THE MOST FREQUENT VOCABULARY IN ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS

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THE MOST FREQUENT VOCABULARY IN ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS FOR GRADES 1-3

Liping He

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in English Language Studies Suranaree University of Technology Academic Year 2009

คําศัพทที่มีความถี่สูงสุดในหนังสือเรียนวิชาภาษาอังกฤษสําหรับ นักเรียนชั้นประถมศึกษาปที่ 1-3

นางสาวลี่ผิง เคอ

วิทยานิพนธนี้เปนสวนหนึ่งของการศึกษาตามหลักสูตรปริญญาศิลปศาสตรมหาบัณฑิต สาขาภาษาอังกฤษศึกษา มหาวิทยาลัยเทคโนโลยีสุรนารี ปการศึกษา 2552

THE MOST FREQUENT VOCABULARY IN ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS FOR GRADES 1-3

Suranaree University of Technology has approved this thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master’s Degree. Thesis Examining Committee

(Asst. Prof. Dr. Siriluck Usaha) Chairperson

(Dr. Sirinthorn Seepho) Member (Thesis Advisor)

(Dr. Butsakorn Yodkamlue) Member

(Prof. Dr. Sukit Limpijumnong)

(Dr. Peerasak Siriyothin)

Vice Rector for Academic Affairs

Dean of Institute of Social Technology

ลี่ผิง เคอ : คําศัพทที่มีความถี่สูงสุดในหนังสือเรียนวิชาภาษาอังกฤษสําหรับนักเรียน ชั้นประถมศึกษาปที่ 1-3 (THE MOST FREQUENT VOCABULARY IN ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS FOR GRADES 1-3) อาจารยที่ปรึกษาวิทยานิพนธ : ดร. สิรินทร ศรีโพธิ์, 125 หนา คําศัพท เปนองคประกอบที่สําคัญสําหรับการประสบความสําเร็จในการเรียนรูภาษา ทั้งนี้ เพราะคําศัพทเปนหัวใจของความสามารถในการสื่อสาร ดังนั้น คําศัพทควรจะไดรับการคัดสรร อยางดีเพื่อการเรียนการสอนที่มีประสิทธิภาพ เนื่องจากพบวายังไมมีกลุมคําศัพทที่มาจากการวิจัย เปนพื้นฐาน การวิจัยครั้งนี้จึงมีวัตถุประสงคเพื่อคนหาคําศัพทที่พบบอยที่สุดจํานวน 500 คํา ใน แบบเรียนวิชาภาษาอังกฤษสําหรับชั้นประถมศึกษา และเพื่อเปรียบเทียบกับกลุมคําศัพทอีก 3 กลุม ที่มีการอางอิงมากที่สุด สําหรับการศึกษาครั้งนี้คลังขอมูลภาษาอังกฤษจํานวน 146,192 คํา ซึ่งไดรวบรวมจาก บทเรียนทั้งสิ้น 501 บทเรียนจากแบบเรียนของสํานักพิมพ 14 แหง จากคลังดังกลาวพบคําทั้งสิ้น 3,818 ชนิด ตามที่จําแนกไวโดยกลุมคําศัพททั่วไป (The GSL) และมีการคัดกรองคําศัพทตามฐาน คําเชนการตัดคํานามเฉพาะ การเปลี่ยนรูปพหูพจน และคําแสดงความเปนเจาของใหเปนตามฐาน คํา (head word) ที่ยังไมมีการเปลี่ยนแปลงใดๆ หลังจากนั้นจึงคัดเลือกคําที่พบมากที่สุด 500 คําและ นําไปใหครูผูเชี่ยวชาญชาวไทย 2 คน ชาวตางประเทศที่ใชภาษาอังกฤษเปนภาษาที่สอง 2 คน และ เจาของภาษา 1 คนตรวจสอบกลุมคําดังกลาวอีกครั้งหนึ่ง และคําที่ไดรับการแนะนําใหเปลี่ยนนั้นจะ ถูกเลือกมาจากกลุมคําจํานวน 115 คํา ที่พบในความถี่ถัดลงไป เพื่อใหไดกลุมคํา 500 คํา สําหรับ นักเรียนชั้นประถม 1-3 มากที่สุด หลังจากนั้นผูวิจัยไดนํากลุมคําจํานวน 500 คําดังกลาวไปเปรียบเทียบกับกลุมคําศัพททั่วไป (The GSL) ของ West กลุมคําศัพทของ Oxford (The Oxford Word List) และกลุมคําศัพทของ Dolch (The Dolch Basic Word List) เพื่อคนหาการทับซอนของคําศัพทในกลุมตางๆ ดังกลาว จากการเปรียบเทียบดังกลาวพบวา จํานวนรอยละของคําศัพทที่ทับซอนเพิ่มขึ้นหากขนาดของ กลุมคําที่เปรียบเทียบลดลงและมีจํานวนรอยละที่สูงมากของคําศัพททับซอนในการเปรียบเทียบ ระหวางกลุมคําศัพทของ The Dolch Basic Word List และกลุมคําศัพท 500 คําที่พบ

สาขาวิชาภาษาอังกฤษ ปการศึกษา 2552

ลายมือชื่อนักศึกษา ______________________ ลายมือชื่ออาจารยที่ปรึกษา ________________

LIPING HE : THE MOST FREQUENT VOCABULARY IN ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS FOR GRADES 1-3. THESIS ADVISOR : SIRINTHORN SEEPHO, Ph.D., 125 PP.

MOST FREQUENT VOCABULARY / HIGH-FREQUENCY WORDS / GRADES 1-3 / EFL/ESL YOUNG LEARNERS

Vocabulary is one of the key components of successful language learning because it is central to learners’ communicative competence. Therefore, words EFL/ESL students need to learn must be well selected for effective teaching and efficient learning. With no research-based English vocabulary lists for Grades 1-3 Thai students, the present study aimed to find a list of the first 500 words most frequently appearing in textbooks these young learners need to learn and to compare the list with three other most frequently quoted lists. A corpus of 146,192 running words was first compiled from 501 lessons of the 14 series of textbooks. From this initial corpus, a total of 3,818 word types in frequency rank were identified from running the Range GSL and manually lemmatized to extract all base forms. With the proper nouns eliminated, the same process was undertaken for nouns, lemmatizing plural and possessive forms into uninflected head word entries. As a result, 500 words occurring at the higher frequency were selected. Five experienced primary level EFL teachers, two Thais, two ESL speakers and one native speaker of English, were asked to validate the list. They decided whether the controversial words from the main list in question should be included in or excluded from the finalized word list and replaced with substitute

III words from the supplementary 115-word list. Finally, the Most Frequent 500-Word List for Grades 1-3 was yielded. To further investigate whether the words in the Most Frequent 500-Word List for Grades 1-3 appeared in three popular word lists, the General Service List created by Michael West, the Oxford Word List, and the Dolch Basic Word List, comparisons were made to see if there was any overlap among the vocabulary. The results showed that the percentage of overlap increased with a decrease in size of word lists and that there was a very high percentage of overlap between the Dolch Basic Word List and the present study’s Most Frequent 500-word list.

School of English

Student’s Signature

Academic Year 2009

Advisor’s Signature

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Eventually, after a long journey, I see the dawn of success – obtaining my M.A. During the long journey there were joy and hardship, excitement, also confusion accompanied. It would not have been possible to complete my thesis, the termination of my long journey, without patience, understanding, help and many supports of the people who are gratefully acknowledged here. My deepest gratitude goes first and foremost to my dedicated supervisor, Dr. Sirinthorn Seepho, for her constant patience, encouragement, understanding, kindness and guidance. She has walked me through all the stages of the writing of this thesis. Without her great ideas, profound knowledge in English studies, consistent and illuminating instruction, this thesis could not have been yielded. I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to Asst. Prof. Dr. Siriluck Usaha, former Chair of School of English, who led me into the world of graduate study at Suranaree University of Technology. With her invaluable support and caring I could persevere in spite of all kinds of difficulties and problems. Without her great help and priceless suggestions this thesis could not have reached its present form. I’m also extremely grateful to another committee member, Dr. Butsakorn Yodkamlue, for her precious comments and advices on this thesis. I’m very much obliged to Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jeremy Ward for his knowledgeable remarks and professional criticisms on the present study and other instructors of school of English who have taught me, initiated me and enlightened me.

V I also owe my sincere gratitude to the five English teaching experts who helped me with validation and the schools and teachers in Nakhon Ratchasima who offered me information for the present study. My tremendous thanks go to my M.A. classmate, Kanya Pieniazek, for her indispensable assistance in collecting data for the present study and also generous help with living in a foreign country as an international student in many ways. I am also greatly indebted to my other friends and my fellow classmates who gave me their help and time in listening to me and helping me work out my problems during the whole course of my M.A. study – especially my Thai senior Duangporn Sriboonruang, who helped me with data input and my international friend, Lilibeth Lago, who also helped me with data collection and I will always remember out night talk and discussion when we were roommates. At last but not least, my thanks would go to my beloved family for their loving considerations and great confidence in me all through these years. I would like to dedicate this thesis to my beloved mother and father, Zhang Huaxing and He Fuyuan. They bathed me with their love and irrigated me with their caring during my growth. I could not have reached this stage without them being with me and their wholehearted support.

Liping He

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT (THAI) ………………………………………………………………….I ABSTRACT (ENGLISH) ………………………………………………………...…III ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………………….……IV TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………….VI LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………………...X LIST OF TABLES………………………………………….…….…………...……...XI LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS………………………………………………….........XII CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION…………....…………………………………...…………..1 1.1 Background to the Study……………………..………………………..…..1 1.2 Rationale of the Study...….………………...……….……………….…….2 1.3 Significance of the Study ….…………..………………….………………4 1.4 Scope and Limitations of the Study ..……………………………………..5 1.5 Purpose of the Study ..………………………..………..………………….6 1.6 Research Questions.....….………...…………………....…………….……6 1.7 Definitions of the Operational Terms……………………….………….….7 1.8 Summary ……………..………………………………….………….…….9

VII

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE…………….…………….…...10 2.1 Vocabulary Knowledge and Foreign Language Learning…………..…10 2.2 English Curriculum Instruction Situation in EFL Contexts..……….....12 2.3 Word Lists…………...………………..………………………………..15 2.3.1 The Importance of Word List ...….……...…………...................15 2.3.2 Basic Criteria for Making a Word List……………..…………...17 2.3.3 Well-known word lists…………………………...……………...17 2.4 Word-Frequency Counts.. …………………………….……...........….24 2.5. Summary……………………………………..…………...….……..…25 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY…….…………………………………..27 3.1 The Research Procedure...…………...…………………..………….....27 3.1.1 Selecting the Sample Schools ……….……..………………..….27 3.1.2 Obtaining Collection of Textbooks ….……………………...…..28 3.1.3 Inputting, Compiling and Organizing Vocabulary..…………......28 3.1.4 Developing a First-hand Word List by Using Software Range...………………………...........…………………….……29 3.1.5 Lemmatizing the Extracted Word List to a Core List of the 500 High-frequency Words...…… ……………29 3.1.6 Comparing the 500-word List with the Other Well-known Lists...……….........……........………..............……30

VIII

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page 3.1.7 Validating the Obtained Word List...……...………….........……31 3.2 Instruments ...………………………...……………….................……31 3.2.1 Textbook Form …………….………...…………………………31 3.2.2 Validating Form………...…………..………………..…….……32 3.2.3 RANGE GSL: RANGE and FREQUENCY Programs………....32 3.3 Conceptual Framework of the Study...……………………....……...…33 3.4 Summary………………………………………………………………34 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION………………………………………….35 4.1 Research Question 1..…………………..……..…………………….…35 4.1.1 Rate of Responses ……………………………………………...36 4.1.2 Total Running Words of the Corpus for the 500-word List….….36 4.1.3 Frequency Count by Range GSL……………………...………...38 4.1.4 Words Lemmatization………………………………………...…40 4.1.5 List of 500 Words with Frequency and Rank ………………......44 4.1.6 The Word List Validation………….……………….……………55 4.2 Research Question 2…………………………………………………...58 4.2.1. Results from Comparisons ………….…………………...….....58 4.2.2 The HMFWL Words Not Found in the GSL……………..……62

IX

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page 5. CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS AND APPLICATIONS………….....67 5.1 Conclusions ……………….………………………………………...….67 5.2 Implications ……………….…………….……………...……………....69 5.2.1 Implications of Vocabulary in English Language Learning……....69 5.2.2 Implications from the 500-word List Study………...….………....71 5.2.3 Implications from Lists Comparison………………………...…....72 5.2.4 Pedagogical Implications ……………..……………………..…...75 5.3 Applications ……………….………………….……….………..….…...76 5.4 Limitations of the Study……………….……………………….…...…..77 5.5 Suggestions for Further Research ………….……………...…………....78 REFERENCES……………………………...……………..……………..………..81 APPENDICES............................................................................................................96 CURRICULUM VITAE .........................................................................................125

LIST OF TABLES Table

Page

4.1 Rate of Responses……………………….. ............................................................36 4.3 Sample of Corpus Connections………….. ............................................................37 4.3 Sample of Word List in Frequency Count .............................................................38 4.4 Deleted Proper Nouns............................................................................................41 4.5 Deleted Plural Forms..............................................................................................42 4.6 Deleted Gerunds.....................................................................................................43 4.7 Deleted the Third Person Singular Forms..............................................................44 4.8 Deleted Abbreviations ...........................................................................................44 4.9 Deleted Other Word Types ....................................................................................44 4.10 The He’s Most Frequent Word List.....................................................................45 4.11 Brief Introduction of the Validators......................................................................55 4.12 Results of the Validation.......................................................................................56 4.13 Deleted Words in Rank.........................................................................................58 4.14 Percentage of Overlap..........................................................................................60 4.15 The Findings of Comparisons between the GSL’s Two Base Lists and the 500-word List.........................................................................................60 4.16 Comparisons between the HMFWL and the OWL..............................................62 4.17 Comparisons between the HMFWL and the DBWL...........................................62

LIST OF TABLES Table

Page

4.18 Words from the HMFWL DBWL Not Found in the GSL’s Base Lists.....……..63 4.19 Words from the Oxford Word List Not Found in the HMFWL ......................... 64 4.20 Words from the DBWL Not Found in the HMFWL .......................................... 65

LIST OF FIGURE

Page Figure 3.1 Conceptual Framework of the Study ………………………….….….…....33

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ESL/EFL

=

English as a Second or Foreign Language

GSL

=

General Service List of English Words

UWL

=

University Word List

AWL

=

Academic Word List

OWL

=

Oxford Word List

DBWL HMFWL

= =

Dolch Basic Word List He’s Most Frequent Word List

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter aims to introduce the present study,that is, the importance of vocabulary in English learning especially for young learners of Grades 1-3. This is then followed by rationale, purposes, research questions, scope and limitations of the study, definitions of key terms, and ends with a summary.

1.1 Background to the Study English language is one of the most important communication tools in the world. English learning is a necessary subject for all contexts of English as a second or foreign language due to its popularity and importance all over the world. Furthermore, it is the experience of most language teachers that the single, biggest component of any language course is vocabulary. Vocabulary is essential to English learning and the foundation of all English skills. No matter how well students learn grammar, no matter how successfully the sounds of L2 are mastered, without words to express a wide range of meanings, communication in an L2 just cannot happen in any meaningful way (McCarthy, 1990). Learning English at a young age has become an inevitable trend in fast-globalizing current EFL contexts such as in Thailand. Though at present there is not a complete agreement on the best age for English learning, second language acquisition theories designate that pre-school age is an important period for language

2 learning. In Japan, kindergartens, primary schools and some language training centers have set up English courses for young learners, with the emphasis on learning everyday words (Chujo, Nishigaki & Utiyama, 2007). Everyday words means the words that people use in their daily life or high frequency words. Therefore, it should be a matter of great concern to them how their syllabuses and materials need to be designed and what vocabulary should be taught. A similar phenomenon is apparent in Thailand. At present, English curriculum, which has been implemented since 2001, has not identified yet a vocabulary list for Grades 1-3 according to the Ministry of Education (2001b). To address both the neglected area of teaching appropriate English vocabulary to students and providing primary school English teachers with an important elementary vocabulary, this study’s end result is a base list of the 500 high-frequency words which are helpful for EFL students’ learning. The purpose of this study is to identify the vocabulary list frequently found in Grades 1-3 textbooks which can be used as a resource to elementary teachers of English in Thailand.

1.2 Rationale of the Study Vocabulary knowledge is an important prerequisite of literacy (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000). Vocabulary and lexical units are at the core of language learning and application. Vocabulary is all the words we must know to communicate effectively (Amiotte, 2006). Knowing vocabulary is considered necessary for language learners and the significance of vocabulary in language learning is well documented (Schmitt and McCarthy, 1997; Honig, 2001; Nation, 2001) and Nation (1994) also points out that vocabulary expansion is essential for learners to gain proficiency in English. To quote Amiotte (2006), vocabulary

3 knowledge links to academic success and it is critical to reading comprehension and also determines success in learning from texts. Therefore, vocabulary instruction should be focused on. In second language learning and teaching, vocabulary knowledge is central to communicative competence and to the acquisition of a second language. Young language learners learn vocabulary mainly through textbooks, and the size of their vocabulary determines their language performance. Particularly, for beginners, vocabulary is the most important element to build their English knowledge and has the strongest effects on their future language learning progress. As Ruply, Logan and Nichols (1999) assert, vocabulary is the glue that holds stories, ideas, and content together and it makes comprehension accessible for children. Nowadays, vocabulary teaching has been playing a more and more crucial part in language pedagogy since language researchers and educators have realized its importance for language learning. Vocabulary is prerequisite for learners to learn to listen, speak, read and write. It is just like the base of a building, which will not be steady without a good foundation. Stahl (1999) points out that our knowledge of words determines how we understand texts, define ourselves for others, and define the way we see the world. The correlation between vocabulary and language proficiency has been the focus of several studies (Lee, 2003 and Barrow, Nakanishi, and Ishino, 1999). Meara (1996) states that learners who know more vocabulary are more proficient in language than those who know fewer vocabulary items. In substance, foreign language teachers and learners have the same belief that vocabulary enrichment contributes to language proficiency (Lee, 2003 and Barrow & et al 1999). It is widely agreed that it is necessary for language learners to learn basic vocabulary items first.

4 Due to the wide range in teaching different levels of vocabulary to targeted ages from children to EFL/ESL adults, it is important to ensure that vocabulary selected to teach meets the targeted grade level. Furthermore, theoretical and empirical research in EFL suggests that teaching essential and general words to elementary-aged children (young learners) first can be highly beneficial for them as EFL learners (Kuno, 1999; Ito, 2000). From an academic perspective, with a clear word list in curriculum instruction for teaching English to Grades 1-3, it is beneficial for teaching assessment that teachers can give the right emphasis on teaching the right words. Besides, it is useful for students to learn appropriate vocabulary efficiently within a limited time to help them understand their teachers and texts better. From a practical perspective, it is helpful, time-saving, and convenient for teachers to design specific learning activities so students can practice basic communication with high-frequency words at the elementary stage. Since there has been no specific research work conducted to develop a general word list for English young learners in Thailand, the present study attempts to find out the most frequent English vocabulary list for Grades 1-3 and it would be useful for assessing English teaching efficiency and learning outcomes in terms of vocabulary at elementary level.

1.3 Significance of the Study This study is based on two present conditions. Firstly, there is no available detailed word list for teaching vocabulary to Grades 1-3 in Thailand English teaching curriculum instruction at present, that is to say, since there are many textbooks used in primary schools of Thailand but no vocabulary lists, it is difficult for assessment in terms of vocabulary. Therefore, teachers teach words based on textbooks, from the

5 former word list suggested by the 1996 curriculum which can be considered out-of-date now, and based on their own judgments. Secondly, words that students are taught may not match their level and this may result in teaching objectives not being met. To solve this situation, this study then focuses on an identification of vocabulary for Grades 1-3. As a result, the findings can be used as a guide to giving some ideas to teachers on what to focus on and on organizing suitable learning activities. Frequency information provides a rational basis for making sure that learners get the return for their vocabulary learning effort by ensuring that words studied will appear often. Vocabulary frequency lists which take account of range have an important role to play in curriculum design and in setting learning goals (Nation & Waring, 1997).

