ENGLISH–THAI CODE-MIXING IN THAI HEALTH MAGAZINES
A MASTER’S PROJECT BY WATCHAREE JANHOM
Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Arts Degree in Business English for International Communication at Srinakharinwirot University October 2011
ENGLISH–THAI CODE-MIXING IN THAI HEALTH MAGAZINES
A MASTER’S PROJECT BY WATCHAREE JANHOM
Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Arts Degree in Business English for International Communication at Srinakharinwirot University October 2011 Copyright 2011 Srinakharinwirot University
ENGLISH–THAI CODE-MIXING IN THAI HEALTH MAGAZINES
AN ABSTRACT BY WATCHAREE JANHOM
Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Arts Degree in Business English for International Communication at Srinakharinwirot University October 2011 Copyright 2011 Srinakharinwirot University
Watcharee Janhom. (2011) English-Thai Code-Mixing in Thai Health Magazines Master’s Project, M.A. (Business English for International Communication). Bangkok: Graduate School, Srinkharinwirot University. Project Advisor: Assistant Professor Sirinna Boonyasaquan
This study aimed to investigate the extent of English-Thai code-mixing and analyze its patterns found in seven Thai health magazines, from the cover page to the back page. Advertisements were not included in the study. The analysis was based on two classification frameworks applied by Ho (2007) and Kannaovakun (2003). Ho’s classification framework comprised letters of the alphabet, short forms, proper nouns, lexical words, phrases, incomplete sentences, and single complete sentences. Meanwhile, Kannaovakun’s classification framework consisted of truncation, hybridization, conversion, semantic shift, reduplication, and word order shift. Based on Ho’s classification framework, the findings showed that the highest occurrence of linguistic pattern of code-mixing was proper nouns (36.27%), followed by lexical words (28.29%), phrases (25.04%), letters of the alphabet (8.27%), short forms (1.05 %) and single full sentences (0.60%), respectively. The linguistic pattern of incomplete sentences was found at the lowest frequency (0.08%). Meanwhile, based on Kannaovakun’s classification framework (2007), the hybridization type of code-mixing was found at the highest level (84.78 %), followed by word order shift (8.07%), truncation (3.76%), conversion (1.24%), semantic shift (1.24%) and reduplication (0.93%), respectively. Only 322 out of 1,150 code-mixing items were classified based on Kannaovakun’s classification framework. The rest, totaling 829 code-mixing items, could not fit into any category while the analysis revealed that it was possibly that they were formal English items.
