti., L.A., (2011), Faktor-Faktor yang Dipertimbangkan Investor Dalam Melakukan Investasi, Jurnal Manajemen Teori Dan Terapan, Tahun 4, No. 3 Supplementary recommended readings Basir, Syarief., (2010), Persiapan Penerapan SAK ETAP, Newsletter KAP Syarief Basir dan Rekan, Edisi:Juli. Katz, Jerome A., dan Richard Green., (2009), Entreprenuerial Small Business, 2nd edition., New York: McGraw Hill/Irwin Pinasti, Margani., (2007), Pengaruh Penyelenggaraan dan Penggunaan Informasi Akuntansi terhadap Persepsi Pengusaha kecil atas Informasi Akuntansi: Suatu Riset Eksperimen, Jurnal Riset Akuntansi Indonesia Vol.10 , No.3, September 2007, Hal.321-331 Rudiantoro, Rizki dan Sylvia Veronica Siregar., (2012), Kualitas Laporan Keuangan UMKM serta Prospek Implementasi SAK ETAP, Jurnal Akuntansi dan Keuangan Indonesia Vol. 9, No. 1 Sutojo, Heru, dkk., (1994), Profil Usaha Kecil dan Kebijakan Kredit Perbankan di Indonesia, Publikasi Lembaga Manajemen FEUI Tambunan, Tulus., (2002), Usaha Kecil dan Menengah di Indonesia: Beberapa Isu Penting, Edisi Pertama, Jakarta: Salemba Empat Wibowo, Singgih., dkk., (2005), Pedoman Mengelola Perusahaan Kecil, Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya

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The Use of Accounting Information in the Business Decision Making

Economy Transdisciplinarity Cognition www.ugb.ro/etc Vol. 17, Issue 2/2014 63-75 The Use of Accounting Information in the Business Decision Making ...

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