1.4 Scope and Limitations of the Study Vocabulary can be classified into four types due to different purposes: high-frequency words, academic words, technical words, and low-frequency words. It is time-consuming and leads to confusion to develop all vocabulary lists at the same time. Therefore, this study focuses only on basic high-frequency words for young learners of Grades 1-3. This area was selected for the study for two reasons: first, it is the trend that children start learning English at a very early age, and teachers have little experience to classify levels of vocabulary for in-order teaching; second, it will be much more effective and beneficial for students’ future language learning with a step-by-step learning of the word list. At least, it is for sure that they can learn basic and useful words. As the aim of the study is to supply a reference for teaching English vocabulary to elementary learners, a corpus for the study was created only from

6 textbooks for primary school Grades 1-3 selected in Nakhon Ratchasima province of Thailand since it is too ambitious to focus on all textbooks from all levels at all primary schools in Thailand.

1.5 Purpose of the Study This study aims to find out the 500 words which most frequently appear in textbooks that are used in primary schools for 1st to 3rd graders.

1.6 Research Questions It is a great concern whether language teachers know what words are appropriate to teach their students at different levels or even whether they know which words need to teach first to students for efficient teaching and learning. For this situation and the purposes of the study, the research questions raised are as follows: (1) What are the first 500 high-frequency words found in primary school students’ textbooks at Grades 1-3? (2) Compared with three other similar word lists, are there any differences between this 500 word list and the General Service List according to Baumann and Culligan (1995), the Oxford Word List (Lo Bianco, Scull & Ives, 2008) or Dolch Basic 220 Word List for elementary learners by Edward William Dolch (1948)?

7

1.7 Definitions of Operational Terms In this study the following terms are frequently used as keywords and operational terms. For making them clear and consistent in the whole study the terms are briefly defined as follows. The first problem is simply to define what a word is. Word In this study the term ‘word’ refers to an independent unit with its own meaning and without any modifiers. A word can be a noun, a verb, an adjective, an adverb, a pronoun, or an article, etc., for example, animal, agree, able, about, anybody, the, etc. Nation (2001) defines that to know a word for ESL/EFL learners includes three facets: the word’s form (spoken, written, and word parts), meaning, and use. All three facets are essential to developing and expanding learners’ vocabulary knowledge. The term in this study is used as a plural form as ‘words’ which can be essential words, general words, high frequency words, or academic words. High-frequency words High-frequency words are the words that appear most often in printed materials. It refers to the very important group of words which cover a very large proportion of the running words in spoken and written texts and occur in all kinds of uses of languages. They are an essential base for all language use. According to Robert Hillerich (2007), “Just three words I, and, the account for ten percent of all words in printed English.” Corpus A corpus is basically a collection of texts which is stored in a computer. The texts can be written or spoken language. For this study the corpus consists of every word that occurs in the textbooks used in the selected Nakhon Ratchasima primary

8 schools at Grades 1-3. It is then possible to analyze the language in the corpus with corpus software tools to see how people really use. Running words Running word means the total number of word forms in a text or corpus. The term includes all words that appear in a sentence, a paragraph, or a passage (Nation, 2001). In the present study, it refers to words that occur in the corpus from all textbooks and it can be interpreted as “tokens” as well. Lemmatization In linguistics, it is the process of grouping together the different inflected forms of a word so they can be analyzed as a single item. In computational linguistics, lemmatization is the algorithmic process of determining the lemma for a given word. For the present study lemmatization for the 500 words includes grouping plural forms, regular past tense forms, gerund forms and third person singular forms; deleting proper nouns, digits and abbreviations but keeping irregular forms. In English, words appear in several inflected forms. For example, the verb ‘to eat’ may appear as ‘eat’, ‘ate’, ‘eats’, or ‘eating’. The base form, ‘eat’ - the word one might look up in a dictionary - is called the lemma for the word. The combination of the base form with the part of speech is often called the lexeme of the word. HMFWL It refers to the findings of the present study, the 500-word list, and it is the abbreviation of “He’s Most Frequent Word List”. Function words Function words (or grammatical words) are words that exist to explain or create grammatical or structural relationships into which the content words may fit.

9 Words like "of," "the," "to," they have little meaning on their own. They are much fewer in number and generally do not change as English adds and omits content words. Therefore, function words might be prepositions, pronouns, auxiliary verbs, conjunctions, determiners, or particles, and interrogatives Content words Content words are words that have meaning or are not function words. They are words we would look up in a dictionary, such as "lamp," "computer," “drove.” These include nouns, verbs, adjectives, and most adverbs, although some adverbs are function words (e.g., then and why). Therefore, nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs are content parts of speech.

1.8 Summary The present study was concerned with the vocabulary level that plays a crucial role in young learners’ English learning and identification of basic words that need to be taught for young learners, Grades 1-3. In this case, it is hoped to be very helpful for teachers to teach what their students need to learn, for the students to learn what they need to know, and to avoid a mismatch between students’ level and teachers’ objectives. Frequency-based word lists can help learners emphasize their English vocabulary by telling them which words they should try to learn. In this chapter, a description of the background to the study has been given first, and after that, the rationale, purposes, research questions, scope and limitations of the study, technical terms are stated item by item.

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter reviews the literature related to the present study. The review starts with the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and foreign language. Then a comparison on the English curriculum instruction situation among EFL contexts such as in China, Japan and Thailand is followed. After that, the popular word lists from several research studies and word-frequency counts are presented. Finally, a summary ends this chapter.

2.1 Vocabulary Knowledge and English Proficiency Harmer (1997) expresses that language learners need to learn vocabulary of the language. Laufer and Nation (1995), Read (2000), and Schmitt and Clapham (2001) also agree that learning vocabulary is essential as the units of vocabulary are the basic building blocks of language that language learners need for communication. Vocabulary learning is central to language acquisition, whether the language is first, second, or foreign. The current literature on teaching second language vocabulary shows that the acquisition of vocabulary has assumed a more central role in learning a second language (Sokmen, 1997). One important claim is that a good knowledge of how the system of a language works may not necessarily enable one to communicate, but it is usually possible to communicate if one has the vocabulary (Wallace, 1988). The importance of vocabulary learning has been linked with conversation and written

11 work as Cook (1991) maintains that vocabulary learning provides input for these skills. Vocabulary learning has received increasing attention in the L2 learning research agenda because lexical ability is one of the requisite skills for L2 literacy (Astika, 1993; Laufer & Nation, 1995; Laufer, 1994; Lee & Munice, 2006; Nation, 2001). That is, the extent to which the learners have command over L2 vocabulary determines how fluently they can perform in L2. Research indicates clearly that vocabulary knowledge is highly correlated with overall reading achievement (Davis, 1994, 1968; National Reading Panel, 2000). In addition to affecting reading performance, vocabulary knowledge affects a student’s ability to participate fully in both social and academic classroom routines. In this regard, all students can benefit from vocabulary instruction, especially if that instruction is tailored to individual strengths and needs as Blachowicz and Fisher state (2005). In the areas of Reading and Language Arts, vocabulary instruction is critical to the improvement of comprehension and written expression. In short, vocabulary is directly related to knowledge acquisition. Words both express and allow speakers to extend their understanding of the world around them. Words afford access to completely new worlds. Vocabulary is the most sizable and unmanageable component in the learning of any language (Nation, 1990). With this in mind and the shift in emphasis on vocabulary in language comes the responsibility of helping students to effectively store and retrieve words in the target language, which necessitates the use of effective pedagogical methods in teaching vocabulary, according to Sokmane (1997). Although vocabulary has not always been recognized as a priority in language teaching, interest

12 in its role in second language (L2) learning has grown rapidly in recent years and specialists now emphasize the need for a systematic and principled approach to vocabulary by both the teacher and the learner. Grading the words is one kind of effective method to teach language learners - especially young learners - according to frequency.

2.2 English Curriculum Instruction Situation in EFL Contexts In ESL contexts English is the second native language after mother tongue that people speak and it is also their official language they use, that is to say, the position of English in the contexts is equal to their mother tongue. While in EFL contexts according to English curriculum instruction English is one of compulsory subjects that students need to learn and nowadays English teaching even starts at an earlier age in primary schools such as Thailand. According to the 10th National Economic and Social Development Plan issued by Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board of Thailand (2006), English language is considered as a foreign language to learn and receives a great deal of attention to be taught officially for more than 80 years since 1921. In Thailand, English language curriculum has been continually developed and improved to meet the national and social needs and changes. Furthermore, the English language is now set as a compulsory subject for every level of the formal educational system, especially for basic education (Office of the National Education Commission, 2002). The English subject in basic education is offered from the first year of primary education until the last year of the upper secondary education (Grades 1-12). According to the National Education Act 1999 (Office of the National Education Commission, 2002), the formal Thai educational

13 system is divided into two levels: basic and higher education. First, basic education is compulsory for 12 years (6 years for primary school and 6 years for secondary school) before higher education. Second, higher education is divided into two levels: lowerthan-degree level and degree level the latter which is provided in universities, institutes, colleges, or those under other names. For both levels, eight subject groups are formally taught: Thai language, mathematics, science, social studies, religion and culture, health and physical education, arts, career and technology, and foreign languages (Ministry of Education, 2001a). English is one of compulsory subjects throughout the complete Thai educational system. Moreover, in the basic education, English is the only foreign language taught at every grade (Ministry of Education, 2001a). Mackenzie (2002) points out that Japan and Thailand have a lot in common in education. Both countries have similarly structured educational systems, both have characterized their students in similar ways, and both have acknowledged a distinct lack of achievement on the part of their learners to attain a reasonable standard of English proficiency. In Thailand, curriculum is controlled by the Ministry of Education, the National Education Commission, and the Ministry of University Affairs (NIO, 1997). For English instruction in the Thai educational system, the national core curriculum and the standards of learning have been issued (Ministry of Education, 2001b). Preparatory Level Curriculum is labeled for Grades 1-3 as the first level. The only foreign language offered is English. At this level, students are expected to learn about 300 – 450 words of English (Ministry of Education, 2001b). However, these words are not clearly specified.

14 Japan in comparison with Thailand, began an initiative in 2002 to teach English to young learners in Japanese primary schools (Chujo and Nishigaki, 2007). Mantero and Iwai (2005) state that the curriculum council realized it was necessary for children to catch up with globalization and English plays an important role as the common international language. According to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) (MEXT, 2003a), the curriculum council especially realized that it was essential for children to acquire communication abilities in English to live in the twenty-first century. Mantero and Iwai (2005) further indicate that although this was not a drastic change from their previous assertions, it is the first time that we see MEXT making such a concerted and concentrated effort in the field of English language education. With great effort and attention, Chujo and Nishigaki (2007) selected 500 essential daily-life words for Japanese EFL elementary students from English picture dictionaries and a children’s spoken corpus because of a lack of sufficient daily-life vocabulary in Japanese secondary learning. In another EFL context like in China, with the development of international business transactions, more and more people are realizing that being capable of speaking English fluently has emerged recently as one of the basic requirements of modern people in the global village. The Ministry of Education of China revised the English Curriculum Standards in 2000 and announced English as a required course in elementary schools. According to the Curriculum Standards for the Nine-year Compulsory Education, there are three main objectives for children learning English in elementary schools: basic communication ability, interests in learning English, and understanding of both the native culture and the culture of the target language. The first objective concerns children’s English proficiency levels. The design of the curriculum

15 puts emphasis on the development of basic communication abilities. The second objective aims to motivate the pupils in elementary schools to learn English out of enjoyment. The third objective focuses on the cultural aspect of language learning. That is, the pupils should be able to express their viewpoints about their country in a basic way and find out about the culture of the target language. With regards to requirements of the curriculum standards, by Grades 3 – 4, students are required to understand and speak about 400 words with correct pronunciation and intonation. Besides, they should be able to correctly spell 200 words which are often used.

2.3 Word lists 2.3.1 The Importance of Word Lists A word list for a certain level should play a crucial role in English language teaching and learning. Nation (2001) distinguishes four kinds of vocabulary in a text: high-frequency words, academic words, technical words, and low-frequency words. A decision on selection of vocabulary in English language teaching is vital. If we look at a common dictionary which includes thousands of word entries, it becomes immediately evident that a selection of the vocabulary for beginners of English is necessary. For language teachers, it should be of great concern how their materials have been designed, what criteria have been followed in making decisions about vocabulary content in language courses, and what the goals of particular decisions are (McCarthy, 1990). Many studies have suggested that second language learners need first to concentrate on the high frequency words and the importance of learning high frequency words is very obvious and huge (Nation, 1993; Meara, 1995; Nation & Waring, 1997; Waring, 2000; Nation 2001).

16 McCarthy (1990) asserts that some words are more central to language use than others, different vocabulary is employed by different users in different contexts, and different vocabulary helps to structure longer stretches of language as coherent discourse. To distinguish the level of words in lexical fields is to consider whether some words are more core, or central to the language, than others. The idea that there might be a core or basic vocabulary of words at the heart of any language is quite an appealing one to language educators, for if we could isolate that vocabulary, then we could use it in virtually any situation, whether spoken or written, formal or informal, or in any situation where an absolutely precise term - the mot juste - might be elusive and where a core word would do. As Beglar and Hunt (2005) states that empirical research has shown that having students use word lists “play[s] an important role in speeding up lexical acquisition”. To generate vocabulary lists for learners, earlier studies have used both objective measures such as Frequency and/or Range (Thorndike and Lorge, 1944; Harris and Jacobson, 1972; Engels et al., 1981) and subjective selection principles such as ‘learnability’ (Mackey, 1965), ‘necessity’ (West, 1953), and ‘intuitions of teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL)’ (Hindmarsh, 1980). Nation and Waring (1997) assert again that frequency-based word lists can help learners expand their English vocabulary by telling them which words to try to learn. These lists contain the words that are very common in English, but that the learner is unlikely to discover in a random or natural manner. This small number of high frequency words makes up most of the words learners meet and are the common core or start-up vocabulary for beginners to feel empowered that they can do things. Without a start-up vocabulary the teacher can not be understood in the native language. According to McCarthy (1990), in any given lexical field, core words tend to be the most frequently occurring ones.

17 2.3.2 Basic Criteria for Making a Word List Although language makes use of a large number of words, not all of these words are equally useful. One measure of usefulness is word frequency, that is, how often the word occurs in normal use of the language. From the point of view of frequency, the word the is a very useful word in English. It occurs so frequently that about 7% of the words on a page of written English and the same proportion of the words in a conversation are repetitions of the word the. Making word lists in the field of second language learning and teaching has a long history (Nation & Waring, 1997; Carter & McCarthy, 1988). When making a word list, coverage and range must be considered. Frequency: As not all of the words are equally useful, one measure of usefulness is word frequency, that is, how often the word occurs in normal use of the language (National, 1997). Range: Range is measured by seeing how many different texts or subcorpora each particular word occurs in. A word with wide range occurs in many different texts or subcorpora (Nation, 2001). 2.3.3 Well-known Word Lists There have been many studies that have investigated the vocabulary needed for various levels or purposes such as the General Service List Michael West (1953a) for general used words, the Academic Word List Coxhead (2000) and the Dolch Basic Word List (Dolch, 1948). The making of a frequency word list, however, is not simply a mechanical task, and judgments based on well-established criteria need to be made. As a reference to the present study, the following several well-known word lists are introduced to explore what similar studies have been conducted before and

18 what experiences have been obtained from them and to help to come up with ideas that would need to be considered in the development of a resource list of high frequency words. 1) 500 Essential Daily-Life Words for Japanese EFL Elementary Students According to Chujo, Nishigaki and Utiyama (2007), the Japanese government’s initiative in 2002 to teach English at the elementary level was a wonderful opportunity to teach the daily-life vocabulary that is currently missing in junior and senior texts. To create this kind of core vocabulary, words from twenty picture dictionaries published outside of Japan and ten picture dictionaries published in Japan were collected and a total of 5,259 words relevant to students’ everyday lives were gleaned. To make sense of such a large number of words, they were rated in two ways. First the researchers gave them a ‘range’ rating which reveals how many picture dictionaries contain that word. Next, the researchers checked for frequency by comparing how often the words appeared in both a children’s corpus of spoken data (Child Language Data Exchange System) and an adults’ corpus of spoken data (British National Corpus). After this, the researchers got a statistical score of how often the word appeared in the children’s spoken corpus. Finally, they calculated the U.S. grade level for each word. Integrating these ratings, the researchers established a core of the most essential 500 words for Japanese EFL elementary students selected from English picture dictionaries and a children’s spoken corpus, and e-learning material based on this vocabulary have been created ever since. 2) The General Service list Regardless of methodology, researchers point out that it is important for teachers to be highly selective when choosing lexical items (Laufer et al., 2005).

19 Frequency knowledge of the word in the language is the degree of probability of encountering that word in speech or in print. According to Nation (2001), general vocabulary or general service vocabulary consists of high-frequency words in most uses of the language and covers 80% as running words in a wide range of general texts. This group of words includes words from High-frequency word list which Michael West (1953a) calls A General Service List of English words (hereafter GSL) which was published in 1953. It was the outcome of almost three decades of major work in English lexicometrics and grew organically from major studies in the 1930s on vocabulary selection for teaching purposes. This list is the specific list of 2,000 headwords providing both semantic and frequency information developed from a corpus of five million words created from general written texts (Su, 2006). Li (2008) further explains each of the 2,000 words is a headword representing a word family that is only loosely defined in West. Frequency numbers are given derived from Thorndike and Lorge (1944). A fuller discussion of the GSL, and word lists in general, can be found in Nation (1990) and Carter and McCarthy (1988). Read (1988) points out that for many groups of learners, especially those in EFL countries with little or no exposure to the language outside the classroom, the General Service List (West, 1953) represents a fairly complete sampling frame of the words they are likely to know, even after several years of study. Bauman (1996) indicates that GSL was created to be an ideal vocabulary for ESL/EFL students to start out with. They are not the most common 2,000 words, though frequency was one of the factors taken into account in making the selection. West used a variety of criteria to select these words, including frequency, ease or difficulty of learning, necessity, coverage, stylistic levels, and intensive and emotional

20 words (West, 1953). Su (2006) explores this list and concludes that it has had wide influence for many years, serving as the basis for graded readers as well as other material although it is rather old and based on work done in the 1930s and 1940s. Through the 1970s, a lot of material, particularly graded readers, was based on this list. Even today, much of this material is used and texts based on the GSL are still on sale (Li, 2008). It remains the most useful one available as the relative frequency of various meanings of each word is given. The GSL can be downloaded at http://jbauman.com/gsl.html (Bauman, 2007). 3) The Academic Word List Xue and Nation (1984), with the aid of computers, developed the University Word List (UWL). The UWL is a list of common vocabulary words in academic texts. As Thompson (2005) summarizes, the authors selected 323 words from the Campion and Elly’s (1971) 500 most common words list, 291 words from the Praninskas (1972) list, 64 additional words from the 3,200 word list of Campion and Elly (1971), 54 words from the Lynn (1973) list, and 5 words from the Ghadessy (1979) list for a total of 737 words. The UWL has been used extensively by students, teachers, course designers, and researchers. However, Coxhead (2000) comments on the limitations of the UWL: “as an amalgam of the four different studies, it lacked consistent selection principles and had many of the weaknesses of the prior work. The corpora on which the studies were based were small and did not contain a wide and balanced range of topics” (p. 214). She further argues that there is a need for a new academic word list “based on data gathered from a large, well-defined corpus of academic English” (p. 214). In response to the need, Coxhead developed a new Academic Word List (AWL) (Thompson, 2005).