บทคัดย่อ ของ วัชรี จันทร์หอม
เสนอต่อบัณฑิตวิทยาลัย มหาวิทยาลัยศรี นคริ นทรวิโรฒเพื่อเป็ นส่ วนหนึ่งของการศึกษาตามหลักสู ตร ปริ ญญาศิลปศาสตรมหาบัณฑิต สาขาวิชาภาษาอังกฤษธุ รกิจเพื่อการสื่ อสารนานาชาติ ตุลาคม 2554
วัชรี จันทร์หอม. (2554). การปนภาษาอังกฤษกับภาษาไทยในนิตยสารสุ ขภาพไทย สารนิพนธ์ ศศ.ม. (ภาษาอังกฤษธุ รกิจเพื่อการสื่ อสารนานาชาติ) กรุ งเทพฯ: บัณฑิตวิทยาลัย มหาวิทยาลัยศรี นคริ นทรวิโรฒ อาจารย์ที่ปรึ กษา สารนิพนธ์: ผูช้ ่วยศาสดราจารย์ ศิรินนา บุณยสงวน สารนิพนธ์น้ ีมีวตั ถุประสงค์ที่จะศึกษาปริ มาณและรู ปแบบของการปนภาษาอังกฤษกับภาษาไทย ในนิตยสารสุ ขภาพไทย นิตยสารสุ ขภาพไทยที่เป็ นข้อมูลในการศึกษามีจานวน 7 ฉบับ โดยศึกษาการ ปนภาษาอังกฤษกับภาษาไทยที่พบในนิตยสารสุ ขภาพจากปกหน้าถึงปกหลัง ไม่รวมโฆษณา การวิเคราะห์ขอ้ มูลดาเนินการโดยใช้กรอบการแบ่งประเภทการปนภาษาอังกฤษกับภาษาไทย ของโฮ ( 2007) และ ของปรารถนา กาลนวกุล (2003) กรอบการแบ่งประเภทการปนภาษาอังกฤษกับ ภาษาไทยของโฮประกอบด้วย การใช้อกั ษร คาลดรู ป คานามเฉพาะ คาศัพท์โดยทัว่ ไป วลี ประโยคที่ไม่ สมบูรณ์ และ ประโยคสมบูรณ์ ส่ วนกรอบการแบ่งประเภทการปนภาษาอังกฤษกับภาษาไทยของ ปรารถนา กาลนวกุล ประกอบด้วยการตัดคา การรวมคาของสองภาษา การเปลี่ยนหน้าที่คา การเปลี่ยน ความหมายคา การซ้ าคา และการเปลี่ยนการเรี ยงลาดับคา ผลการศึกษาโดยการวิเคราะห์การปนภาษาอังกฤษกับภาษาไทย ด้วยกรอบการแบ่งประเภทของ โฮ (2007) จากจานวนคาปนภาษาอังกฤษกับภาษาไทย ที่พบทั้งหมด 1,150 รายการ พบว่าการปน ภาษาอังกฤษกับภาษาไทยระดับคานามเฉพาะอยูใ่ นระดับสู งสุ ด (36.27%) รองลงมาคือระดับคาศัพท์ ทัว่ ไป (28.69%) ระดับวลี (25.04%) ระดับตัวอักษร (8.27%) ระดับคาลดรู ป (1.05%) ระดับประโยค สมบูรณ์ (0.60%) และระดับประโยคที่ไม่สมบูรณ์อยูใ่ นระดับต่าที่สุด (0.08%) ตามลาดับ ส่ วนผลการศึกษาโดยการวิเคราะห์การปนภาษาอังกฤษกับภาษาไทย ด้วยกรอบการแบ่ง ประเภทของ ปรารถนา กาลนวกุล (2003) จากจานวนคาปนภาษาอังกฤษกับภาษาไทย ที่พบทั้งหมด 1,150 รายการเช่นกัน พบว่าการปนภาษาอังกฤษกับภาษาไทยในระดับการประสมคาอยูใ่ นระดับสู งสุ ด (84.78 %) รองลงมาคือการเปลี่ยนการเรี ยงลาดับคา (8.07%) การตัดคา (3.76%) การเปลี่ยนหน้าที่คา (1.24%) การเปลี่ยนความหมายคา(1.24% ) และการใช้การซ้ าคาอยูใ่ นระดับต่าที่สุด (0.93%) ตามลาดับ อนึ่ง การวิเคราะห์การปนภาษาอังกฤษกับภาษาไทย ด้วยกรอบการแบ่งประเภทของ ปรารถนา กาลนวกุล (2003) ทาได้เพียง 322 รายการ ส่ วนที่เหลืออีก 828 รายการเป็ นคาปนภาษาอังกฤษกับ ภาษาไทย ที่ไม่สอดคล้องกับกรอบการแยกประเภทด้วยกรอบปรารถนา การเนาวกุล เนื่องจากเป็ นภาษา แบบทางการ
The Master’s Project Advisor, Chair of Business English for International Communication Program, and Oral Defense Committee have approved this Master’s Project, English-Thai Code-Mixing in Thai Health Magazines, by Watcharee Janhom as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Arts Degree in Business English for International Communication of Srinakharinwirot University.