21 The AWL is the updated version of the UWL. This list can be downloaded at http://www.vuw.ac.nz/lals/research/awl/sublists.html. It was based on a corpus of 3.5 million running words compiled from 414 texts covering 28 subject areas organized into seven general areas within each of four disciplines: arts, commerce, law, and science. It refers to those words that occur outside the General Service List by West (1953) and are widely used in different kinds of academic texts. Coxhead (2000) argues that a corpus for the study of academic vocabulary should be large enough to ensure a reasonable number of occurrences of academic words. She writes, “More language means that more information can be gathered about lexical items and more words in context can be examined in-depth” (p. 216). Prior to the use of computers, all research with academic corpora was limited because it was all done by hand. Coxhead (2000) further states, “The AWL includes 570 word families that constitute a specialized vocabulary with good coverage of academic texts, regardless of the subject area . . . it accounts for more than 94% of the words that occur in 20 or more of the 28 subject areas of the Academic Corpus (p. 227).”

4) The First 1,000-Word List Nation (1993) conducted a study to identify the first 1,000 words of English which are the essential base for simplified teaching material. Generally, high frequency words are considered to be the most frequent 2,000 words (West, 1953) although some research indicates that the return for learning vocabulary drops off rather quickly after the first 1,500 words according to Engels (1968) and Hwang (1989). The return for learning is the coverage of text, spoken or written, that

22 knowledge of the words provides. For example, Schonell et al (1956) found that the most frequent 1,000 words in spoken English provide coverage of 94% of the running words in informal conversation. Similarly, figures from the frequency count by Carroll et al (1971) indicate that the first 1,000 words of English cover 74% of written text. Note that coverage refers to running words where each recurrence of a word is counted as additional coverage. Clearly, the return for learning the first 1,000 words of English is very high (Nation, 193). By comparison, the second most frequent 1,000 words of English provide coverage of only 7% of written text. It should not be thought that the first 1,000 words is made up mainly of function words like the, and, of, they, and because. Nation (1993) states that these function words make up fewer than 150 of the 1,000 words. There are several lists available of the most frequent words of English. These include frequency counts (Carroll et al, 1971; Francis & Kucera, 1982; Thorndike & Lorge, 1944), and combinations of various lists (Hindmarsh, 1980; Barnard & Brown, in Nation 1984). The list chosen for the latter study was West's General Service List of English Words (1953). The General Service List has been used as a basis for many series of graded readers, and this proves an advantage in using it as a reference for materials of different levels. 5) The Oxford Word List The Oxford Wordlist research study, an investigation of high frequency words in young children’s writing and reading development, was conducted in Australian schools in 2007 (Lo Bianco, Scull & Ives, 2008). This study was the first of its type in over 30 years, and the result - the Oxford Wordlist, the 307 most frequently used words - has been presented as a resource freely available to all Australian educators and the publication. Following repeated requests from educators to be provided with

23 an up-to-date list that reflects Australian students of today, Oxford University Press Australia conducted an extensive and rigorous study to find those words most frequently used by students in their first three years of school in their own writing. The Oxford Wordlist differs fundamentally from many other lists in its collection methods. It is based on children’s usage, words they know orally and visually, rather than being derived from a study of words in children’s reading texts. The Oxford Wordlist may be used for instructional purposes for students at school and at home. 6) The Dolch Basic Word List The famous Dolch Basic Word List is named after Edward William Dolch, who surveyed a great quantity of children's books to compile a list of the most commonly occurring words in young children's readers. As Leila (2007) notes, the list was originally published in his book “Problems in Reading”, Garrard Press, 1948. Dolch compiled the list based on children’s books of his era. It is estimated that the combined listings account for common words that occur in 50-75% of children's books (Dolch, 1948). The Dolch words are the 220 most frequently found words in books that children read. Those words comprise the base, in his opinion, for achieving reading fluency. Dolch organized his listing into categories that corresponding to grade levels. This categorization was based on a sequence rather than an order of difficulty, and matched the frequency of words according to grade-level material. The sequence of levels is as follows: Pre-primer, Primer, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade and Nouns. Leila (2007) found that from 50-75% of all words used in school books, library books, newspapers, and magazines are in the Dolch Basic Sight Vocabulary of 220 words (preschool thru Grade 3). The Dolch word list is made up of "service words"

24 (primarily pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and verbs) which cannot be learned through the use of pictures, and 95 common nouns. Be either illustrated via simple pictures or sounded out according to regular phonetic decoding rules. Many of these words cannot be sounded out because they do not follow decoding rules, so they must be learned as sight words according to Jerry (1971). Given the frequency of the Dolch words in children's literature, they are deemed crucial for beginner readers, and most experts advocate these words be learned by native English speakers prior to finishing the first grade in school. Leila (2007) further suggests for EFL learners that these words should be usually learned in first and second grade; students who learn these words have a good base for beginning reading.

2.4 Word-Frequency Counts As Nation (1990) remarks we can get information about which words will be most useful for learners of English by looking at frequency counts of vocabulary. Usually a vocabulary count is done by making a list of the words in a particular text or group of texts and counting how often and observing where they occur. Nation (1990) further observes that some of the more recent counts have used computers to list the words and count their frequency. Word-frequency counts can help teachers and course designers in several ways. They can help a teacher develop a feeling about which words are useful and should be given attention, and which words are infrequent. They can provide a principled basis for developing word lists for teaching, for designing graded courses and reading texts, and for preparing vocabulary tests. Frequency counts give information on range, but they are also useful for developing specialized word lists.

25 Several early frequency counts are described in Fries and Traver (1960). The Teacher’s Word Book of 30,000 Words by Thorndike and Lorge (1944) is the most widely known. It has been used as the basis for vocabulary selection for many English courses (Nation, 1990). Nation (1990) illustrates that the Thorndike and Lorge count tells us how often each word occurs in 1 million running words of text and gives us some indication of its range. The range of a word is a measure of the number of different types of texts in which a word occurs. Words with a wide range occur in many different kinds of texts and fields of study. The most useful words for English learners are high-frequency words which have a wide range. Counting wordfrequency is the beginning of criteria for selection of vocabulary in English language teaching and learning.

2.5. Summary Vocabulary knowledge is an important prerequisite of literacy (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000). In recent years, vocabulary studies have come together with language teaching by recognizing the importance of vocabulary knowledge as a basis for acquiring language proficiency. “Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.” This is how the linguist David Wilkins summed up the importance of vocabulary learning according to Thornbury (2002). His view is echoed in this advice to students from a recent coursebook (Dellar H and Hocking D, Innovations, LTP): “You will see most improvement if you learn more words and expressions. You can say very little with grammar, but you can say almost anything with words!”

26 The acquisition of vocabulary is arguably the most critical component of successful language learning. Yet, many children, particularly English language learners (ELLS), enter school without the substantial vocabulary knowledge they need to excel academically (Moats, 2001). With concrete word list instruction for elementary English teaching, teachers will have clear idea and lesson plan to decide what to teach, and at the same time students can understand teachers better by learning the key words in advance, this will also benefit their future further learning. However, little work has been conducted in a word list for primary school level, especially a specific research-based word list for younger learners. This study fills this gap by creating a corpus from Grades 1-3 English textbooks and developing a word list with frequency for the level of Grades 1-3. In this chapter, the related literature provides an overall picture of the recent works on the significance of English vocabulary learning and famous word lists. However, it may be noticed that up to now there is no consummate word list for Grades 1-3 at the elementary level. The present study aims to fill this gap. Chapter Three will explain the methodology designed for this research study.

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses the methodology that was employed in this study. It starts with the research procedure which includes identification of words, research instruments, and validation of the obtained word list. Framework of the study and duration of the study are presented next. The summary is stated at the end of the chapter.

3.1 The Research Procedure In developing a list of English high-frequency vocabulary for EFL young learners in Grades 1-3, a methodology for word list development was adapted from previous vocabulary research studies. The methodology includes six major steps: 3.1.1 Selecting the Sample Schools The first phase in the research process for this study was to make a decision on sample state and private primary schools in order to identify textbooks which are used for Grades 1-3 at those schools. To achieve this purpose, Nakhon Ratchasima was selected as a representative because it is one of the biggest provinces in Thailand in terms of population, area and economy. In Nakhon Ratchasima, the educational management system is divided into seven educational zones. They are: 1) Muang and Noonsung, 2) Jakkarat, Chokchai, Huay Thalang, Nong Boon Nak, and Chalermprakiat, 3) Konburi, Serngsang, and

28 Pakthongchai, 4) Wangnamkheaw, Soongnern, Si Keaw, and Pak Chong, 5) Dan Khunthod, Non Thai, Kham Sakaeseang, Kham Tha Le Sor, Theparak, and Prathongkum, 6) Kong, Ban Lerm, Bua Yai, Kawngsamannang, Bua Lai, and Seeda, and 7) Pra Tai, Pimai, Chumpong, Non Deang, Muang Yang, and Lam Thanen Chai. Among these Educational Zone 1 was chosen because it possesses all of the characteristics required for this study. It consists of 145 state-run schools and 15 private-run schools and the total number of state-run and private-run schools is 160. 3.1.2 Obtaining Collection of Textbooks Official letters were mailed to every school in Educational Zone 1 of Nakhon Ratchasima requesting information about what English textbooks the schools were using at Grades 1-6. The schools were required to provide the names of the textbooks and then mail the letters back. The letter included a brief introduction of the research study, expressions of appreciation and questions. One month after the letters were mailed out, if percentage of the replies was not high enough to achieve the goal or the replies from schools were less than 50%, then a supplementary method, i.e., telephoning would be applied to solicit answers from the remaining schools. After the replies were received from the sample schools, they would be tallied in order to obtain a list of the textbook titles being used at those schools. 3.1.3 Inputting, Compiling and Organizing Vocabulary The first step of this phase was to input all English vocabulary appearing in the books including instructions, texts and exercises, and excluding the covers, content tables and vocabulary lists at the back of the textbooks. The vocabulary files were then compiled series by series and organized grade by grade. Before using software Range all vocabulary files would be combined together into a corpus and then the corpus would be transferred into one text file.

29 3.1.4 Developing a First-hand Word List by Using Software Range After the vocabulary was input, compiled, and organized, the next step in the present study was to analyze the created corpus by using the software Range. With software Range’s help, a first-hand word list with ranks and frequency numbers was resulted and a list of a certain number of word types including the ranks and frequency digits was derived. In order to obtain a 500-vocabulary list, the first list would not be exactly 500 words due to a few different word types that might happen at the same frequency rank. In addition, more word types needed to be added to the first list for further lemmatization in next stage. For the present study about 700 words would be extracted for the first list and the reason why 500 words were targeted for the Grades 1-3 vocabulary size came from previous research studies. Prominent educators such as Takefuta et al. (2005) and Ono (2005) who consider teaching English to young learners as the basis for learning at the secondary level and beyond advocate allotting 500 words or 500 to 1,000 words to teaching English to young learners in primary education. 3.1.5 Lemmatizing the Extracted Word List to a Core List of the 500 High-frequency Words Referring to other similar vocabulary studies a professional methodology including lemmatization was applied to produce the best possible English word list for Grades 1-3 EFL/ESL learning and teaching. In order to obtain a reliable word list, all base forms would be extracted through manual lemmatization. The same process was undertaken for nouns, plural, possessive forms and verb forms to get uninflected head word entries. (For example, “books” can be listed as “book” if the frequency of “book” is higher than “books”, “goes” and “going” were listed as “go”.) However, if a

30 noun or verb only appeared in the plural or third person singular form, it was kept as it appeared in the text because it would be clearer to keep the list as close to the original as possible. The proper nouns were eliminated first and then from the remaining words, the 500 words occurring at the higher frequency were selected. Then lemmatization followed and finally the first 500 high-frequency words resulted. One type of methods used to identify basic vocabulary is frequency (how often the word appears in the text) and range (in how many different texts the word is found). With this high frequency and high range, those words on top of the list were considered as key words in elementary English vocabulary for Grades 1-3. 3.1.6 Comparing the 500-word List with the Other Well-known Lists For answering the research question 1, a 500-word list was resulted as the findings and to answer the research question 2, the obtained 500-word list had to be compared with the three other well-known word lists: the base lists of the General Service List (Baumann & Culligan, 1995), the Oxford Word List (Lo Bianco, Scull & Ives, 2008) and the Dolch Basic 220-Word List for elementary learners (Edward William Dolch, 1948). First, by running software Range we could see the overlap percentage of words between the 500-word list and each of the three other well-known word lists. If the overlap percentage of words is high, the present study’s 500-word list is reliable and valid. From the comparisons another finding would reveal missed words that were not found in the three other word lists and it would be discussed in details in chapter 4. 3.1.7 Validating the Obtained Word List Despite the results of the software, comparing the coverage percentage and frequency was necessary to see the validity of this word list. An additional way to

31 identify the validity of this word list for the present study was the validators’ analysis. Five experts were asked to check out the words if they were appropriate for Grades 1-3 or not based on their rich teaching experience on elementary vocabulary in textbooks of Grades 1-3. The five experts consisted of a native speaker teaching in EFL contexts, two ESL speakers and two EFL speakers who all were primary school teachers with more than two-year of teaching experience at Grades 1-3.

3.2 Instruments In this study, there were three main instruments: textbook form, validating form and Software Range. 3.2.1 Textbook form (see Appendix A) The textbook form was designed to obtain the names of textbooks that were used at the sample schools. It consisted of two questions i.e., “what the textbooks are using at grades 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.” and “Do you want to know the result of this study?” The textbook form was attached to an official letter with a brief introduction about the present study and the introduction included the purposes and the outcomes the study. After the sample schools were identified, the letter issued by the school of English with self-adhesive envelop and a textbook form were sent to every school. The teachers of English who were in charge of Grades 1-6 were asked to provide the names of the textbooks and send the replies back to the researcher within a month. 80% of the answers were expected to receive to make the research findings reliable and valid. Every answer would be collected in order to find the collection of the textbooks. 3.2.2

The validating form

(see Appendix B)

After the 500 words were identified, the self-adhesive envelop and the

32 validation form were sent to the 5 experts or validators in order to obtain their opinions concerning the words that they agree to keep or to change. The 6-page validation form included 4 pages of a 500-word list and 2 pages of a 100-word list. 500 words were for validation and an extra 100-word list for substitution if necessary. The validators were supposed to identify words that they thought inappropriate for 1-3 graders in the form. After that they were required to send the form back to the researcher. The replies would be counted.

The words that were suggested by three

out of five validators would be subject to change. 3.2.3 RANGE GSL: RANGE and FREQUENCY programs In order to gain a word list from the textbooks, this study followed the same criteria and process as most of the other word lists such as the General Service List and the Academic Word List. The software, RANGE, was used to calculate the coverage and range of the word lists among different corpora. This includes RANGE BNC and RANGE GSL due to different base lists for analysis. In the present study, software RANGE GSL, released on 7 February, 2005, was chosen because GSL is a smaller corpus than BNC and the results would be more accurate. It includes two programs: RANGE and FREQUENCY programs. (1) RANGE RANGE can be used to compare a text against vocabulary lists to see which words in the text are and are not on the lists, and to see what percentage of the items in the text is covered by the lists. It can also be used to compare the vocabulary of two texts to see how much vocabulary is the same and where the vocabulary differs by telling the frequency rank and range. What is needed to run RANGE? (A) Window System

33 (B) base word lists (BASEWRD1.txt, BASEWRD2.txt, BASEWRD3.txt etc), (C) text files in ASCII (DOS) format. (2) FREQUENCY FREQUENCY is another program that runs on an ASCII text to make a frequency list of all the words in a single text. It can only run one text at a time. The output is an alphabetical list, or a frequency ordered list. It gives the rank order of the words, their raw frequency and the cumulative percentage frequency.

3.3 Conceptual Framework of the Study For this research study, there were six main steps as follows: 1. The official letter and the textbook form were sent to the sample schools for obtaining the names of textbooks that were used for Grades 1-3 at the schools.

2. The researcher obtained the list of the names of textbooks used at and then collected them. 3. The researcher input all vocabulary in the textbooks, compiled and organized the vocabulary files. 4. The researcher applied software Range to analyze the created corpus from the textbooks and then a first-hand word list would be developed, after that a word list was extracted for being trimmed to the final 500-word list. 5. The researcher manually lemmatized the words to a 500-word list and then compared it with the General Service List, the Oxford Word List and the Dolch Basic 220-Word List. 6. The researcher analyzed the comparisons and collected suggestions from English teaching experts and then reported findings.

Figure 3.1 Conceptual Framework of the Study

34

3.4 Summary This chapter first presents the research procedure which included sample selection, collection of textbooks, compilation and organization of the vocabulary, development of corpus, lemmatization and validation of the obtained word list. It also discusses the research instruments, and provides the conceptual framework of the study.

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the answers to the two research questions: (1) What are the first 500 high-frequency words found in primary school students’ textbooks at Grades 1-3? (2) Compared with other similar word lists, are there any differences between this 500 words list and the General Service List according to Baumann and Culligan (1995), the Oxford Word List or Dolch Basic 220-Word List for elementary learners? It begins with the data obtained from each step of the development of the 500-word list, that is, from Grades 1-3 textbook selection, total running words of the corpus for the final 500-word list, words lemmatization, deleted words, and finally the first 500 high frequency words. That is the answer to Research Question 1. The chapter ends with a presentation of comparison results of the first 500-word list obtained with Nation’s General Service List, Oxford Word List, and the Dolch Basic Word List. Discussions on the research findings are presented accordingly.

4.1 Research Question 1: What are the first 500 high-frequency words found in primary school students’ textbooks at Grades 1-3? To extract an English specialized word sub-list from a corpus, one large master list of vocabulary was needed to begin with. A list of 500 high frequency English words for Grades 1-3 required a systematic process. To create a large master word list,

36 a large corpus was necessarily needed accordingly. To reach the objective, all of the textbooks being used by every sample school were collected even if only one school had been using it. This began with inputting all vocabulary from textbooks collected and ended with the final list based on word selection criteria. 4.1.1

Rate of responses

In order to obtain the textbooks which were comparatively most popular at Grades 1-3 and used in most primary schools, the letters with questions were mailed to every school in the sample area. The schools were asked to give the names of the textbooks they were using and mail the letters back. Rate of responses was as follows: Table 4.1 Rate of responses Number of Total Schools

Number of Replies

Percentage of Reply

160

128

80%

One month later the number of replies did not reach the objective, so telephoning interview was applied as a supplemental method. Additional 43 schools were asked for the information through phone calls. As a result, totally 128 replies were collected out of 160 primary schools in Nakhon Ratchasima Educational Zone 1. Eventually14 series of textbooks were obtained for the corpus. They were Say Hello, Aha, Express English, Projects: Play & Learn, Smart Kids, English is Fun, New Stand English, Cheer Up, English Times, I.Q. English Book, New English Book, English Land, Modern English, Distance Learning Materials.(see Appendix C) 4.1.2

Total running words of the corpus for the 500-word list

After collecting all textbooks, the vocabulary in the textbooks was inputted

37 manually one series by one series. There were 146,192 running words, 501 lessons from the 14 series of textbooks in the corpus. One part of the corpus was shown as a sample as followed since it is too bulky to list the complete corpus file of total running words here. Table 4.2 Sample of corpus look listen and say a or an a book a pen a ruler a pencil case a kite an apple an egg an icecream an orange an umbrella I can do new student’s book say hello read spell your name please P I M Pim How old are you I’m seven years old read and write look at the ages from page Tom age Peter age Bunny age new student’s book say hello say the words listen and repeat a e i o u vowels van vine vase things I can do put a in if you can do it and put and in if you cannot I can say good morning good afternoon hello goodbye I can follow the instructions stand up sit down open your book close your book I can answer what’s your name How old are you I can name the vowels the consonants I can make my name tag new student’s book say hello unit in my class look listen and say This is my classroom a blackboard a door windows a broom a computer a garbage can a desk a Thai book a chair an English book look and practice what’s this in English it’s a thai book what’s this what is this new student’s book say hello ask and answer English book what’s that in English it’s a blackboard new student’s book say hello look listen and say Is it a school bag yes it is Is it a chair no it isn’t look yes it is no it isn’t new student’s book say hello let’s sing ten little rulers tune ten little Indians one little two little three little rulers four little five little six little rulers seven little eight little nine little rulers ten little rulers are here new student’s book say hello say and words three thirteen thirty thin things thumb make a number book show twenty to thirty this is an example for you winner new student’s book say hello things I can do put a in if you can do it an put an in if you cannot I can say new student’s book say hello I can ask and answer How many brooms are there there are Is it a broom no it isn’t yes it is I can make a number book no yes I can say three thirteen thirty new student’s book say hello unit my face listen point and say head ear hair eye nose mouth hand arm leg foot head hair eye ear nose mouth my face

38 From this Table, running words were entered in the exactly same order as the original texts. First, all the vocabulary was saved in each series in Microsoft Word file separately for future search and check easily. Then all files were combined into one text file for running software Range GSL. 4.1.3

Frequency count by Range GSL

Coxhead (2000) also claimed that in her AWL word selection, range was the first criterion and frequency the second because a word count based mainly on the frequency would have been biased by longer texts and topic-related words. This principle was also applied in the present study. Following the standardization of these series of textbooks and the normalization of the words, the frequency and the range of the words in the corpus were counted and listed by computer software Range GSL. The software, RANGE GSL, was used to calculate the frequency and range of the word lists among different corpus. It was also used to compare a text against vocabulary lists to see what words in the text were and were not in the lists, and to see what percentage of the items in the text were covered by the lists. It was even used to compare the vocabulary of two texts to see how much percentage was the same vocabulary and which vocabulary differed. Table 4.3 Sample of word list in frequency count Word Type A IS THE IT I AND ARE YOU WHAT THIS

Rank 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11

Frequency 6781 6476 5011 3516 3369 2702 2573 2266 1768 1735

Cumulative Percent 4.64 9.07 12.5 14.9 19.57 21.42 23.18 24.73 25.94 27.13

39 Table 4.3 (Cont.) Sample of word list in frequency count Word Type IN MY LISTEN SHE HE THEY TO CAN YOUR DO THAT YES SAY NO HAVE BOOK HELLO ON AN THERE GOOD AM LIKE EXERCISE AT HOW NEW TWO HAS ENGLISH WHERE WE WITH PLEASE LOOK TIME DATE

Rank 12 13 14 15 16 17 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Frequency 1727 1551 1243 1193 1186 1148 1145 1093 1008 994 985 972 949 933 922 898 751 725 707 701 618 616 557 556 555 551 545 540 534 511 486 468 456 455 452 428 427

Cumulative Percent 28.31 29.37 30.22 31.04 31.85 32.63 34.2 34.95 35.64 36.32 36.99 37.65 38.3 38.94 39.57 40.19 40.7 41.2 41.68 42.16 43.03 43.45 43.83 44.21 44.59 44.96 45.34 45.71 46.07 46.42 46.75 47.07 47.39 47.7 48.01 48.3 48.59

Range GSL can run only one text at one time and the output can be an alphabetical list, or a frequency ordered list. A list of 3,818 word types in frequency

40 rank resulted after running Range GSL by grouping same words and it showed the rank order of the words, their raw frequency and the cumulative percentage frequency (the percentage of appearing in all texts) as well. In the Table from FREQUENCY above, the word type “the” was the third most frequent word. It occurred 5011 times in the corpus, and along with “a” and “is” covered 12.5% of the text. On its own it covered 3.43% (12.5 minus 9.07) of the text. “A” was the first most frequent word by occurring 6781 times and it covered 4.64% of the text in the whole corpus. 4.1.4

Words lemmatization

With the help of a computer and the software Range GSL, it is easier to group and lemmatize words. By running Range GSL, same words in this corpus were grouped and ordered in frequency rank but different forms of same root words were still kept. Since the objective in the selection process was to focus on words that were high in semantic content or meaning, lemmatization was applied to this word list. To extract all base forms, it had to be lemmatized manually. Nouns, plural and possessive forms were grouped into uninflected head word entries. Which form of a word type appeared at a higher frequency, the form of the word was kept as original as it in the textbook to give a clear guidance of which word form is more frequent to teach or learn first. From the screened-out words, only those that occurred at least 23 times in the corpus of Grades 1-3 textbooks were selected for the candidate word list. Among the number the first 571 words were selected for the master word list (high frequency 500-word list) and the rest 154 words were used to prepare for the supplementary word list. Next, Range did not eliminate numbers or dates from the word list, but all proper nouns and numerals were identified by their parts of speech and deleted manually because statistical measures mechanically identify these words as technical

41 words (Scott, 1999) and “they are of high frequency in particular texts but not in others,…and they could not be sensibly pre-taught because their use in the text reveals their meaning” (Nation, 2001, 19–20). Due to the purposes of this study and the validating of the results if a word appeared fewer than 23 times in the corpus, it was deleted. Consequently, 725 words were found to have occurred at least more than 23 times (frequency). To obtain a 500-word list, the first 571 words were extracted, and the following 154 words from rank number 572 to 725 were prepared as a supplementary word list for validation. After the elimination of abbreviation, proper nouns, plural forms, present participle forms and third person singular forms, finally this process yielded a 571-word master list which the words occurred more than or equal to 33 times and 115 words were kept for supplementary word list which occurred more than or equal to 23 times. Table 4.4 displays the deleted proper nouns from the 571-word list and the supplementary 154-word list. Table 4.4 Deleted proper nouns Word Type TOM LISA JACK MARY SAM PIM ANN JIM ANNE BILL JANE PETER JOHN BOB TIM JOE PRATHOM KATE

Rank 86 179 183 204 219 229 277 282 302 319 321 424 481 514 522 550 570 590

Frequency 271 140 135 119 107 102 86 86 79 74 74 54 44 39 39 36 34 32

Cumulative Percent 56.91 69.18 69.55 71.35 72.49 73.2 76.3 76.6 77.73 78.63 78.74 83.1 84.99 85.93 86.14 86.85 87.33 87.77

42 Table 4.4 (Cont.) Deleted proper nouns Word Type TED DAVID PAM SUE SIMON DIGGER ANNIE MIKE NOI

Rank 636 643 651 665 678 687 706 720 722

Frequency 28 27 27 26 25 24 23 23 23

Cumulative Percent 88.72 88.85 89 89.26 89.48 89.63 89.94 90.16 90.19

Frequency 133 133 120 111 109 105 98 97 97 96 96 92 85 83 82 79 79 77 70 67 65 63 28 61 58 55 54 53

Cumulative Percent 69.64 69.73 71.18 72.05 72.2 72.71 74.02 74.16 74.55 74.62 74.68 75.26 76.89 77.35 77.51 77.79 77.9 78.38 79.38 79.94 80.16 80.64 88.68 81.11 81.92 82.76 83.21 83.28

Table 4.5 Deleted Plural forms Word Type BOOKS *FRIEND BIRDS *WORD BANANAS APPLES DOGS CATS PICTURES HANDS STUDENTS EYES LEGS TREES FLOWERS BOYS PENCILS ORANGES EARS THANKS GIRLS EGGS *SHOE MANGOES SOCKS NUMBERS YEARS DUCKS

Rank 184 185 202 213 215 222 241 243 249 250 251 260 287 295 298 303 305 314 334 346 351 362 634 373 393 415 427 429

43 Table 4.5 (Cont.) Deleted Plural forms Word Type Rank Frequency Cumulative Percent LETTERS 440 51 83.67 DAYS 451 48 84.04 KITES 489 43 85.23 *ANIMAL 492 42 85.31 PENS 510 40 85.82 RABBITS 529 38 86.32 PAGES 560 35 87.09 CARS 585 32 87.67 ARMS 599 31 87.97 CANDIES 612 30 88.24 SHIRTS 618 30 88.37 DOLLS 625 29 88.51 COWS 642 27 88.84 *GROUP 674 25 89.41 HATS 646 27 88.91 BAGS 666 25 89.27 PAPAYAS 676 25 89.44 *PET 677 25 89.46 BUSES 683 24 89.56 BEES 707 23 89.95 BOXES 710 23 90 CAPS 712 23 90.03 SISTERS 728 23 90.28 Note: * means both singular and plural forms were found in the corpus and the one that came at a higher frequency was kept and the other was deleted.

Table 4.6 Deleted gerunds Word Type DOING GOING PLAYING SWIMMING EATING READING SLEEPING SINGING COOKING WALKING DRINKING SHOPPING

Rank 118 178 254 306 312 325 434 497 533 556 565 619

Frequency 208 140 95 79 77 73 53 42 37 36 34 30

Cumulative Percent 62.01 69.08 74.88 77.95 78.27 78.94 83.46 85.46 86.43 87 87.21 88.39

44 Table 4.6 (Cont.) Deleted gerunds Word Type SITTING MISSING TALKING

Rank 635 694 701

Frequency 28 24 24

Cumulative Percent 88.7 89.74 89.86

Table 4.7 Deleted the third person singular forms Word Type LIKES SAYS WANTS GOES EATS HURT

Rank 237 369 426 508 558 661

Frequency 100 62 54 40 35 26

Cumulative Percent 73.75 80.94 83.17 85.76 87.05 89.18

Frequency 389 303 302 137 112

Cumulative Percent 50.58 55.33 55.54 69.46 71.9

Frequency 3461 1145 648 253 45 42 23

Cumulative Percent 17.27 33.42 42.6 57.8 84.65 85.43 90.24

Table 4.8 Deleted abbreviations from Word Type DON RE ISN DOESN AREN

Rank 57 78 79 182 211

Table 4.9 Deleted other word types Word Type S T M O E K P

4.1.5

Rank 5 18 33 91 470 496 725

List of 500 words with rank

Table 4.10 gives the results of the 500 most frequently used word types in the English textbooks of Grades 1-3.

45 Table 4.10 The He’s Most Frequent Word List Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51

Word A IS THE IT I AND ARE YOU WHAT THIS IN MY LISTEN SHE HE THEY TO CAN YOUR DO THAT YES SAY NO HAVE BOOK HELLO ON AN THERE GOOD AM LIKE EXERCISE AT HOW NEW TWO HAS ENGLISH WHERE WE WITH PLEASE LOOK TIME DATE WRITE ME NOT STUDENT

46 Table 4.10 (Cont.) The He’s Most Frequent Word List Rank 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102

Word NAME READ ONE CAT THESE GO EXPRESS PLAY FISH OF RED WANT DOG FOR MANY UNIT SCHOOL BIG THREE PENCIL OR MAY MORNING WORD CLOCK REPEAT PEN SING GREEN THANK CHAIR ORANGE BIRD BLUE OLD THOSE PICTURE TEN MAKE FOUR FIVE BOY POINT RUN TABLE UP YELLOW HOUSE MOTHER UNDER HAPPY

47 Table 4.10 (Cont.) The He’s Most Frequent Word List Rank 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153

Word HI MILK HERE PRACTICE APPLE SIX HIS SEE SEVEN WHITE DRAW BOX TEACHER LESSON LET SHORT TREE HER CAR EAT SMALL FRIEND PUT KITE PROJECT ACTIVITY WHO ROOM GIRL MAN AFTERNOON BALL SOME FATHER WALK THEN ICE BED DAY LANGUAGE TALL ANSWER DESK UMBRELLA RICE NUMBER BLACK GAME GOODBYE OH BAG

48 Table 4.10 (Cont.) The He’s Most Frequent Word List Rank 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204

Word FRUIT LONG COLOR BUS CIRCLE EIGHT HAT SISTER FOOD TEST FUN BROTHER NOW BROWN NINE FLY LITTLE SORRY EGG SIT COME ELEPHANT HOT NOSE WATER ABOUT HEAD MATCH SWIM RULER SONG HAND FAMILY DOLL RABBIT CREAM CLEAN JUMP SHOW BANANA EXCUSE FAT PIG EVENING FIND EYE FAN PARTNER WHOSE TWENTY COUNT

49 Table 4.10 (Cont.) The He’s Most Frequent Word List Rank 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255

Word FINE YEAR CAKE CHANT CLASSROOM DOWN FROM KITCHEN PINK ASK NURSE COLD DOOR HAIR OUR OUT TOO CAP TOUCH PAGE TALK CHICKEN GLASS VAN DRINK LEG RAT CUP EAR STAND SUNDAY MONDAY RIGHT TAKE MAP PAN ZOO MOUTH SENTENCES BREAKFAST GIVE HEN HOME REVIEW ANT DUCK HOSPITAL WINDOW FLOWER HORSE SATURDAY

50 Table 4.10 (Cont.) The He’s Most Frequent Word List Rank 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306

Word SUN WOMAN PARK WATCH BIRTHDAY USE SKILLS ZEBRA MANGO TELL TODAY DOCTOR FEELINGS GET NICE BAT BOAT CONVERSATION RING BREAD SHIRT THEIR TRUE THIN FALSE MONKEY NIGHT VOCABULARY ELEVEN MOUSE CLASS OX FOOT TWELVE ALL BEDROOM SHEEP SHOE THEM TUESDAY BANK FRIDAY CHOOSE LION SNAKE BICYCLE TICK ANY EVERY LIVING NOTEBOOK

51 Table 4.10 (Cont.) The He’s Most Frequent Word List Rank 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357

Word STUDY TRAIN BLACKBOARD CHILDREN DICTIONARY ERASER FILE THURSDAY VERY FARM LUNCH BIN FIFTEEN JUG OPEN RIDE ROBOT SHOP FOX SLEEP WEDNESDAY BIKE COOK FOOTBALL LEARN PURPLE STANDARD ARM BEAR HELP JUICE PAPER SOCK WELCOME BE NEAR QUESTION TIGER YOURSELF BACK BY BYE FEET IF LAMP MAT MOM MUCH RUNNING TELEPHONE LETTER

52 Table 4.10 (Cont.) The He’s Most Frequent Word List Rank 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408

Word MEET MOON SEA THING THIRTY TURN BELL DAD FRIED FRONT SKY COFFEE LOVE POST QUACK QUEEN COW TV WHEN GRANDMOTHER HUNGRY COMPUTER FROG THAI BEHIND FARMER GOT GRANDFATHER GUESS STOP CLOSE EXTRA FINGER NEXT PAIR PLAYGROUND SHOULD CHRISTMAS DURIAN KING LOT NECK POT DRESS EXAMPLE KNOW WEARING WORKSHEET GINGER PARTY PHONICS

53 Table 4.10 (Cont.) The He’s Most Frequent Word List Rank 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459

Word STORY THIRTEEN TOP WORK ANIMAL BATHROOM CHECK MORE MRS SANDWICH VASE WALL ALONG CLIMB TEETH WASH BODY CUT FAST TAPE BLOUSE CAGE MATH PIN RIBBON SUMMARY BASKET BROOM CANDY HURT PIZZA T-SHIRT WELL HOP MARKET MUSIC SHORTS SURE SWEET THINK ALOUD ALPHABET BRUSH HOMEWORK KEY PLATE ROLE SPOON BEACH GLUE GOAT

54 Table 4.10 (Cont.) The He’s Most Frequent Word List Rank 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500

Word GUN MONTH NOODLES RADIO SAD SO TRY YO-YO AROUND BABY BEAUTIFUL DINNER FAVOURITE GLASSES MR PLANE SKIRT TEMPLE THIRSTY BEE JAR SALAD SPEAKERS BUFFALO COMB EIGHTEEN FORTY HOORAY MISS WISH BUT CHAT FACE FIRST HALF LOCK MEAT NINETEEN OVER SPEAK TOY

After grouping and lemmatization, the final word list resulted. By the word selection criteria plus experiences from previous vocabulary research studies, 500 word types were ultimately obtained and formed the He’s Most Frequent Word List. Among the 500 words there are 150 function words and 350 content words. In the

55 HMFWL, the most frequently used word was A, which appeared 6781 times and covered 4.64% of the text in the whole corpus. 4.1.6

The word list validation

1. The validators After the 500 words were settled, it was necessary to have this word list validated and receive some feedback from English teaching experts at primary school level because they knew the textbooks, students’ abilities for learning vocabulary, and the curriculum for primary schools quite well. For the present study five validators were invited to validate the high frequency vocabulary. This method was chosen to make it sure that essential vocabulary was not excluded simply because it was rare in range and frequency. Finally a group of 5 validators were selected by their native language and more than two-year English teaching experience background. The five raters came from a good variety of languages including two EFL speakers - Thai, two ESL speakers – one Filipino and one South African and a native speaker. All of them were relatively experienced English teaching experts at primary school level. Table 4.11 Brief introduction of the validators Validators

1

2

Nationality

Filipino

Thai

Gender

Male English teacher

Male English teacher

3 South African Female English teacher

6 years

4 years

4 years

Position Teaching/Supervising experience in Thai schools

4

5

American

Thai

Male English teacher

Male Teacher Supervisor

3 years

10 years

2. Validation procedure The validators received a packet by mail, which included an official letter on the first page to introduce the researcher and then followed by an introduction of

56 the present study, a few questions to learn about raters and a validation form for validating the 500-word list that had been extracted from the original word list and 115-word list followed as supplementary list to substitute words which they think less frequent in master vocabulary list. If there was any uncertainty about any of the criteria-fulfilling words in the computer-screened-out candidate main list, five experienced EFL experts were consulted, as mentioned above, and they made the decision on whether the controversial words from the main list in question should be included in or excluded from the finalized word list and replaced with a substitute word from the supplementary 115-word list. 3. Results As Table 4.12 shows the validators provided the words they think need to be deleted from the HMFWL and it also reveals the percentage of agreement with the HMFWL.

All the reported percentages are beyond 90% and the highest is 100%

from the English native speaker.

The average of percentage of agreement is 97.76%.

Table 4.12 Results of the validation Validators

Percentage of agreement with the HMFWL

1

98%

2

98.2%

3 4

99% 100%

5

93.6%

Deleted words

behind buffalo express extra file ginger tape then tick try express ginger gun post project skills so standard summary blouse gun robot speakers vase about activity alphabet cage chant chat check conversation express extra file ginger guess language lot nice page partner phonics pizza practice project review role sentences skills speakers standard summary tick vocabulary wish

57 The supervisor gave the most advices, 32 words from the master word list should be deleted and 34 words from the supplementary word list were added. The native speaker simply agreed with the master word list except that he added a few more words “monk”, “pray”, and “wat”. These words needed to be learned for Thai particular culture, he explained. Other three English teachers also made some changes. Most of deleted words were instruction words, particularly the supervisor suggested such as “alphabet”, “chant”, “chat”, “check”, “conversation”, “express”, “file”, “practice”, “project”, “review”, “role”, “sentences”, “speaker”, “standard” and “tick”. Before the present study was started, it was discussed whether the instruction words should be included in the corpus or not and finally they were inputted due to the necessity of learning these words for Grades 1-3 students to be able to follow their teachers especially native speakers in doing class activities. When students were learning each unit including vocabulary and text, they had to read the instruction of every section and understand it. For this reason, every word appeared in textbooks was inputted in the corpus, so this is why we could see words like “skills”, “project”, “sentences” and so on. Table 4.13 Deleted words by validators Deleted words express ginger extra file gun project skills speakers standard summary tick

Number of

Number of

words

validators

2

3

9

2

29

1

about activity alphabet behind blouse buffalo cage chant chat check conversation guess language lot nice page partner phonics pizza practice review role sentences tape then try post robot so vase vocabulary wish

58 From Table 4.13 we can see very few words in common that validators agreed to delete from the HMFWL. Only two words “express” and “ginger” three validators agreed to delete and other nine words “extra”, “file”, “gun”, “project”, “skills”, “speakers”, “standard”, “summary” and “tick”, two validators agreed to delete them and the rest 29 of the deleted words only one validator mentioned to delete. For substitute words which were used to instead of the deleted words, most of them five experts chose were nouns and adjectives came second. For example, “butterfly”, “grass”, “papaya”, “toilet”, and “tooth” from nouns and “dirty”, together with “slow” out of adjectives were chosen by more than two experts. “Papaya” and “toilet” were used often in Thai daily life, so it would be reasonable to add them in the final 500-word list.