Project Advisor ……………………………………………………………………… (Asst. Prof. Sirinna Boonyasaquan) Chair of Business English for International Communication Program ……………………………………………………………………… (Dr. Prapaipan Aimchoo) Oral Defense Committee …………………………………………………… Chair (Asst. Prof. Sirinna Boonyasaquan) …………………………………………………… Committee Member (Asst. Prof. Dr. Nitaya Suksaeresup) …………………………………………………… Committee Member (Dr. Sirinan Srinaowaratt) This Master’s Project has been approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Arts Degree in Business English for International Communication of Srinakharinwirot University. ………………………………. ……Dean of the Faculty of Humanities (Dr. Wanee Aujsatid) October…2011
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all of the persons who have made this master’s project possible. First of all, I am most grateful to my advisor, Asst. Prof. Sirinna Boonyasaquan, who devoted her precious time providing me with valuable suggestions. My heartfelt appreciation also goes to Dr. Sirinan Srinaowaratt and Asst. Prof. Dr. Nitaya Suksaerisup, the defense committee, for their valuable guidance. I would like to give my special thanks to all of my colleagues in the School of General Education at Kasembandit University for their kind encouragement during my study, particularly my friends in the English Section, who greatly contributed to this success. My warmest thanks for the assistance and encouragement specially go to Mrs. Nattapach Thonglek, who gave me useful suggestions. Furthermore, I really wish to convey my sincere appreciation to my departed father and grandfather, who are parts of my success. They taught me how to be a good student. Above of all, I would like to give grateful thanks to my beloved mother and my family members for their kind support and encouragement during these years of my study. I cannot achieve my goal without all the people mentioned above.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………
Significance of the Study…………………………………….
Scope of the Study…………………………………………...
Definition of Terms…………………………………………...
2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE…………………………
Definition of Code-mixing……………………………………
Classification of Code-mixing...……………………………..
Borrowing and Code-mixing.…………………………………
Code-switching and Code-mixing ………….……………….
Code-mixing/Switching and Language Acquisition …………
Code-mixing/Switching and Sociolinguistics ………………
Code-mixing/Switching and Psycholinguistics………………
Communication Accommodation Theory………………….
Previous Related Research Review..………………………..
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………….
Classification of English-Thai Code-mixing Based on Ho’s (2007) Classification Framework……………………….. 24
Examples of English-Thai Code-mixing Based on Ho’s (2007) Classification Framework ……………….. 26 Classification of English-Thai Code-mixing Based on Kannaovakun’s (2007) Classification Framework ……………… 32 Examples of English-Thai Code-mixing Based on Kannaovakun’s (2007) Classification Framework ……
5. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION Conclusion…………………………………………………….
Applications of the Study………………………………………
Limitations of the Study……………………………………….
Recommendations for Further Studies……………………….