4.2 Research Question 2: Compared with other similar word lists, are there any differences between this 500 words list and the General Service List according to Baumann and Culligan (1995), the Oxford Word List or Dolch Basic 220 Word List for elementary learners? 4.2.1. Results from comparisons The objectives of the study were not only to extract the most frequent words but also to know if these words appear generally in three other popular similar level English word lists, at what frequency rank and at what grade level. To achieve this objective, the 500-word list was compared with three other word lists by both two methods - using software Range GSL and manually. Because the lists for comparison

59 are basically lists of high frequency words, a reasonable degree of similarity between the lists would be expected. For these reasons, three control vocabulary lists were used. As stated below, comparisons of the present study’s word list, to be referred to as He’s Most Frequent Word List or HMFWL from now onwards, with the General Service List (GSL), the Oxford Word List (OWL) and the Dolch Basic Word List (DBWL), it was obvious that percentage of overlap increased with decrease of size of word list and it was not surprising that there was a very high percentage of correlation between the Dolch Basic Word List and the HMFWL. This is probably due to the similarity at level between the two. Furthermore, the percentage of overlap of the OWL and the HMFWL were quite close because the sizes of the two lists were similar. a) The General Service List is a list created by Michael West (1953). In the present study three ready made base lists were applied. The first (BASEWRD1.txt) includes the most frequent 1,000 words of English. The second (BASEWRD2.txt) includes the 2nd 1,000 most frequent words, and the third (BASEWRD3.txt) includes words not in the first 2,000 words of English but for this study only the first two base lists were used for comparison. All of these base lists include the base forms of words and derived forms. The first 1,000 words thus consist of around 4,000 forms or types. The first thousand words of A General Service List of English Words are usually those in the list with a frequency higher than 332 occurrences per 5 million words, plus months, days of the week, numbers, titles (Mr, Mrs, Miss, Ms, Mister), and frequent greetings.

60 Table 4.14 Percentage of overlap

WORD LIST

TOKENS/%

TYPES/%

FAMILIES

BASEWRD1

313/62.6

313/62.6

278

BASEWRD2

124/24.8

124/24.8

120

not in the lists

63/12.6

63/12.6

63

Total

500

500

461

Compared with the GSL’s three base lists, it was apparent that the HMFWL was proved to be valid as shown in Table 4.14. The GSL extensively includes general vocabulary that is most frequently used at all levels, so it is possible and reasonable that there could be some differences between the GSL and the present study’s word list. The most words of HMFWL were found in the GSL’s base list one (BASEWRD1) and the percentage was 62.6%, followed by 24.8% in the GSL’s base list two (BASEWRD2), and 12.6% not in the GSL’s two base lists. Table 4.15 below shows the explanation of the results. Table 4.15 The findings of comparisons between the GSL’s two base lists and the 500-word list Number of words found in base list one = 313 or 62.6%

Number of words found in base list two = 124 or 24.8%

Number of words not found in the base lists = 63 or 12.6%

As shown above that 313 of the running words in the present study’s word list were found in base list one and these 313 words made up 62.6% of the total running

61 words from base list one. Similarly, in base list two 124 words overlapped in 500-word list which made up 24.8% of the total running words while 63 words and 12.6 percent, were not found in the two base lists. In total, 437 words or 87.4 percent, of the 500 words were found in the GSL - the 2,000 most common words in English, according to Michael West (Longman, London 1953). For being a specialized elementary corpus, the percentage of words not found in the GSL lists could be higher than 12.6 percent. However, 12.6 percent is strong evidence that the corpus is specialized. Table 4.18 reveals the 63 words which were not found in GSL’s two base word lists.

b) The Oxford Word List (BASEWRD2.txt) (Bianco, Scull & Ives, 2008) The 307 most frequently used words in young children’s writing and reading development. The research study was conducted in Australian schools in 2007 and this study is the first of its type in over 30 years. It has been presented as a resource freely available to all Australian educators since it was created.

Comparing with the GSL, the percentage of overlap with Oxford Word List and Dolch Basic Word List were higher because the GSL is a general word list not for a specific level while the other two word lists are at similar level with HMFWL. However, the OWL is a list of most frequently used words for young children’s writing and reading, that is to say, those words includes more formal words and less spoken words.

The OWL was provided as a contemporary wordlist of the most frequently used words by primary school students in their first three years of schooling. Consequently, it is undoubted that it had a 79.15 percent overlap with the HMFWL.

62 Table 4.16 Comparison between the HMFWL and the OWL

WORD LIST

TOKENS/%

OVERLAP PERCENTAGE

HMFWL

500

--

THE OWL

307

79.15%

(3) The Dolch Basic Word List (BASEWRD3.txt) is a list of 220 most frequently found words in books that children read. These words are usually learned in first and second grade; students who learn these words have a good base for beginning reading. A similar result occurred in the comparison of the master list HMFWL with the Dolch Basic Word List; there was an 80.91 percent overlap.

Table 4.17 Comparison between the HMFWL and the DBWL

WORD LIST

TOKENS/%

OVERLAP PERCENTAGE

HMFWL

500

--

THE DBWL

220

80.91%

4.2.2 The HMFWL words not found in the GSL Checked against three different lists of words - the GSL, the OWL, and the DBWL, a part of words that were not found in the HMFWL were identified shown in Tables 4.18 – 4.20. Each finding is presented as follows. 4.2.2.1 The HMFWL words not found in the GSL As stated before there were 12.6% words not found in the GSL. Table 4.18 gives a list of the words missing from the GSL.

63 Table 4.18 Words from the HMFWL not found in the GSL’s base lists.

ALPHABET

CHANT

JUG

ANT

CHAT

KITE

BANANA

CLASSROOM

LION

BAT

DOLL

MANGO

BATHROOM

DURIAN

MATH

BEACH

ERASER

NOODLES

BEE

FOX

NOTEBOOK

BIKE

FROG

OX

BIN

GINGER

PHONICS

BLACKBOARD

GLUE

PIZZA

BLOUSE

HEN

PLAYGROUND

BROOM

HOMEWORK

QUACK

BUFFALO

HOORAY

ROBOT

BYE

HOP

SALAD

CANDY

JAR

SANDWICH

SHORTS T-SHIRT THAI THIRSTY TICK TIGER TV VAN VASE VOCABULARY WORKSHEET YO-YO ZEBRA ZOO

Those words above are in alphabetical order and from this Table it can be seen that language has been developing with time because some of the 63 words not found in the General Service list are quite modern vocabulary. For example, “PIZZA”, “ROBOT” and “T-SHIRT” or “YO-YO”, these words might not be popular in 1950’s when study of the GSL was conducted. Words like “ANT”, “BANANA”, “DURIAN” and “MANGO” are especially needed to learn in Thai context due to their frequency of being seen in daily life.

64 4.2.2.2 The OWL words not found in the HMFWL Compared with the OWL, the overlapping words included most of common nouns and basic verbs while missed words mostly were adverbs and a few verbs as well as nouns. It is also reasonable that the 64 words listed above that are not found in the HMFWL because the OWL was concluded from students’ writing. For this reason, in the OWL more function words and more past tense words were found due to more compound sentences were used in writing while in the HMFWL corpus from textbooks, mostly simple sentences and simple present tense were employed. For example, like pronouns “EVERYONE” and “SOMEONE”; adverbs “AFTER”, “ALWAYS”, “EVER”, “JUST” and past tense “FINISHED”, “STARTED” and “STAYED”, these words were replaced by comparatively more general words in HMFWL such as “EVERY” and “SOME”. Table 4.19 gives a list of the words that were in the Oxford Word List but not found in the HMFWL. Table 4.19 Words from the Oxford Word List not found in the HMFWL AFTER

COUSIN

ICECREAM

ONCE

SCARED

UNTIL

AGAIN

DRAGON

INSIDE

ONLY

SCARY

UPON

ALSO

EVER

JUST

OTHER

SLIDE

WEEKEND

ALWAYS

EVERYONE

KILLED

OUTSIDE

SOCCER

WHY

ANOTHER

FAIRY

LAST

PEOPLE

SOMEONE

WILL

AS

FELL

LOST

PLACE

SOMETHING

WOKE

BECAUSE

FINISHED

MONSTER

POOL

STARTED

WON

BEST

FOOTY

MOVIE

PRESENT

STAYED

WORLD

BIT

FUNNY

NEED

PRINCESS

STILL

YESTERDAY

CALLED

GARDEN

OFF

RACE

TEAM

CASTLE

GREAT

OK

REALLY

TOGETHER

65 4.2.2.3 The DBWL words not found in the HMFWL Despite the fact that the Dolch Basic Word List was small and a satisfyingly high percentage of similarity between the HMFWL and it, there were still 42 words from the DBWL missing in the HMFWL. The Dolch Basic Word List was extensively compiled based on children’s books of Dolch’s era and the 220 most frequent words found in books that children read are made up of "service words" (primarily pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and verbs) and 95 common nouns. As shown in Table 4.20, 42 words from the 500 list were not found in the DBWL and no common nouns except for “light” appeared on it because all common nouns were overlapped and only those adjectives, adverbs and some verbs missed in the HMFWL such as “FULL”, “PRETTY”, “AFTER”, “AGAIN”, “BEST”, “ONLY”, “SOON” and “BUY” or “KEEP”. From Tables 4.19 and 4.20 it is obvious there are quite a few words overlapped like “AFTER”, “AGAIN”, “ALWAYS”, “AS” “BECAUSE” BEST “TOGETHER” “UPON” and “WHY”. The OWL is from students’ writing and the DBWL is from reading, therefore the words from both two word lists are written words at a similar level and more adverbs as well as conjunctions are used to express time and description. Table 4.20 Words from the DBWL not found in the HMFWL AFTER

BEST

FULL

LIGHT

PICK

TOGETHER

AGAIN

BETTER

GROW

MUST

PRETTY

UPON

ALWAYS

BOTH

INTO

MYSELF

PULL

US

AS

BRING

JUST

NEVER

ROUND

WARM

AWAY

BUY

KEEP

OFF

SHALL

WHICH

BECAUSE

CARRY

KIND

ONLY

SOON

WHY

BEFORE

FALL

LAUGH

OWN

START

WILL

66 After a step-by-step research procedure, the HMFWL was resulted and through word lists comparison the HMFWL was proved its reliability and consistency with similar word lists. For being consistent with previous well-known vocabulary studies, the HMFWL can serve as reference for an elementary English lexical syllabus. As the frequently and widely used vocabulary in Grades1-3 textbooks, the word types in the HMFWL are worth special attention in designing English learning materials for Grades 1-3 courses. The HMFWL can provide some guidelines concerning vocabulary in curriculum preparation, particularly in designing class activities and in selecting relevant teaching/learning materials.

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS AND APPLICATIONS

This chapter provides a conclusion of the present study, discusses its implications

and

applications,

points

out

some

limitations

and

makes

recommendations for further studies.

5.1 Conclusion The HMFWL, a 500-word list based on a corpus of 146,192 running words, has been compiled for the better learning and application of basic words at elementary level. The corpus was created from 501 units of 14 series of Grades 1-3 English textbooks which 128 primary schools out of 160 primary schools in Nakhon Ratchasima Educational Zone 1 were using. By using Software Range GSL the corpus was analyzed and calculated and then resulted in a list of 3,818 words with rank, frequency and cumulative percent. For the first purpose of the present study – obtaining the most frequent 500 words, the first 725 words were extracted in order to trim it to the final 500-word list through lemmatization. After deleting proper nouns, plural forms, gerunds, the third person singular forms and abbreviations, the most frequent 500 word types were gained. To achieve the second purpose of the present study the final 500-word list was compared with three other popular word lists: the General Service List, the Oxford Word List and the Dolch Basic Word List. It is satisfactory that the overlap

68 percentages of three results from comparisons are quite high enough to prove the present study’s list is valid and reliable. With the GSL, all 500 can be found overlapped in the GSL’s two base lists and the overlap percentages with the first and the second base lists respectively are 63%, 24.8% and 12%. From these findings we can see this 500-word list has a high overlap percentage of 88% with the first frequent 2000 words which are used often to comparing with other vocabulary studies as a reference. With the OWL, the overlap percentage is 79.15% and with the DBWL the overlap percentage is 80.91%. The overlap percentages with the OWL and the DBWL are higher than with the GSL is because the HMFWL, the OWL and the DBWL are all at elementary level. By developing a list of the frequently used elementary words at Grades 1-3, we hope to inspire enough attention of instructors and learners/users to this level of vocabulary. It would be of special significance for EFL/ESL students/instructors and course designers in learning or using elementary vocabulary. The findings of the present study are helpful for students, English teachers and primary schools in English learning and teaching as a second or foreign language. These findings also have practical implications for EFL vocabulary instruction. It showed that the most frequent vocabulary might be an efficient tool for EFL teachers who were bent on enhancing elementary English teaching especially for teaching the frequently used words to a beginning level (500–1,000 words). Also, in addition, the most frequent vocabulary could enable students to focus their attention more on specific vocabulary items and help them to master the words and enhance their vocabulary acquisition. The findings of this study corroborated previous research that the high-frequency words should be taught first and it is more effective for vocabulary

69 gains. This word list is the first list developed through corpus of different series of textbooks for the level of Grades 1-3.

5.2 Implications 5.2.1 Implications of vocabulary in English language learning Vocabulary size is a reflection of how educated, intelligent, or well read a person is (Nation & Waring, 1997). Vocabulary knowledge enables language use, language use enables the increase of vocabulary knowledge, knowledge of the world enables the increase of vocabulary knowledge and language use and so on (Nation, 1993b). With these cautions in mind let us now look at estimates of vocabulary size and their significance for second or foreign language learners. Learners see vocabulary as a very important part of language learning and teachers often use it to measure learners’ progress or lack of progress. By taking an informed, balanced and systematic approach to vocabulary teaching, teachers can help learners achieve better results with a clear word list. Nation (2002) stated that some language courses have a special vocabulary section while others deal with vocabulary as a part of listening, speaking, reading and writing. In both of these approaches to vocabulary there are important guidelines that should be put into practice and used to plan and monitor the learning of vocabulary in a language course. It is very important to know for teachers where your learners are in their vocabulary growth. One main reason for knowing this is because the teacher needs to take a very different approach to teaching high frequency vocabulary first from low frequency vocabulary. Useful vocabulary lists are based on frequency and range, the occurrence of a word across several subsections of a corpus (McIntosh, Halliday and Strevens, 1961). For ESL/EFL learners and

70 ESL/EFL teachers, the focus is that a small number of the words of English occur very frequently and if a learner knows these words, that learner will know a very large proportion of the running words in a written or spoken text. Most of these words are content words and knowing enough of them allows a good degree of comprehension of a text. According to West (1953), a vocabulary of 2,000 high frequency words provides 80% text coverage. These high frequency words cover about 80% of academic text and newspapers, about 87% of the words in novels, and over 90% of the running words in informal conversation. They are very useful, essential words in all uses of English. If learners do not know the most frequent 2,000 words, then these should be their first goal because the 2,000 high frequency words are so useful, each word deserves to be focused on. As stated by Cunningham and Stanovich (1997), research on children’s early vocabulary development is of utmost importance for three main reasons. First, research suggests that low vocabulary knowledge inhibits children’s learning process to read and hinders their comprehension of texts that they encounter later in school. Second, many children start learning English at basic level words from textbooks. To date there have been no known studies which have used objective means to extract or create a vocabulary of most frequent words for Grades 1-3 vocabulary development. In this study, 500 words were carefully selected from Grades 1-3 textbooks corpus using an objective method in order to create lists of Grades 1-3 which can be used by teachers of English in Thai primary schools. The problem for beginning learners and readers is getting to the threshold where they can start to learn from context. Simply put, if one does not know enough of the words on a page and have comprehension of what is being read, one cannot easily learn from context. At the earlier and

71 intermediate levels of language learning, simplified reading books can be of great benefit and textbooks are the main source of it. 5.2.2

Implications from the 500-word list study

As part of broad English educational reform, in the early nineteen-nineties, the education ministry invited EFL experts from the UK and the US to form the CRC (Curriculum Reform Committee, 2002). On behalf of the government, they recommended that English education should start as early as possible. Based on this recommendation, in 1995 the education ministry decided that an extra four years of English education were added starting from first grade, rather than fifth. This major curriculum change was implemented in 1996 for public schools that were ready willing and able to do so, with all schools given the deadline of 2002 for implementation. Teachers need to change to be able to implement the changes and a clear curriculum instruction is needed to help them. With these ideals, the Ministry of Education set out an ambitious plan for elementary school education, which controlled teaching methodology and thematic content of lessons. Table 18 shows the present elementary school English teaching plan in Thailand. Table 5.1 Thai elementary school education reform plan Grade

Skill focus

Pedagogic focus

Hrs/week

1 (second term)

Listening/speaking

TPR

2

2

Listening/speaking

TPR

2

3-4

4 skills

Theme-based

2

5-6

4 skills

Theme-based

5

Note: In private schools, students typically receive five hours per week of English instruction from Grade one.

72 For the first three grades, Grades 1-3 students are to be taught listening and speaking using total physical response (TPR). In the fourth year, students start to learn reading and writing through theme-based methods, as indicated in Table 5.1. To implement the plan and achieve the teaching goal, the basic vocabulary needs to be considered while teaching textbooks and designing materials. At the primary school level a research-based word list in curriculum instruction is not yet available, the 500-word list proposed by the present study is expected to contribute better teaching and learning. It can be used as a reference for teachers to teach their students proper words in graded classes, to make lesson plans or to design teaching materials and activities, and also as a clear guidance for students to learn step-by-step on their own. Through empirical results, this study contributes valuable information on vocabulary teaching and learning to EFL/ESL learners, teachers, and textbook and curriculum designers. 5.2.3

Implications from lists comparison

There are many lists of the most frequently occurring words in English and a few of the most well known are described here. The GSL is chosen in this study because: (1) similar size (numbers of words) and consideration of ESL/EFL in mind; (2) the best of the available word list: Although the GSL has been criticized for its size, age and need for revision, it still remains the best of the available list because of: (1) its information about frequency of meanings; (2) West’s careful application of criteria

other than frequency and range; (3) coverage from 78% to 92% (82% mean

coverage) of various kinds of written text; (4) its basis for many series of graded readers (Nation, 1993; 1997, Nation & Hwang, 1995; Nation & Waring, 1997; Coxhead, 2000; Nation, 2004). For these reasons, the GSL has been very popular in many years since it was created.

73 In common with GSL research, Bianco, Scull & Ives (2007) conducted an investigation in high frequency words by comparing the words used in students’ free writing samples collected from 1, 2 and 3 year olds in common usage in Australian schools in 2007. It is important to emphasize that the Oxford Wordlist differs fundamentally from many other lists in its collection methods. It is based on children’s usage, words they know orally and visually, rather than being derived from a study of words in children’s reading texts. The research also offers insight into patterns of culture across Australia, so changes in children’s lives are reflected in what children choose to say to the audiences to which they direct their written words. While the Dolch words are the 220 most frequently found words in books that children read. These words are usually learned in first, second and third grades; students who learn these words have a good base for beginning reading. One way of estimating a primary student reading level is by having the students identify the 220 Dolch Basic Words. The number of words recognized is the basis for assigning his/her equivalent reading level. The results of the present study clearly showed that the most frequent words from textbooks which are being used by the primary schools in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand, have high overlap percentages with the General Service List, the Oxford Word List and the Dolch Basic Word List. High-frequency words are the words that appear most often in printed materials. According to Robert Hillerich, "Just three words I, and, the account for ten percent of all words in printed English." The HMFWL covered around 62% of the first 1,000 high frequency words of the GSL and 24.6 percent and 1.39 percent occurred in second 1,000 and the third 1,000 words list. With the Oxford Word List and the Dolch Basic Word List, high overlap percentage

74 79.15% and 80.91% were obtained from the comparison. These results are in agreement with Nation (2001) that high frequency words or words in the GSL give 80% or more text coverage of most types of reading texts. Quite a few studies by Laufer (1989), Sutarsyah, Nation, and Kennedy (1994), and Worthington and Nation (1996) also yielded the same findings about the coverage of GSL words with different corpus. Moreover, the results in the present study showed that the textbooks for Grades 1-3 contained the most coverage by the GSL and that they were consistent with same level word lists. This agrees with Waring’s view (2001) that graded materials have an emphasis on comprehension in order to develop learners’ reading fluency and confidence so the vocabulary included in this kind of materials should be basic words (Nation & Hwang, 1995; Coady, 1997). Nation (2001) stated that the coverage by the GSL in graded books was around 85% of the running words. The findings from the present study that the 500 words in textbooks derived from a wide variety of sources accounted for around 88.09% of all the GSL words shows the importance of these words for Thai young learners at the elementary level. The Oxford Wordlist, the 307 most frequently used words, is the first of its type in over 30 years. It is an investigation of high frequency words in young children’s writing and reading development. This research documented the words children first write and the words children write should therefore be understood in the context of the complex and mutually reinforcing growth of children’s language: speaking, listening, reading and writing and their educational, social and personal worlds. The experiment data were collected from students of the first year, the second year and the third year. For this reason, the present study’s 500-word list was further verified. It is, therefore,

75 reasonable to conclude that theoretically the 500 words should be the priority for young second language or foreign language learners. 5.2.4

Pedagogical implications

Vocabulary building is an essential component to language learning. In an EFL context like Thailand, children may not have ample opportunities to learn considerable English vocabulary in a limited time at beginning and teachers cannot teach all level words at same time. As a result, a word list with frequency for teaching Grades 1-3 is imperative. Since exposure to most frequent words plays a very important role in children’s English learning, the teacher should apply a detailed word list with frequency to English teaching in order to achieve teaching goals more effectively. The main purpose behind the setting up of the HMFWL was to create a list of high frequency words for learners with elementary learning purposes, so that these words can be taught and directly studied in an effective way. The major theme of this research was that we needed to have clear sensible goals for vocabulary learning. Frequency information provides a rational basis for making sure that learners get the best return for their vocabulary learning effort and teachers achieve the best teaching goals for their instructions. Vocabulary frequency lists which take account of range have an important role to play in curriculum design and in setting learning goals. It does mean that course designers should have lists to refer to when they consider the vocabulary component of a language course, and teachers need to have reference lists to judge whether a particular word deserves attention or not, and whether a text is suitable for an elementary class. The present study’s 500-word list would certainly help EFL/ESL educators, especially those responsible for Grades 1-3 students in vocabulary learning.

76

5.3 Applications The HMFWL can be used for a variety of purposes. As has been mentioned before, teachers can use it in the classroom to help Grades 1-3 students build the foundational vocabulary they need to learn and teach the textbooks contents in an effective way. In conjunction with textbooks and curriculum instructions, teachers can point out the key vocabulary in context, design the teaching contents and guide the students to learn step-by-step. Teachers can also apply the list to measuring the students’ vocabulary performance and plan the monitoring learning and teaching progress. In conclusion, the results obtained from the study could be extremely useful for a teacher or a course designer who wishes to know what vocabulary is actually taught first to Grades 1-3 students and whether it is worth teaching prior to comparative low frequency words and suitable at this level. The results could also help a teacher or a school decide to retain or reselect the textbooks or redesign the teaching materials. In addition, the study of corpora of textbooks can show what vocabulary is being used in an English class at present. To make effective and efficient English teaching, there are many factors to be taken into account. This study was conducted with the purpose of contributing to the awareness of a teacher or a course designer or a school on vocabulary teaching and learning at level of Grades 1-3 when setting teaching goals, adopting textbooks or adapting teaching materials. If possible, the HFMWL needs to be rechecked in larger corpora or in other series of textbooks of other areas or countries even. It is positive that the availability of exercises and tests based on the HFMWL will promote effective and efficient teaching and learning of elementary vocabulary.

77

5.4 Limitations of the Study As this manual analysis is time-consuming, it limits the size of the corpus and the number of words in a limited time. Therefore, two limitations of the study should be highlightened. The first limitation concerns with the size of the research corpus. Though the corpus was collected from all textbooks used in all schools in Nakhon Rachasima Educational 1, it was still only one part of Thailand. Therefore, it may exist some differences between this word list and other word lists resulted from other areas or countries. Second, the manual analysis of the word lists. The lists comparisons between the present study’s word list and the Oxford word list or the Dolch basic word list were done manually. It took a long time to complete this process since the researcher needed to go through word by word and counted overlap words and analyzed the results. The Oxford word list includes 307 words and the Dolch basic word list is a list of only 220 words. The researcher needed to look through all these words and compare every word from both lists for overlap. If the comparing word lists are larger, the manual analysis would be time-consuming. Consequently, the manual analysis can limit the size of target objects for a research study with time constraint. When doing research in any field of knowledge, researchers find both advantages and disadvantages of the research tools or instruments they used. In this study, the analysis of word frequency was made easier by the use of a computer and concordancing software, Range GSL, to create a word list and analyze word lists. It was found that using the computer as well as the software was very helpful in the study since the occurrence of every word in the corpus could be counted with high speed and accuracy. However, the computer could not do every complicated task such

78 as grouping or lemmatizing words. In the study, a great deal of editing and counting was done by hand.

5.5 Suggestions for further research The present study is only a preliminary study on the elementary vocabulary used in Grades 1-3. Based on the outcomes of this present study, there are several suggestions for further research. First is a suggestion for further research has to do with the source and type of textbooks. The future research could be conducted more widely and deeply in area to see if the word list is still consistent. This corpus is obtained from Nakhon Ratchasima Educational Zone 1 in Thailand only and if future studies could deal with more schools in different provinces of Thailand or even different EFL/ESL contexts such as China or Japan, it would be interesting and attractive to see the further results and findings from wider range, more English textbooks or more English teaching materials. In connection with that, it would be interesting to study the correlation between this corpus with the future corpus. Another suggestion for research concerning the methodology deals with the selection of frequent words. The present study, for the most part, focused on frequency ranking words as being important. How would the list be different if the selection process of range and frequency were used synchronously? It would also be very interesting to see a comparison between words that are rare but rated essential, with words that have a high frequency but were rated unessential. Finally, from the present study, there is the possibility of further research studies that could be developed. First, future research could be conducted on word families, range or collocation analysis. With the tools available in the software Range,

79 researchers could study grouping words, compare a word in different subcorpora and the neighbors of the 500 words (words found next to or close to). From that analysis, lists of collocations could be compiled as a supplement as learners become more advanced in the language. Collocation analysis could be shown to aid the development of other materials. An additional project associated with the present study is to expand the word list to next period including Grades 4-6 or even junior level. If a word list for Grades 4-6 is also obtained, then a complete word list will be available for primary school level. The findings will be helpful for curriculum design and teaching plan. If a vocabulary list is further studied, the whole period of English vocabulary teaching for young learners will be well instructed and scheduled. World globalization has sparked a growing interest in the teaching of English as a foreign language (EFL) to young learners all over the world. This surge of interest in the teaching of English to young learners has led to growing research in the area day-to-day and also led to the publication of textbooks as well as teaching programs. At present there are all kinds of English textbooks on the market for schools and teachers to choose, therefore, it is a matter of great concern that which books are better to be chosen, how teaching materials need to be designed and what vocabulary should be taught at the beginning. This field is easily neglected and less attention is paid to teaching English at elementary period. In Thailand nowadays kids start to learn English earlier and earlier but in English curriculum a vocabulary list for Grades 1-3 has not been yielded yet according to the Ministry of Education (2001b). To improve this situation and fill the gap, the present study was conducted to identify a vocabulary list of most frequent words found in Grades 1-3 textbooks which are

80 helpful for EFL students’ learning. The result of the present study can be used as a reference resource or guidance to elementary teachers of English in Thailand. The HMFWL can help learners/instructors center on essential frequent words, providing learners with which words to learn first for more efficient learning outcomes and facilitating instructors’ setting of their vocabulary teaching goals in different stages. Well-timed and repeated exposure to the word types of the HMFWL in a variety of textbooks may significantly contribute to the acquisition of the deep-going properties of this important list of most frequent words. The HMFWL can also help teachers teach most frequent vocabulary in a more conscious and manageable way. The HMFWL provides a clear and direct access to the most frequently used elementary vocabulary for Grades 1-3 learners and enables them to gain vocabulary knowledge in an effective way by acquiring the most frequent vocabulary first.

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APPENDIX A แบบฟอรมกรอกขอมูลรายชือ่ หนังสือที่ใชสอนรายวิชาภาษาอังกฤษ สําหรับนักเรียนชั้นประถมศึกษาปที่ 1-6 1. โรงเรียน..................................................................................................................................... 2. ที่อยู............................................................................................................................................ 3. หัวหนาหมวด/กลุมสาระรายวิชาภาษาอังกฤษ ชื่อ ............................................................................................................................................................. 4. หมายเลขโทรศัพทติดตอ ............................................................................................................................................................. 5. รายชื่อหนังสือที่ใชสอนรายวิชาภาษาอังกฤษ 1. ระดับชั้นประถมศึกษาปที่ 1 รายชื่อหนังสือ................................................................................................................... ชื่อสํานักพิมพ.................................................................................................................... 2. ระดับชั้นประถมศึกษาปที่ 2 รายชื่อหนังสือ................................................................................................................... ชื่อสํานักพิมพ.................................................................................................................... 3. ระดับชั้นประถมศึกษาปที่ 3 รายชื่อหนังสือ................................................................................................................... ชื่อสํานักพิมพ.....................................................................................................................

98 4. ระดับชั้นประถมศึกษาปที่ 4 รายชื่อหนังสือ................................................................................................................... ชื่อสํานักพิมพ.................................................................................................................... 5. ระดับชั้นประถมศึกษาปที่ 5 รายชื่อหนังสือ................................................................................................................... ชื่อสํานักพิมพ.................................................................................................................... 6. ระดับชั้นประถมศึกษาปที่ 6 รายชื่อหนังสือ................................................................................................................... ชื่อสํานักพิมพ....................................................................................................................

6. ทานตองการทราบขอมูลผลการวิจัยหรือไม F ตองการ F ไมตองการ

99 Form for Textbooks Used for Teaching English Grades 1-6

1. School………………………………………………………………………………... 2. Address……………………………………………………………………………… 3. Chair of English Department ……………………………………………………... 4. Telephone Number………………………………………………………………………………… 5. Textbooks Used for Teaching English 1). Grade 1 Title :………………………………………………………………………… Publisher : ………………………………………………………………….. 2). Grade 2 Title :………………………………………………………………………… Publisher : ………………………………………………………………….. 3). Grade 3 Title :………………………………………………………………………… Publisher : ………………………………………………………………….. 4). Grade 4 Title :………………………………………………………………………… Publisher : ………………………………………………………………….. 5). Grade 5 Title :………………………………………………………………………… Publisher : …………………………………………………………………..

100 6). Grade 6 Title :………………………………………………………………………… Publisher : …………………………………………………………………..

6. Do you want to learn about the results of this research? F Yes F No

APPENDIX B Validating Form Background: This thesis is conducted to find out the first 500 words that appear most frequently in the textbooks for EFL young learners (Grades 1-3). The resulting word list was gained from computer software Range as attached. The corpus was obtained from all English textbooks which are used for Grades 1-3 in Nakhon Ratchasima Educational Zone 1 schools by using computer Software Range. This word list will be very helpful for teachers to teach what their students need to learn and for the students to learn what they need to know.

Instructions: Please validate the 500-word list and identify whether the words are appropriate for teaching Grades 1-3 students. If you find any inappropriate word, please delete it from the list and choose one from the following 100-word list to substitute it. Before you start, kindly give brief information about yourself as indicated. 1. Nationality : 2.

Gender

3.

Position :

4.



:



Male



Educational supervisor

Female



English teacher

Teaching/Supervising experience in Thai schools □ 2-5 years □ 6-10 years □ 11-15 years Your cooperation is highly appreciated.



(He Liping) MA (English Language Studies) student School of English Suranaree University of Technology Nakhon Ratchasima

(Dr. Sirinthorn Seepho) Thesis Advisor



Other

more than 15 years

APPENDIX C The GSL 1 69975 the 2 39175 be 3 36432 of 4 28872 and 5 26800 a 6 26190 to 7 21338 in 8 20033 he 9 12458 have 10 11247 it 11 10790 that 12 9495 for 13 8555 they 14 8516 I 15 7289 with 16 7254 as 17 6976 not 18 6742 on 19 6164 she 20 5377 at 21 5307 by 22 5146 this 23 4931 we 24 4695 you 25 4389 do 26 4383 but 27 4371 from 28 4204 or 29 3560 which 30 3480 one 31 3062 would 32 3002 all 33 2903 will 34 2851 there 35 2793 say

36 2678 who 37 2378 make 38 2333 when 39 2218 can 40 2203 more 41 2199 if 42 2149 no 43 2132 man 44 2099 out 45 2035 other 46 1986 so 47 1965 what 48 1940 time 49 1895 up 50 1849 go 51 1816 about 52 1794 than 53 1790 into 54 1782 could 55 1773 state 56 1751 only 57 1698 new 58 1673 year 59 1618 some 60 1586 take 61 1577 come 62 1575 these 63 1531 know 64 1520 see 65 1512 use 66 1488 get 67 1430 like 68 1377 then 69 1361 first 70 1348 any

71 1315 work 72 1314 now 73 1307 may 74 1303 such 75 1270 give 76 1239 over 77 1225 think 78 1203 most 79 1179 even 80 1086 find 81 1077 day 82 1070 also 83 1070 after 84 1036 way 85 1030 many 86 1022 must 87 1021 look 88 1018 before 89 1018 great 90 1017 back 91 987 through 92 957 long 93 949 where 94 937 much 95 915 should 96 906 well 97 905 people 98 903 down 99 895 own 100 889 just 101 883 because 102 879 good 103 878 each 104 864 those 105 853 feel

103 106 853 seem 107 849 how 108 847 high 109 835 too 110 835 place 111 833 little 112 832 world 113 797 very 114 792 still 115 789 nation 116 784 hand 117 780 old 118 774 life 119 771 tell 120 768 write 121 768 become 122 761 here 123 755 show 124 745 house 125 731 both 126 730 between 127 723 need 128 719 mean 129 711 call 130 710 develop 131 707 under 132 705 last 133 704 right 134 703 move 135 702 thing 136 700 general 137 697 school 138 697 never 139 690 same 140 690 another 141 681 begin 142 680 while 143 678 number 144 672 part 145 668 turn 146 664 real 147 662 leave

148 660 might 149 654 want 150 645 point 151 639 form 152 639 off 153 638 child 154 634 few 155 632 small 156 629 since 157 627 against 158 614 ask 159 611 late 160 611 home 161 605 interest 162 605 large 163 601 person 164 600 end 165 596 open 166 590 public 167 589 follow 168 588 during 169 584 present 170 583 without 171 580 again 172 577 hold 173 568 govern 174 567 around 175 565 possible 176 564 head 177 563 consider 178 560 word 179 560 program 180 560 problem 181 552 however 182 552 lead 183 548 system 184 546 set 185 539 order 186 539 eye 187 538 plan 188 534 run 189 534 keep

190 534 face 191 534 fact 192 534 group 193 533 play 194 531 stand 195 529 increase 196 529 early 197 528 course 198 527 change 199 523 help 200 522 line 201 521 city 202 513 put 203 511 close 204 506 case 205 504 force 206 501 meet 207 501 once 208 501 water 209 498 upon 210 496 war 211 496 build 212 496 hear 213 496 light 214 495 unite 215 493 live 216 492 every 217 491 country 218 490 bring 219 490 center 220 489 let 221 488 side 222 487 try 223 486 provide 224 484 continue 225 482 name 226 481 certain 227 480 power 228 479 pay 229 473 result 230 473 question 231 471 study

104 232 468 woman 233 464 member 234 463 until 235 461 far 236 460 night 237 458 always 238 458 service 239 458 away 240 457 report 241 454 something 242 453 company 243 452 week 244 451 church 245 451 toward 246 451 start 247 449 social 248 445 room 249 443 figure 250 441 nature 251 440 though 252 438 young 253 437 less 254 434 enough 255 433 almost 256 432 read 257 426 include 258 424 president 259 423 nothing 260 419 yet 261 418 better 262 417 big 263 413 boy 264 412 cost 265 412 business 266 411 value 267 409 second 268 407 why 269 406 clear 270 405 expect 271 405 family 272 401 complete

273 401 act 274 401 sense 275 400 mind 276 399 experience 277 396 art 278 395 next 279 395 near 280 394 direct 281 393 car 282 393 law 283 387 industry 284 386 important 285 381 girl 286 379 god 287 378 several 288 377 matter 289 376 usual 290 373 rather 291 371 per 292 369 often 293 369 kind 294 369 among 295 368 white 296 365 reason 297 365 action 298 364 return 299 364 foot 300 360 care 301 360 simple 302 359 within 303 358 love 304 358 human 305 355 along 306 353 appear 307 353 doctor 308 353 believe 309 352 speak 310 351 active 311 351 student 312 350 month 313 349 drive 314 348 concern

315 348 best 316 348 door 317 346 hope 318 345 example 319 345 inform 320 344 body 321 344 ever 322 343 least 323 343 probable 324 343 understand 325 342 reach 326 340 effect 327 339 different 328 337 idea 329 337 whole 330 335 control 331 333 condition 332 333 field 333 333 pass 334 333 fall 335 332 note 336 332 special 337 332 talk 338 331 particular 339 330 today 340 329 measure 341 328 walk 342 328 teach 343 327 low 344 327 hour 345 326 type 346 326 carry 347 324 rate 348 324 remain 349 324 full 350 323 street 351 323 easy 352 323 although 353 321 record 354 321 sit 355 320 determine 356 315 level

105 357 313 local 358 312 sure 359 312 receive 360 311 thus 361 309 moment 362 308 spirit 363 308 train 364 308 college 365 307 religion 366 307 perhaps 367 306 music 368 306 grow 369 305 free 370 304 cause 371 302 serve 372 302 age 373 302 book 374 302 board 375 302 recent 376 301 sound 377 301 office 378 300 cut 379 299 step 380 297 class 381 297 true 382 297 history 383 296 position 384 296 above 385 295 strong 386 294 friend 387 293 necessary 388 292 add 389 292 court 390 291 deal 391 290 tax 392 289 support 393 286 party 394 286 whether 395 285 either 396 285 land 397 285 material

398 285 happen 399 285 education 400 284 death 401 284 agree 402 283 arm 403 282 mother 404 282 across 405 281 quite 406 281 anything 407 281 town 408 281 past 409 281 view 410 281 society 411 280 manage 412 280 answer 413 280 break 414 279 organize 415 277 half 416 276 fire 417 276 lose 418 275 money 419 275 stop 420 275 actual 421 274 already 422 274 effort 423 273 wait 424 273 department 425 273 able 426 272 political 427 271 learn 428 271 voice 429 269 air 430 269 together 431 269 shall 432 269 cover 433 269 common 434 268 subject 435 266 draw 436 265 short 437 265 wife 438 265 treat 439 263 limit