LIST OF TABLES Table
1. English-Thai Code-mixing based on Ho’s (2007) classification…..
2. Examples of letters of the alphabet code-mixing……………………
3. Examples of short form code-mixing ……….……………………..
4. Examples of proper noun code-mixing…………………………….
5. Examples of lexical word code-mixing…………………………….
6. Examples of phrasal code-mixing………………………………….
7. Single full sentence code-mixing………………………………….
8. Classification of code-mixing based on Kannaovakun’s (2007) …….
9. Examples of truncation code-mixing…………………………………. 34 10. Examples of hybridization code-mixing……………………………… 35 11. Conversion code-mixing……………………………………………… 37 12. Semantic shift code-mixing…………………………………………… 38 13. Reduplicate code-mixing……………………………………………
14. Examples of word-order-shift code-mixing…………………………
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
In a globalized society, people use more than one language to communicate with each other. This practice results in interesting language phenomena; one of these is codemixing. A code refers to the language people use in a communication between the sender and the receiver to serve their needs (Wardhaugh, 1992). People may use signs, symbols, gestures and rules in combination with a code in the communication. A choice of a code may occur when a person can speak more than one language. A situation where a person communicates in one language but automatically transfers to another is called codemixing (Prasithrathsint, 1997). Code-mixing is the intentional mixing of two languages in the same content (Wardhaugh, 1992). It is the use of one or more languages for consistent transferring of linguistic units from one language into another resulting in a new restricted or non-restricted code of linguistic interaction (Gibbons, 1987). A Thai statement ผมขอให้ คุณ confirm กับ teamงาน ก่ อน 1อาทิ ตย์ (Back translation (Henceforth: BT): I would like you to confirm with your team a week before.) is an example of the use of English-Thai code-mixing. In this example, the English verb confirm and a noun team are used in the Thai context. The use of code-mixing in everyday conversation in a Thai society is currently common. E-note study (2011) reveals that a growing number of people are multi-lingual. As a result, the trend of code-mixing use can easily be observed. This is because the English language has a greater impact on Thai people resulting from several factors, for example, industrial expansion, international trade, interests in western culture, higher studies, etc. Every day, a number of Thai people use English both intentionally and
unintentionally in their communication in Thai. Some English words, such as yes, no, ok, thank you and bye-bye, are familiar to a number of Thai people. According to Kannaovakun (2003), the language mixing is a normal occurrence in Thai conversations. She found that 64% of the Thai people use English code-mixing in their conversation for some reasons. The first one is that there is no exact word in Thai for a specific English word such as ไอศกรี ม (BT: ice-cream), สปา (BT: spa) and ไนต์ คลับ (BT: nightclub). The second one is that some coined words in Thai do not denote the conceptual meaning such as คณิ ตกร (BT: computer), อนันต์ (BT: infinity), and บัตรระบุผ้ เู ช่ า (BT: SIM card). The third reason is that there is no equivalent in Thai in many areas, such as in the fields of medicine or science; therefore, English technical terms are inserted in the Thai context such as นิวเคลียร์ (BT: nuclear), แกสโซฮอลล์ (BT: gasohol) and แคลเซี ยม (BT: calcium). Code mixing is found both in spoken and written languages. However, via the spoken language, people communicate more instantly and informally than via the written language. The process of writing often contains second or multiple specific thoughts, while spoken conversation is normally more spontaneous and less formal (Derrida, 2011). Code-mixing in written documents are, therefore, more accurate and is more appropriate to study. Thai magazines, newspapers, and textbooks, for example, exhibit extensive use of English code-mixing. The researcher decided to examine the code-mixing phenomenon in written documents, with a focus on health magazines. The reasons why the researcher chose to study code-mixing found in health magazines were because the researcher herself has been interested in the health topic, similar to the current trend of the general public. Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity resulting in having a happy life, an ultimate aim of all
human beings (World Health Organization, July 2001). Health is becoming a trendy topic and people are more health-concerned. Some readers acquire health knowledge from magazines and may even consult health magazines about some minor health problems. Another reason was that no research on code-mixing with a focus on health magazines has been conducted locally. A number of magazines found in bookshops are specifically about health, such as Health & Cuisine, Health Plus, Health Today, Be well, Cheewachit (ชีวจิต),etc. Moreover, other magazines such as แพรว (BT: Praew), ดิฉัน (Dii Chan), Kitchen, Gourmet & Cuisine, Mother&Baby, etc. include in the magazines at least an article on health. From the researcher’s survey at Chulalongkorn Book Center, Nai-In Bookshop, Prae Pittaya Bookshop and SE-ED Bookshop, there were approximately 125 titles of Thai magazines available in the market at the time the study was conducted and 14 titles were related to the health topic amounting to 11.2%. However, out of the 14 health-related titles of Thai magazines, seven focused particularly on health for the whole magazine accounting for 50%. With the mentioned reasons, the researcher, therefore, decided to study on codemixing with a focus on Thai health magazines. The number of titles of health magazines for the study was seven.
Objectives The purposes of the study were as follows: 1.
To investigate the extent of English-Thai code-mixing in Thai health magazines.
To analyze the patterns of English code-mixing in Thai health magazines.
Significance of the Study Since there has been no research about the use of English-Thai code-mixing in Thai health magazines, and the number of studies on code-mixing has been quite minimal, the findings of the study were expected to provide interesting information on this issue. The extent and patterns of code-mixing in Thai health magazines were revealed, allowing people who are interested in this topic to learn more about this language phenomenon. The information gained from the findings was expected to stimulate the general public of Thailand to be aware of appropriate use of the Thai language. They should consider, when using code-mixing items, whether it is unavoidable to mix another code in communicating in Thai or there is another alternative to avoid mixing another code. The findings were also expected to enhance much more research on this matter so as to confirm or decline the findings of this study.
Scope of the Study This study aimed at investigating English-Thai code-mixing found in seven Thai health magazines, of the April 2011 editions comprising Be well, Cheewachit (ชีวจิต), Good Health, Health Today, Health Plus, Morchoaban (หมอชาวบ้าน) and Sukapapdee (สุขภาพดี). This study emphasized only English words, phrases, and sentences used in all columns of the magazines from the cover page to the back cover, based on the classification strategies applied by Ho (2007) in her study and the classification based on the nativized feature strategy applied by Kannaovakun (2003) in her study. Nativization strategy is a linguistic term originally proposed by Kachru (1978). Advertisements in the magazines were not included in the research.
Definition of Terms Code-mixing Code-mixing refers to the combination of elements from two languages in a single statement. People may use letters of alphabet, words, or phrases from one language to express an idea, object or situation in another language (Sopee, 2002). Nativized features The nativized feature or nativization, a linguistic term proposed by Kachru (1978), refers to systematic changes in the formal feature at all linguistic levels. They result from the use of a second language in new settings in contact with another language and in the absence of native speakers (Kachru, 1981 as cited in Pandharipande, 2007). The nativized features applied in this study comprise truncation, hybridization, conversion, semantic shift, reproduction, and word order shift.
CHAPTER 2 RELATED LITERATURE REVIEWS
This chapter discusses related literature on definition of code-mixing, classification of code-mixing, the differences between borrowing and code-mixing, as well as code-switching and code-mixing. It also reviews code- mixing/switching and language acquisition, code – mixing/switching in sociolinguistics, code- mixing/switching in psycholinguistics, the markedness model, and the communication accommodation theory. In the last part of this chapter, previous studies on English code-mixing are presented.
Definition of Code-Mixing Linguists give definitions of code-mixing in a similar way. Ho (2007) defines code-mixing as the change of a language to another inside the border of sentence at the levels of phonology, lexicon, grammar and orthography in the same utterance. Codemixing is an alternation of two languages. It can be in the form of words, phrases or larger units, generally occurring in the same sentence or paragraph. It is considered a natural second/foreign language phenomenon and is not an indication of a language disorder (Scotton, 2004). Language mixing is a phenomenon occurring when a bilingual talks to another bilingual in the same language and changes from one language to another automatically in the course of communication (Crystal, 1997). Various elements of language such as phonology, morphology, grammatical structure or lexical items are involved in codemixing (Richard, Platt and Platt, 1992). Appel and Muysken (1990) state that people may include a single word from another language in their communication because they may forget the exact word in the
first language or not yet learn the word in the base language of the sentence. Hoffman (1991) adds that code-mixing is used for more exact and clear-cut utterances in communication and is thought to facilitate understanding. Wardhaugh (1992) says that a code-mixing phenomenon is mainly observed in both bilingual and multilingual situations. There is no rule in mixing a second language/foreign code in communication. It varies and depends on each situation. A person may use code x in one situation, code y in another, and mixed code in a third situation. In sum, code-mixing is the change of one language to another at the word, phrase, and sentence levels in the written and oral communication with no specific rules.
Classification of Code-Mixing Code-mixing is classified in different ways.
Kachru classifies the formal
properties of code mixing in South Asia (Kachu, 1978 as cited in Gunawan, n.d.) into five different types as follows: 1. Unit insertion: This refers to the introduction of a grammatical unit of a noun phrase or a verb phrase from another language to the base language. 2. Unit hybridization: This refers to the use of linguistic elements from another language within a unit such as a noun phrase, a verb phrase, or a compound verb of the base language. 3.