440 262 road 441 262 letter 442 260 color 443 260 behind 444 258 produce 445 258 send 446 258 term 447 257 total 448 256 university 449 254 rise 450 254 century 451 253 success 452 253 minute 453 251 remember 454 250 purpose 455 250 test 456 248 fight 457 247 watch 458 247 situation 459 246 south 460 246 ago 461 245 difference 462 245 stage 463 244 father 464 243 table 465 242 rest 466 242 bear 467 240 entire 468 240 market 469 240 prepare 470 240 explain 471 239 offer 472 239 plant 473 238 charge 474 238 ground 475 238 west 476 237 picture 477 237 hard 478 234 front 479 233 lie 480 232 modern 481 231 dark

106 482 230 surface 483 230 rule 484 230 regard 485 229 dance 486 229 peace 487 227 observe 488 227 future 489 227 wall 490 225 farm 491 225 claim 492 225 firm 493 223 operation 494 223 further 495 223 pressure 496 222 property 497 222 morning 498 222 amount 499 221 top 500 221 outside 501 221 piece 502 221 sometimes 503 220 beauty 504 220 trade 505 220 fear 506 220 demand 507 220 wonder 508 219 list 509 219 accept 510 218 judge 511 218 paint 512 217 mile 513 217 soon 514 215 responsible 515 214 allow 516 214 secretary 517 214 heart 518 213 union 519 213 slow 520 213 island

521 213 enter 522 213 drink 523 212 story 524 211 experiment 525 211 stay 526 210 paper 527 210 space 528 210 apply 529 209 decide 530 208 share 531 207 desire 532 207 spend 533 207 sign 534 206 therefore 535 206 various 536 206 visit 537 205 supply 538 205 officer 539 205 doubt 540 204 private 541 204 immediate 542 204 wish 543 204 contain 544 204 feed 545 204 raise 546 204 describe 547 203 ready 548 203 horse 549 202 son 550 202 exist 551 202 north 552 201 suggest 553 200 station 554 200 effective 555 199 food 556 199 deep 557 198 wide 558 197 alone 559 196 character 560 195 english 561 196 happy 562 196 critic

563 195 unit 564 195 product 565 195 respect 566 195 drop 567 195 nor 568 195 fill 569 194 cold 570 193 represent 571 193 sudden 572 192 basic 573 192 kill 574 191 fine 575 191 trouble 576 191 mark 577 191 single 578 190 press 579 189 heavy 580 189 attempt 581 189 origin 582 189 standard 583 188 everything 584 188 committee 585 188 moral 586 187 black 587 186 red 588 186 bad 589 186 earth 590 185 accord 591 185 else 592 185 mere 593 184 die 594 184 remark 595 184 basis 596 184 except 597 183 equal 598 183 east 599 183 event 600 183 employ 601 183 defense 602 183 smile 603 183 river 604 183 improve

107 605 182 game 606 181 detail 607 181 account 608 181 cent 609 181 sort 610 180 reduce 611 180 club 612 180 buy 613 180 attention 614 180 ship 615 179 decision 616 178 wear 617 178 inside 618 178 win 619 178 suppose 620 178 ride 621 177 operate 622 177 realize 623 177 sale 624 177 choose 625 177 park 626 177 square 627 176 vote 628 176 price 629 176 district 630 175 dead 631 175 foreign 632 175 window 633 175 beyond 634 174 direction 635 174 strike 636 174 instead 637 173 trial 638 173 practice 639 173 catch 640 172 opportunity 641 172 likely 642 170 recognize 643 170 permit 644 170 serious

645 170 attack 646 170 floor 647 168 association 648 168 spring 649 167 lot 650 167 stock 651 167 lack 652 167 hair 653 167 science 654 166 relation 655 166 profession 656 166 pattern 657 165 quick 658 164 medical 659 165 influence 660 165 occasion 661 165 machine 662 164 compare 663 163 husband 664 163 blue 665 163 international 666 162 fair 667 162 especially 668 162 indeed 669 162 imagine 670 162 surprise 671 162 average 672 161 official 673 161 temperature 674 161 difficult 675 160 sing 676 160 hit 677 160 tree 678 160 race 679 160 police 680 160 touch 681 159 relative 682 159 throw 683 159 quality 684 159 former

685 158 pull 686 157 chance 687 157 prove 688 157 argue 689 157 settle 690 156 growth 691 156 date 692 156 heat 693 155 save 694 155 performance 695 155 count 696 155 production 697 154 listen 698 152 main 699 154 pick 700 154 size 701 152 cool 702 152 army 703 152 patient 704 151 combine 705 151 summer 706 151 hall 707 151 slight 708 151 command 709 151 enjoy 710 151 length 711 150 proper 712 150 express 713 150 health 714 150 chief 715 149 evening 716 149 store 717 149 language 718 148 degree 719 148 lay 720 147 current 721 147 gun 722 147 dog 723 147 hotel 724 147 strange 725 147 separate 726 146 boat

108 727 146 fail 728 146 clean 729 146 dress 730 146 anyone 731 146 gain 732 146 pain 733 145 object 734 145 knowledge 735 145 depend 736 145 relate 737 145 below 738 144 dollar 739 144 advance 740 144 shape 741 144 arrange 742 144 population 743 144 yes 744 144 sell 745 144 mention 746 144 dry 747 144 check 748 144 poet 749 143 sleep 750 143 join 751 143 hot 752 143 bed 753 143 electric 754 143 dream 755 142 due 756 142 season 757 142 manner 758 142 fit 759 142 left 760 141 progress 761 141 neither 762 141 strength 763 140 notice 764 140 finish 765 140 opinion 766 140 bill

767 140 western 768 140 truth 769 138 wrong 770 138 travel 771 138 suit 772 137 bank 773 137 exact 774 137 honor 775 137 brother 776 136 quiet 777 136 marry 778 136 corner 779 135 handle 780 135 danger 781 135 hospital 782 135 pool 783 135 promise 784 135 blood 785 135 shoot 786 135 scene 787 134 literature 788 134 arrive 789 134 film 790 133 base 791 133 freedom 792 133 bar 793 133 maybe 794 133 hang 795 133 suffer 796 133 manufacture 797 132 frequent 798 132 rock 799 132 loss 800 131 burn 801 131 sun 802 131 audience 803 130 essential 804 130 glass 805 130 prevent 806 130 poem 807 130 poor

808 130 inch 809 129 song 810 129 skill 811 129 post 812 129 popular 813 129 radio 814 129 animal 815 128 conscious 816 128 worth 817 128 eat 818 128 election 819 128 faith 820 128 wave 821 128 murder 822 128 model 823 128 forget 824 127 extend 825 127 edge 826 127 distance 827 127 memory 828 127 recommend 829 126 division 830 126 staff 831 126 leg 832 126 discussion 833 126 address 834 126 fly 835 125 dependent 836 125 ball 837 125 shake 838 125 frame 839 125 extreme 840 124 engineer 841 124 thick 842 124 comfort 843 124 latter 844 124 camp 845 124 oil 846 124 discover 847 124 examine 848 123 difficulty 849 123 tooth

109 850 123 middle 851 123 choice 852 123 refer 853 123 enemy 854 123 practical 855 122 marriage 856 122 bridge 857 122 declare 858 122 lady 859 122 cross 860 122 daily 861 122 afternoon 862 121 attend 863 121 director 864 121 balance 865 121 wash 866 121 capital 867 120 speed 868 120 block 869 120 citizen 870 119 mouth 871 119 hill 872 118 green 873 118 please 874 118 motor 875 118 agency 876 118 encourage 877 118 governor 878 117 worry 879 117 affair 880 117 shoulder 881 117 bright 882 116 mass 883 116 sample 884 116 pretty 885 116 repeat 886 115 roll 887 115 push 888 115 trip 889 115 council

890 115 clothe 891 115 parent 892 115 forward 893 114 sharp 894 114 straight 895 113 gas 896 113 weight 897 113 discuss 898 113 fix 899 113 load 900 112 master 901 112 whatever 902 112 round 903 112 rapid 904 112 laugh 905 111 finger 906 111 spot 907 110 propose 908 110 shop 909 110 broad 910 110 replace 911 110 reply 912 110 extent 913 109 lock 914 109 employee 915 109 ahead 916 109 sight 917 109 spread 918 109 wind 919 109 approve 920 109 destroy 921 108 none 922 108 pound 923 108 fame 924 108 importance 925 107 reflect 926 107 advantage 927 107 match 928 107 regular 929 107 wage 930 107 refuse 931 107 existence

932 106 hardly 933 106 perform 934 106 title 935 105 tend 936 105 exercise 937 105 thin 938 105 coat 939 105 bit 940 105 mountain 941 105 youth 942 104 behavior 943 104 newspaper 944 104 secret 945 104 ability 946 104 sea 947 104 soft 948 104 justice 949 104 reasonable 950 104 circle 951 104 solid 952 104 page 953 103 weapon 954 103 fast 955 103 representative 956 103 search 957 103 pure 958 103 escape 959 102 crowd 960 102 stick 961 101 telephone 962 101 avoid 963 101 garden 964 101 favor 965 101 news 966 101 unless 967 100 dinner 968 100 someone 969 100 signal 970 100 yard 971 100 ideal 972 100 warm 973 100 miss

110 974 100 shelter 975 100 soldier 976 99 article 977 99 cry 978 99 captain 979 99 familiar 980 99 seat 981 99 guest 982 98 weak 983 98 excite 984 98 king 985 98 everyone 986 98 wine 987 97 hole 988 97 duty 989 97 beat 990 97 perfect 991 97 bottom 992 97 compose 993 97 battle 994 97 expense 995 97 cattle 996 96 flow 997 95 kitchen 998 95 dust 999 95 bottle 1000 94 admit 1001 94 tear 1002 94 tire 1003 94 expression 1004 93 exception 1005 93 application 1006 93 belong 1007 93 rich 1008 93 failure 1009 93 struggle 1010 93 instrument 1011 93 variety

1012 93 narrow 1013 92 theater 1014 92 collection 1015 92 rain 1016 92 review 1017 92 preserve 1018 92 leadership 1019 91 clay 1020 91 daughter 1021 91 fellow 1022 91 swing 1023 91 thank 1024 90 library 1025 90 fat 1026 90 reserve 1027 89 tour 1028 89 nice 1029 89 warn 1030 89 ring 1031 89 bitter 1032 89 chair 1033 89 yesterday 1034 89 scientific 1035 88 flower 1036 88 wheel 1037 88 solution 1038 88 aim 1039 88 gather 1040 88 invite 1041 88 moreover 1042 88 fresh 1043 88 forest 1044 87 winter 1045 87 box 1046 87 belief 1047 87 ordinary 1048 87 impossible 1049 87 print 1050 87 gray 1051 87 taste 1052 87 lip 1053 87 speech

1054 87 reference 1055 86 stain 1056 86 connection 1057 86 otherwise 1058 86 stretch 1059 86 knife 1060 86 village 1061 86 blow 1062 85 mistake 1063 85 sweet 1064 85 shout 1065 85 divide 1066 85 guard 1067 85 worse 1068 85 exchange 1069 85 rare 1070 84 commercial 1071 84 request 1072 84 appoint 1073 84 agent 1074 83 dependence 1075 83 bird 1076 83 wild 1077 83 motion 1078 83 guess 1079 83 neighbor 1080 82 seed 1081 82 fashion 1082 82 loan 1083 82 correct 1084 81 plain 1085 81 mail 1086 81 retire 1087 81 opposite 1088 81 prefer 1089 81 safe 1090 81 evil 1091 81 double 1092 81 wood 1093 80 empty 1094 80 baby 1095 80 advise

111 1096 80 content 1097 80 sport 1098 80 lift 1099 80 literary 1100 80 curious 1101 80 tie 1102 80 flat 1103 80 message 1104 80 neck 1105 79 hate 1106 79 dirt 1107 79 delight 1108 79 trust 1109 79 nobody 1110 79 valley 1111 79 tool 1112 78 presence 1113 78 cook 1114 78 railroad 1115 78 minister 1116 78 coffee 1117 78 brush 1118 78 beside 1119 78 collect 1120 77 guide 1121 77 luck 1122 77 profit 1123 77 lord 1124 77 everybody 1125 77 prison 1126 77 cloud 1127 77 slave 1128 77 chairman 1129 76 soil 1130 76 distinguish 1131 76 introduce 1132 76 urge 1133 76 blind 1134 75 arise

1135 75 upper 1136 75 curve 1137 75 membership 1138 75 key 1139 75 entertain 1140 75 soul 1141 75 neighborhood 1142 74 friendly 1143 74 pair 1144 74 stone 1145 74 lean 1146 74 protect 1147 74 advertise 1148 74 mystery 1149 73 welcome 1150 73 knee 1151 73 jump 1152 73 snake 1153 73 stream 1154 73 avenue 1155 73 brown 1156 73 disease 1157 73 hat 1158 73 excellent 1159 72 formal 1160 72 snow 1161 72 sheet 1162 72 somehow 1163 72 unity 1164 72 sky 1165 72 rough 1166 72 smooth 1167 72 weather 1168 72 steady 1169 72 threaten 1170 72 depth 1171 71 oppose 1172 71 deliver 1173 71 ancient 1174 71 pray

1175 71 adopt 1176 71 birth 1177 71 appearance 1178 71 universe 1179 71 busy 1180 71 hurry 1181 71 coast 1182 71 forth 1183 70 smell 1184 70 furnish 1185 70 female 1186 70 hide 1187 70 wire 1188 70 proposal 1189 70 ought 1190 70 victory 1191 69 quarter 1192 69 engine 1193 69 customer 1194 69 waste 1195 69 fool 1196 69 intend 1197 69 intention 1198 69 desk 1199 69 politics 1200 69 passage 1201 69 lawyer 1202 68 root 1203 68 climb 1204 68 metal 1205 68 gradual 1206 68 hunt 1207 68 protection 1208 68 satisfy 1209 68 roof 1210 68 branch 1211 68 pleasure 1212 68 witness 1213 68 loose 1214 67 nose 1215 67 mine 1216 67 band

112 1217 67 aside 1218 67 risk 1219 67 tomorrow 1220 67 remind 1221 67 ear 1222 67 fish 1223 67 shore 1224 66 operator 1225 66 civilize 1226 66 being 1227 66 silent 1228 66 screen 1229 66 bind 1230 66 earn 1231 66 pack 1232 66 colony 1233 66 besides 1234 66 slip 1235 66 cousin 1236 66 scale 1237 66 relief 1238 66 explore 1239 66 stem 1240 65 brain 1241 65 musician 1242 65 defend 1243 65 bend 1244 65 somebody 1245 65 shadow 1246 64 mix 1247 64 smoke 1248 64 description 1249 64 fruit 1250 64 guilt 1251 64 yield 1252 64 sensitive 1253 64 salt 1254 64 pale 1255 64 sweep

1256 64 completion 1257 64 throat 1258 64 agriculture 1259 64 admire 1260 63 gentle 1261 63 dozen 1262 63 particle 1263 63 pleasant 1264 63 bay 1265 63 cup 1266 63 competition 1267 63 moon 1268 63 terrible 1269 63 strip 1270 63 mechanic 1271 63 shock 1272 63 conversation 1273 63 angle 1274 62 tall 1275 62 plenty 1276 62 star 1277 62 yellow 1278 62 sick 1279 62 thorough 1280 62 absolute 1281 62 succeed 1282 61 surround 1283 61 proud 1284 61 dear 1285 61 card 1286 61 lake 1287 61 breath 1288 61 afraid 1289 61 silence 1290 61 onto 1291 60 shoe 1292 60 somewhere 1293 60 chain 1294 60 slide 1295 60 copy

1296 60 machinery 1297 60 wake 1298 60 severe 1299 60 pocket 1300 60 bone 1301 59 honest 1302 59 freeze 1303 59 dictionary 1304 59 calm 1305 59 swim 1306 59 ice 1307 59 male 1308 59 skin 1309 59 crack 1310 59 rush 1311 59 wet 1312 58 meat 1313 58 commerce 1314 58 joint 1315 58 gift 1316 58 host 1317 58 suspect 1318 58 path 1319 58 uncle 1320 58 afford 1321 58 instant 1322 58 satisfactory 1323 58 height 1324 58 track 1325 58 confidence 1326 58 grass 1327 57 suggestion 1328 57 favorite 1329 57 breakfast 1330 57 apart 1331 57 chest 1332 57 entrance 1333 57 march 1334 57 sink 1335 57 northern 1336 57 iron 1337 57 alive

113 1338 57 ill 1339 57 bag 1340 57 disturb 1341 57 native 1342 57 bedroom 1343 57 violent 1344 57 beneath 1345 57 pause 1346 57 tough 1347 56 substance 1348 56 threat 1349 56 charm 1350 56 absence 1351 56 factory 1352 56 spite 1353 56 meal 1354 56 universal 1355 56 accident 1356 56 highway 1357 56 sentence 1358 56 liberty 1359 55 wise 1360 55 noise 1361 55 discovery 1362 55 tube 1363 55 flash 1364 55 twist 1365 55 fence 1366 55 childhood 1367 55 joy 1368 55 sister 1369 54 sad 1370 54 efficiency 1371 54 disappear 1372 54 defeat 1373 54 extensive

1374 54 rent 1375 54 comparison 1376 54 possess 1377 54 grace 1378 54 flesh 1379 54 liquid 1380 54 scientist 1381 54 ease 1382 53 heaven 1383 53 milk 1384 53 sympathy 1385 53 rank 1386 53 restaurant 1387 53 frequency 1388 53 angry 1389 53 shade 1390 53 accuse 1391 53 necessity 1392 53 knock 1393 53 loud 1394 53 permanent 1395 53 row 1396 53 lovely 1397 53 confuse 1398 52 gold 1399 52 frighten 1400 52 solve 1401 52 grave 1402 52 salary 1403 52 photograph 1404 52 advice 1405 52 abroad 1406 51 wound 1407 51 virtue 1408 51 dare 1409 51 queen 1410 51 extra 1411 51 attract 1412 50 numerous 1413 50 pink 1414 50 gate

1415 50 expensive 1416 50 shut 1417 50 chicken 1418 50 forgive 1419 50 holy 1420 50 wooden 1421 49 prompt 1422 49 crime 1423 49 sorry 1424 49 republic 1425 49 anger 1426 49 visitor 1427 49 pile 1428 49 violence 1429 49 steel 1430 49 wing 1431 49 stair 1432 49 partner 1433 49 delay 1434 49 gentleman 1435 48 pour 1436 48 confusion 1437 48 damage 1438 48 kick 1439 48 safety 1440 48 burst 1441 48 network 1442 48 resistance 1443 48 screw 1444 48 pride 1445 48 till 1446 47 hire 1447 47 verb 1448 47 preach 1449 47 clerk 1450 47 everywhere 1451 47 anyway 1452 47 fan 1453 47 connect 1454 47 egg 1455 47 efficient 1456 47 grain

114 1457 46 calculate 1458 46 drag 1459 46 opposition 1460 46 worship 1461 46 arrest 1462 46 discipline 1463 46 string 1464 46 harbor 1465 46 camera 1466 46 mechanism 1467 46 cow 1468 46 grand 1469 46 funny 1470 46 insurance 1471 46 reduction 1472 46 strict 1473 46 lesson 1474 46 tight 1475 45 sand 1476 45 plate 1477 45 qualify 1478 45 elsewhere 1479 45 mad 1480 45 interference 1481 45 pupil 1482 45 fold 1483 45 royal 1484 45 valuable 1485 45 whisper 1486 45 anybody 1487 45 hurt 1488 45 excess 1489 44 quantity 1490 44 fun 1491 44 mud