Sentence insertion: This refers to an insertion of a sentence from another
language into the language base of the discourse. 4.
Idiom and collocation insertion: This refers to the use of idiom and collocation
of one language in another language.
Inflection attachment and reduplication: This refers to the process of inflection
attachment and reduplication of one language to another language which normally does not have such a grammatical system. Another linguist, Muysken (2000), classifies code-mixing into three types: insertion, alternation, and congruent lexicalization. Insertion refers to the process of adding a lexical item from one language into another. The second type, alternation, occurs when the structures of the two languages are similar both at the grammatical and lexical levels. The third type, congruent lexicalization, happens when the two languages share grammatical structures which can be replaced lexically with elements from either language. Ho (2007) categorizes code-mixing in terms of linguistic units as follows: 1. Letters of the alphabet: This is the use of a letter or letters of the English alphabet instead of a word. Letters of the alphabet can be classified into two types: letter names and acronyms. Letter names are the letters such as grades A, B, C, D, F and I in the marking range. Acronyms are the use of letter of a word to represent the whole word in a noun or a phrase. For example, BTS is an acronym that stands for Bangkok Transit System. 2. Short forms: A short form refers to the reduction of the word. This is formed by shortening lexical words; for example, a short form hi-so is used for high society as illustrated in this sentence: เธอดู hi-so มากเลย (BT: You look like a high society lady). Hiso is mixed from the first two letters of the word high and the first two letters of the word society. Mostly, short forms generally come from only the first few letters of a word. 3. Proper nouns: These refer to names of a specific person, place, organization or thing such as Olympia, Barack Obama, and Thailand.
4. Lexical words: These refer to nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs (Ho, 2007). An English lexical word is used in a Thai utterance. For example, in a Thai statement, ฉั น designห้ องครั วเอง (BT: I design the kitchen myself). The English word “design” is inserted in the Thai utterance. 5. Phrases: A phrase is a structure that combines words into a unit of a sentence, but it lacks the subject-predicate connection of a clause (Lingual Links library, 2003), for example, laughing wildly and prostate cancer. 6. Incomplete sentences: An incomplete sentence is a partial sentence or a minor sentence. This is a grammatical and lexical unit consisting of one or more words to a group of words which is only part of a complete idea (Ho, 2007). An example is, If it is good, ผู้บริ โภคจะมากขึน ้ (BT: If it is good, there will be more consumers). Clearly, from this excerpt if it is good is a subordinate clause which cannot be understood without the main clause, ผู้บริ โภคจะมากขึน้ (BT: there will be more consumers) and vice versa. 7. Single full sentences: A single full sentence is a group of words which starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop, question mark, or exclamation mark. It refers to a statement which contains a subject and a predicate with a clear meaning (Ho, 2007). For example, the statement Are you in hot flush hell? เมื่ออาการร้ อนวูบวาบทาให้คุณร้ อนรุ่ มเป็ นไฟ (BT: Are you in a hot flush hell when the hot flush makes you feel boiling hot?) (Health Plus, April 2011) Kannaovakun (2003) classifies code-mixing into six categories as follows: 1. Truncation: This refers to an English word which is shortened. This means one morpheme is deleted from the whole word. For example, Hi-so is truncation of a high society. The truncation is by retaining only the first syllable. Another way of truncation is to keep only the last syllable. For example, ber is a truncation for number.
2. Hybridization: It is a combination of different languages at word level. English words can be a noun or an adjective. For example, นัก football (BT: football player), it is a combination of a Thai word นัก (BT: a person) and an English word, football. Another example is การload ข้ อมูล (BT: loading information); this is a combination of an English word load and a Thai word ข้ อมูล (BT: information). 3. Conversion: It is a change from one part of speech to another, such as งานนีs้ uccess (BT: This job is a success). In the Thai version, success is used as a verb while the part of speech of success in English is a noun. There is a conversion of the part of speech for this code-mixing.
4. Semantic shift: This means a change in the meaning of a word in one language when it is used in another language; for example, เสื ้อfitจัง (BT: This shirt is too tight). The meaning of fit in English is to be of the right size; therefore, the word fit has changed in meaning when it is used in the Thai text. 5. Reduplication: It is a use of a word repeatedly in a sentence; for example, วัยรุ่ นชอบเสื ้อ
แบบ modern modern (BT: Teenagers like modern style clothes). 6. Word order shift: This refers to a change in word order of the second/ foreign language when mixed in the first/native language. In this example, นักเรี ยนบางคนสนใจเรี ยน
กราฟฟิ ค คอมพิวเตอร์ (BT: Some students are interested in graphic computer.), the Thai phrase กราฟฟิ คคอมพิวเตอร์ (BT: graphic computer) has a change in word order, instead of the correct English form, computer graphics. In conclusion, a number of linguists classified code-mixing in their own ways. Ho (2007) categorizes code-mixing in terms of linguistic units meanwhile Kannaovakun (2003) classifies code-mixing by its nativized features. This study applied the classification strategies of both Ho (2007) and Kannaovakun (2003) as the purposes of
the study were to examine the extent of English-Thai code-mixing used and to analyze the patterns of English code-mixing applied in the Thai context. To fully understand code-mixing, the researcher also studied other related topics such as the topics of borrowing, code-switching, code-mixing/switching in language acquisition, code-mixing/switching and sociolinguistics, code-mixing/switching and psycholinguistics, the markedness model, and the communication accommodation theory. These topics are presented below.
Borrowing and Code-Mixing According to Appel and Muysken (1990), borrowing is a language phenomenon when a foreign language word is simply integrated into a language. Borrowing refers to a word or phrase which has been taken from one language and is used in another language (Richards et al, 1992) and usually there is no equivalent of that second language word in the first language, for example, English has taken coup d’etat (or a sudden seizure of the government power) from French. Meanwhile code-mixing often thoroughly maintains features of the core language. When an element from one code is included into another, the base code is normally dominant and the speaker uses the second code for some reason (Gibbons, 1987). Gibbons added that code-mixing is used by monolinguals, mostly occurring within a single group as a result of the relationship between two cultures. In the Thai context, words such as clinic, free, furniture, game, poster, show shampoo, and sticker are used as if they were Thai words. However, the words: activity, assign, confirm, contact, detail, present, etc. are still not accepted as borrowing words even though they are widely used; therefore, they are considered as code-mixing words (Jindaborisutt,1998).
To recap, code-mixing and borrowing is a situation when a foreign language is used in the first language. Borrowing blends more with the first language than codemixing. Most borrowing words are so accepted in the society that they are frequently included in the dictionary of that language.
Code-Switching and Code-Mixing Code-switching means a change in using a language to communicate. The change of code occurs within one or more languages or dialects and it usually happens in bilingual or multilingual situations. The code-switching is a change among different speech varieties and is due to many factors: the mood of the speaker, the situation where the communication takes place and the person to whom the speaker speaks (Ekola, 2010). Ekola (2010) adds that code-switching is classified as intrasentential code-mixing or code-mixing that occurs within a sentence and extrasentential code-mixing or codemixing at a sentence boundary. Code-mixing refers to mixing of a letter, word, phrase, clause and sentence of a second language into the first language within the same sentence. It happens only in an intrasentential situation. Therefore, code-mixing is similar to code-switching in this way. To recap, the term code-switching refers to mixing of words from various languages at the clause or sentence level in a fully grammatical way (Poplack, 1980 cited in Leung, 2010). Code-Mixing/ Switching and Language Acquisition Code-mixing and code-switching play a role in acquiring a language of a child. Green (1986 as cited in Bot, Lowie; Verspoor, 2005) says that code switching/mixing is very common in language acquisition. When a child learns to speak, he will definitely grasp the language that is exposed to him so as to enhance her/him to let those who are
near understand. There may be a switch from a formal language to a dialect as he often hears her/his nanny speaks. Code switching/mixing happens. When a child goes to school, the acquisition of code-switching/code-mixing can also easily occur, particularly when s/he goes to an international school. Acquiring a language of adults is no exception. Green (1986) adds that when a speaker speaks a particular language, s/he may apply words from another language. This is simply because the speaker cannot immediately find the word in the first language or because that word is more appropriate (as cited in Bot, Lowie; Verspoor, 2005). In short, in terms of language acquisition, code switching/mixing can occur probably due to inability to find a word, a phrase or a sentence in the base language.