1492 44 extension 1493 44 recognition 1494 44 kiss 1495 44 crop 1496 44 sail 1497 44 attractive 1498 44 habit 1499 44 relieve 1500 44 wisdom 1501 44 persuade 1502 43 certainty 1503 43 cloth 1504 43 eager 1505 43 deserve 1506 43 sympathetic 1507 43 cure 1508 43 trap 1509 43 puzzle 1510 43 powder 1511 43 raw 1512 43 mankind 1513 43 glad 1514 43 blame 1515 43 whenever 1516 43 anxiety 1517 42 bus 1518 42 tremble 1519 42 sacred 1520 42 fortunate 1521 42 glory 1522 42 golden 1523 42 neat 1524 42 weekend 1525 42 treasury 1526 42 overcome 1527 42 cat 1528 42 sacrifice 1529 42 complain 1530 42 elect 1531 41 roar 1532 41 sake

1533 41 temple 1534 41 self 1535 41 compete 1536 41 nurse 1537 41 stuff 1538 41 stomach 1539 41 peculiar 1540 41 repair 1541 41 storm 1542 41 ton 1543 41 desert 1544 41 allowance 1545 41 servant 1546 41 hunger 1547 41 conscience 1548 41 bread 1549 41 crash 1550 40 tip 1551 40 strengthen 1552 40 proof 1553 40 generous 1554 40 sir 1555 40 tonight 1556 40 whip 1557 40 tongue 1558 40 mill 1559 40 merchant 1560 40 coal 1561 40 ruin 1562 40 introduction 1563 40 courage 1564 40 actor 1565 40 belt 1566 39 stir 1567 39 package 1568 39 punish 1569 39 reflection 1570 39 breathe 1571 39 anywhere 1572 39 amuse 1573 39 dull 1574 39 fate

115 1575 39 net 1576 39 fellowship 1577 39 fault 1578 39 furniture 1579 39 beam 1580 39 pencil 1581 39 border 1582 39 disappoint 1583 38 flame 1584 38 joke 1585 38 bless 1586 38 corn 1587 38 shell 1588 38 tempt 1589 38 supper 1590 38 destruction 1591 38 dive 1592 38 anxious 1593 38 shine 1594 38 cheap 1595 38 dish 1596 38 distant 1597 38 greet 1598 37 flood 1599 37 excuse 1600 37 insect 1601 37 ocean 1602 37 ceremony 1603 37 decrease 1604 37 prize 1605 37 harm 1606 37 insure 1607 37 verse 1608 37 pot 1609 37 sincere 1610 36 cotton 1611 36 leaf 1612 36 rub

1613 36 medicine 1614 36 stroke 1615 36 bite 1616 36 lung 1617 36 lonely 1618 36 admission 1619 36 stupid 1620 36 scratch 1621 36 composition 1622 36 broadcast 1623 36 drum 1624 36 resist 1625 36 neglect 1626 35 absent 1627 35 passenger 1628 35 adventure 1629 35 beg 1630 35 pipe 1631 35 beard 1632 35 bold 1633 35 meanwhile 1634 35 devil 1635 35 cheer 1636 35 nut 1637 35 split 1638 35 melt 1639 35 swear 1640 35 sugar 1641 35 bury 1642 35 wipe 1643 35 faint 1644 35 creature 1645 35 tail 1646 35 wealth 1647 34 earnest 1648 34 translate 1649 34 suspicion 1650 34 noble 1651 34 inquiry 1652 34 journey 1653 34 hesitate

1654 34 extraordinary 1655 34 borrow 1656 34 owe 1657 34 funeral 1658 34 ambition 1659 34 mixture 1660 34 slope 1661 34 criminal 1662 34 seldom 1663 34 map 1664 34 spin 1665 34 praise 1666 34 spare 1667 33 plow 1668 33 telegraph 1669 33 barrel 1670 33 straighten 1671 33 scarce 1672 33 lunch 1673 33 slavery 1674 33 creep 1675 33 sweat 1676 33 gay 1677 33 stiff 1678 33 brave 1679 33 seize 1680 33 convenient 1681 33 horizon 1682 33 moderate 1683 33 complicate 1684 33 dig 1685 33 curse 1686 33 weigh 1687 33 priest 1688 33 excessive 1689 33 quarrel 1690 32 widow 1691 32 modest 1692 32 dine 1693 32 politician 1694 32 custom 1695 32 educate

116 1696 32 salesman 1697 32 nail 1698 32 tap 1699 32 eastern 1700 32 possession 1701 32 satisfaction 1702 32 behave 1703 32 mercy 1704 31 scatter 1705 31 objection 1706 31 silver 1707 31 tent 1708 31 saddle 1709 31 wrap 1710 31 nest 1711 31 grind 1712 31 spell 1713 31 plaster 1714 31 arch 1715 31 swell 1716 31 friendship 1717 31 bath 1718 30 bundle 1719 30 grateful 1720 30 crown 1721 30 boundary 1722 30 nowhere 1723 30 asleep 1724 30 clock 1725 30 boil 1726 30 altogether 1727 30 lend 1728 30 holiday 1729 30 precious 1730 30 wander 1731 30 ugly 1732 30

reputation 1733 30 ticket 1734 30 pretend 1735 30 dismiss 1736 30 delicate 1737 29 despair 1738 29 awake 1739 29 tea 1740 29 FALSE 1741 29 fortune 1742 29 cap 1743 29 thread 1744 29 haste 1745 29 bare 1746 29 shirt 1747 29 bargain 1748 28 leather 1749 28 rail 1750 28 butter 1751 28 dot 1752 28 inquire 1753 28 warmth 1754 28 decisive 1755 28 vessel 1756 28 pity 1757 28 steam 1758 28 pin 1759 28 bound 1760 28 companion 1761 28 toe 1762 28 reward 1763 28 forbid 1764 28 wherever 1765 28 tower 1766 27 bathe 1767 27 lodge 1768 27 swallow 1769 27 multiply 1770 27 bow 1771 27 kingdom 1772 27 garage 1773 27 permission

1774 27 pump 1775 27 prevention 1776 27 urgent 1777 27 aunt 1778 27 zero 1779 27 idle 1780 27 fever 1781 27 christmas 1782 27 regret 1783 26 jaw 1784 26 soap 1785 26 pronounce 1786 26 empire 1787 26 bowl 1788 26 outline 1789 26 organ 1790 26 imitation 1791 26 caution 1792 26 mineral 1793 26 disagree 1794 26 blade 1795 26 trick 1796 26 treasure 1797 26 immense 1798 25 convenience 1799 25 disapprove 1800 25 destructive 1801 25 fork 1802 25 noon 1803 25 ownership 1804 25 tune 1805 25 polish 1806 25 poison 1807 25 shame 1808 25 loyalty 1809 25 cottage 1810 25 astonish 1811 25 shave 1812 25 feather 1813 25 sauce 1814 25 lid 1815 25 debt

117 1816 25 fade 1817 25 confess 1818 25 classification 1819 24 descend 1820 24 cape 1821 24 mild 1822 24 clever 1823 24 envelope 1824 24 invention 1825 24 sheep 1826 24 splendid 1827 24 stamp 1828 24 float 1829 24 brick 1830 24 rice 1831 24 businessman 1832 24 backward 1833 24 qualification 1834 24 artificial 1835 24 attraction 1836 24 lamp 1837 24 curl 1838 23 shower 1839 23 elder 1840 23 bunch 1841 23 bell 1842 23 steer 1843 23 flavor 1844 23 spit 1845 23 rob 1846 23 cream 1847 23 interrupt 1848 23 pen 1849 23 weave 1850 23 orange 1851 23 rescue

1852 23 crush 1853 23 humble 1854 23 fancy 1855 23 decay 1856 23 polite 1857 23 tribe 1858 22 bleed 1859 22 coin 1860 22 fond 1861 22 autumn 1862 22 classify 1863 22 omit 1864 22 loyal 1865 22 needle 1866 22 lessen 1867 22 complaint 1868 22 pad 1869 22 steep 1870 22 skirt 1871 22 curtain 1872 22 calculation 1873 22 laughter 1874 22 solemn 1875 22 grease 1876 22 interfere 1877 22 explode 1878 22 fasten 1879 21 flag 1880 21 resign 1881 21 postpone 1882 21 patience 1883 21 boast 1884 21 rope 1885 21 envy 1886 21 airplane 1887 21 rid 1888 21 shield 1889 21 veil 1890 21 kneel 1891 21 tray 1892 21 explosive 1893 21 brass

1894 21 taxi 1895 21 wax 1896 21 duck 1897 21 button 1898 21 invent 1899 20 remedy 1900 20 bush 1901 20 thunder 1902 20 weaken 1903 20 poverty 1904 20 scrape 1905 20 arrow 1906 20 tender 1907 20 cruel 1908 20 soften 1909 20 mouse 1910 20 hay 1911 20 anyhow 1912 20 alike 1913 20 circular 1914 20 juice 1915 20 shelf 1916 20 bake 1917 20 hatred 1918 20 cautious 1919 19 basket 1920 19 wreck 1921 19 width 1922 19 confident 1923 19 log 1924 19 heap 1925 19 suck 1926 19 ladder 1927 19 gap 1928 19 obey 1929 19 hut 1930 19 axe 1931 19 translation 1932 19 collar 1933 19 delivery 1934 19 reproduce 1935 19 confession

118 1936 19 pan 1937 19 prejudice 1938 19 voyage 1939 19 tobacco 1940 18 simplicity 1941 18 paste 1942 18 cake 1943 18 elephant 1944 18 ribbon 1945 18 harvest 1946 18 ashamed 1947 18 cave 1948 18 customary 1949 18 thief 1950 18 damp 1951 18 sew 1952 18 rust 1953 18 separation 1954 18 waiter 1955 18 pet 1956 18 straw 1957 18 upset 1958 18 towel 1959 18 refresh 1960 17 essence 1961 17 fur 1962 17 ambitious 1963 17 defendant 1964 17 daylight 1965 17 dip 1966 17 suspicious 1967 17 imaginary 1968 17 ash 1969 17 carriage 1970 17 educator

1971 17 saw 1972 17 stove 1973 17 rubber 1974 17 rug 1975 17 misery 1976 17 awkward 1977 17 rival 1978 16 roast 1979 16 deed 1980 16 preference 1981 16 explosion 1982 16 theatrical 1983 16 cultivate 1984 16 collector 1985 16 miserable 1986 16 wrist 1987 16 rabbit 1988 16 accustom 1989 16 tide 1990 16 insult 1991 16 thumb 1992 16 lump 1993 16 annoy 1994 16 toy 1995 16 heal 1996 16 shallow 1997 16 repetition 1998 16 soup 1999 15 whistle 2000 15 scenery 2001 15 apple 2002 15 offense 2003 15 cork 2004 15 ripe 2005 15 temper 2006 15 sore 2007 15 pinch 2008 15 diamond 2009 15 razor 2010 15 imaginative 2011 15 hook

2012 15 copper 2013 15 landlord 2014 14 influential 2015 14 rot 2016 14 hollow 2017 14 enclose 2018 14 harden 2019 14 wicked 2020 14 stiffen 2021 14 silk 2022 14 upright 2023 14 selfish 2024 14 stripe 2025 14 pig 2026 14 inward 2027 14 excellence 2028 14 rake 2029 14 purple 2030 14 hasten 2031 14 shorten 2032 14 applause 2033 14 ache 2034 14 apology 2035 14 knot 2036 14 nephew 2037 14 cushion 2038 14 drown 2039 14 nursery 2040 14 pint 2041 14 fierce 2042 13 imitate 2043 13 aloud 2044 13 gaiety 2045 13 robbery 2046 13 tighten 2047 13 perfection 2048 13 scorn 2049 13 whoever 2050 13 trunk 2051 13 wool 2052 13 sailor 2053 13 competitor

119 2054 13 moonlight 2055 13 deer 2056 13 bean 2057 13 everyday 2058 13 drawer 2059 13 disregard 2060 12 nowadays 2061 12 patriotic 2062 12 tin 2063 12 penny 2064 12 cage 2065 12 pardon 2066 12 lately 2067 12 offend 2068 12 coarse 2069 12 spoil 2070 12 horizontal 2071 12 sting 2072 12 ditch 2073 12 librarian 2074 12 meantime 2075 12 cough 2076 12 deaf 2077 12 sword 2078 12 messenger 2079 12 vain 2080 12 castle 2081 12 elastic 2082 12 comb 2083 12 rod 2084 11 widen 2085 11 sorrow 2086 11 inventor 2087 11 cliff 2088 11 umbrella 2089 11 interruption

2090 11 merry 2091 11 gallon 2092 11 conquest 2093 11 headache 2094 11 tailor 2095 11 bucket 2096 11 scent 2097 11 signature 2098 11 cart 2099 11 darken 2100 11 sometime 2101 11 applaud 2102 11 underneath 2103 11 hello 2104 11 pretense 2105 11 descent 2106 11 conquer 2107 11 framework 2108 11 confidential 2109 11 adoption 2110 11 disgust 2111 11 waist 2112 11 momentary 2113 11 receipt 2114 10 pearl 2115 10 ray 2116 10 lazy 2117 10 limb 2118 10 grammatical 2119 10 beast 2120 10 monkey 2121 10 jewel 2122 10 persuasion 2123 10 obedience 2124 10 sock 2125 10 vowel 2126 10 hammer 2127 10 inn 2128 10 chimney 2129 10

dissatisfaction 2130 10 annoyance 2131 10 ornament 2132 10 honesty 2133 10 outward 2134 10 sharpen 2135 10 handkerchief 2136 9 greed 2137 9 heavenly 2138 9 thirst 2139 9 niece 2140 9 spill 2141 9 loaf 2142 9 wheat 2143 9 worm 2144 9 secrecy 2145 9 rude 2146 9 heighten 2147 9 flatten 2148 9 loosen 2149 9 cheese 2150 9 rivalry 2151 9 royalty 2152 9 discontent 2153 9 complication 2154 9 fright 2155 9 indoor 2156 9 flour 2157 9 actress 2158 8 congratulation 2159 8 ounce 2160 8 fry 2161 8 everlasting 2162 8 goat 2163 8 ink 2164 8 disappearance 2165 8 reproduction 2166 8 thicken 2167 8 avoidance 2168 8 spoon 2169 8 strap 2170 8 deceive

120 2171 7 lengthen 2172 7 revenge 2173 7 correction 2174 7 descendant 2175 7 hesitation 2176 7 spade 2177 7 basin 2178 7 weed 2179 7 omission 2180 7 old-fashioned 2181 7 bicycle 2182 7 breadth 2183 7 photography 2184 7 coward 2185 7 mat 2186 7 rejoice 2187 7 cheat 2188 7 congratulate 2189 7 discomfort 2190 7 enclosure 2191 7 attentive 2192 7 paw 2193 6 overflow 2194 6 dissatisfy 2195 6 multiplication 2196 6 whichever 2197 6 tidy 2198 6 bribe 2199 6 mend 2200 6 stocking 2201 6 feast 2202 6 nuisance 2203 6 thorn 2204 6 tame 2205 5 inclusive

2206 5 homemade 2207 5 handwriting 2208 5 chalk 2209 5 sour 2210 5 slippery 2211 5 procession 2212 5 ripen 2213 5 jealous 2214 5 jealousy 2215 5 liar 2216 5 homecoming 2217 5 barber 2218 5 whiten 2219 5 berry 2220 5 lighten 2221 5 pigeon 2222 5 hinder 2223 4 bravery 2224 4 baggage 2225 4 noun 2226 4 amongst 2227 4 grammar 2228 4 cultivation 2229 4 companionship 2230 4 rubbish 2231 4 modesty 2232 4 woolen 2233 4 deepen 2234 4 pastry 2235 4 cupboard 2236 4 quart 2237 4 canal 2238 4 notebook 2239 4 deceit 2240 3 parcel 2241 3 brighten 2242 3 moderation 2243 3 punctual 2244 3 hurrah

Source: http://jbauman.com/gsl.html

2245 3 lipstick 2246 3 uppermost 2247 3 fatten 2248 3 conqueror 2249 2 hindrance 2250 2 cowardice 2251 2 obedient 2252 2 saucer 2253 2 madden 2254 2 scold 2255 2 weekday 2256 2 rotten 2257 2 disrespect 2258 1 widower 2259 1 deafen 2260 1 donkey 2261 1 businesslike 2262 1 motherhood 2263 1 sadden 2264 1 handshake 2265 1 calculator 2266 1 headdress 2267 1 scissors 2268 1 translator 2269 1 possessor 2270 1 shilling 2271 1 redden 2272 1 motherly 2273 0 whose 2274 0 cultivator 2275 0 whom 2276 0 homework 2277 0 electrician 2278 0 oar 2279 0 bribery 2280 0 sweeten 2281 0 sow 2282 0 pronunciation 2283 0 beak 2284 0 plural

APPENDIX D The Oxford Word List I for ate friend really old funny together snake the dad get their could woke book walk jumped and but lived put shop ball bad great place to saw am gave would come things icecream show

a house him found eat ever yesterday loved where was that watched from fish new computer magic everyone my weekend little down this room help work or went time can water ran nice zoo coming shark

we her bought party first scared now someone something on go brother about by who ride team asked it came big took food inside castle thing OK then because birthday good named it’s toy always scary

he up them other baby tree cousins boat every had his bed see cat cake look red walked in once made girl outside best more teacher read they after name boy away fell tried its world

122 with fun too over favourite long find princess monster of like next us has movie four shopping slide there some dog your family soccer I’m until thank got have lots off lunch how happily only white she are night three man also started

black buy said out not dinner shops know dragon garden dressed played going friends liked football last much still fast one called into won looked sleep rabbit beautiful head is all an morning wanted swimming five pool walking were play park playing bike

don’t turned take why day Sunday will want no just another well blue so upon car happy lost told make animals dogs when Saturday our what TV yes cousin’s horse footy home did do as fairy around breakfast movies here you school sister

love cousin lot chips names killed at two be if stayed today door bit need me very people again Friday beach couldn’t race playground mum back didn’t game games finished present sad that’s watch

APPENDIX E The Dolch Basic Word List

a

as

again

about

any

all

away

ate

after

better

am

be

over

always

both

an

black

but

around

bring

and

brown

cold

ask

carry

are

by

cut

because

clean

at

came

fast

been

could

big

did

first

before

done

blue

eat

five

best

don’t

call

fall

fly

buy

draw

can

find

four

does

drink

come

for

give

far

eight

do

get

goes

found

every

down

going

from

full

hurt

funny

have

got

gave

know

go

her

green

grow

light

good

him

had

hold

myself

he

his

has

how

never

help

if

hot

just

own

here

into

its

keep

pick

124

I

laugh

long

kind

right

in

let

made

much

seven

is

live

many

must

shall

it

may

new

now

show

jump

my

not

off

their

like

no

of

once

them

little

old

open

only

then

look

on

please

round

there

make

one

or

sleep

these

me

put

our

small

think

out

saw

pull

take

those

play

said

read

tell

together

pretty

she

start

thank

use

ran

sit

say

that

very

red

some

sing

they

want

ride

stop

six

this

warm

run

three

soon

too

wash

see

today

ten

try

went

so

two

upon

under

what

the

was

us

walk

when

to

will

who

well

where

up

work

why

were

which

we

yes

wish

white

would

you

yellow

your

with

write

CURRICULUM VITAE

Liping He was born in Guiyang, Guizhou province, China. She obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree in English Language and Literature from Guizhou University in 2002. She has joined the M.A. program of English Language Studies o the School of English, Institute of Social Technology, Suranaree University of Technology, Thailand. From 2007 to 2009, she was a Chinese language instructor at Suranaree University of Technology. Her research interests in the field of applied linguistics include EAP/ESP, vocabulary teaching and CALL.

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THE MOST FREQUENT VOCABULARY IN ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS

THE MOST FREQUENT VOCABULARY IN ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS FOR GRADES 1-3 Liping He A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Deg...

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