Code –Mixing/Switching and Sociolinguistics It is interesting to study the connection of code –mixing/switching and sociolinguistics. Since the focus of sociolinguistics is the effect of the society on the language (Wardhaugh. 1992), it can be said that code-mixing/ switching happens in communication to meet the social needs such as prestige motive (Kannaovakun, 2003). Hasan (n.d, para.1) indicates that code-mixing is a linguistic subject which deals with sociolinguistic facts and features. Meanwhile Homers and Blanc (2000) state that in the social and cultural perspectives, there are factors related to motivation for code-mixing and code–switching since using these phenomena can help facilitate bilinguals to improve the understanding of both languages. Code-mixing/switching in communication obviously results from what is going on in the society. In brief, code-mixing and code- switching are employed to encourage the better understanding in specific community.
Code-Mixing/Switching and Psycholinguistics There is a connection between code-mixing/switching and psycholinguistics because psycholinguistics is the study of the influence of psychological factors on the development, use, and interpretation of a language (Gluth, 2002). The psycholinguistic perspective helps to understand the nature of the system of code-mixing/code-switching, why speakers code-mix/switch and what the social meaning of code-switching/mixing is for them. Various reasons are provided in giving the answers to code-mixing/switching. Field (2004) points out that the knowledge of other languages may influence the use of one language. Meanwhile, Schmitt et al (1994) reveals that the language has an influence on information processing and in particular and on memory processes since processing a message in a first versus a second language can impact bilinguals’ memory (Luna & Peracchio, 2001). To conclude, psycholinguistics has an effect on the memory capacity of those who know more than one language in that people may produce a code-mixing/switching word in the situations when they cannot think of an appropriate word in the base language. On the contrary, they may use a word of the same meaning in a second language if they still memorize it.
Markedness Model The Markedness Model is developed by Scotton (2004). The model explains some of the social motivations for code-switching. The model explains how a speaker selects a language to communicate and why the speaker switches the code in communication. In general communication, an unmarked exists and it is the expected set of language according to the index of Rights and Obligation, and the unexpected one is
marked (Scotton, 2004). To elaborate the meaning of the marked model, an example is given by Scotton, involving a clerk and a customer in a store in Nairobi where the unmarked choice code is Swahili. However, the clerk and the customer shared the same ethnic language, Luo, which is the marked code choice. The customer started the conversation in the unmarked Swahili, and later switched to the marked Luo in order to request for extra help. It can possibly conclude from the above example that a speaker may have to switch from the one code to another code because he wants to make the one to whom he speaks understands. The foreign code being mixed in the base code is considered marked; in other words, it is seen that the mixed code is obvious or significant.
Communication Accommodation Theory The occurrence of code-mixing/code-switching can also be explained by the the communication accommodation theory (CAT). Gile (1971) developed this theory. It describes reasons behind code switching and other changes in speech during the conversation. He explains why a speaker adjusts and changes the language in the process of communication resulting in linguistic variations. According to Gile (1971), a person changes the code in the conversation because s/he tries to increase or decrease the social differences between her/himself and the one s/he speaks to. Gile believes that the speaker tends to adjust the language to meet the language of the one involved in the conversation or when s/he wants to be accepted in a social situation. On the other hand, the speaker may also want to emphasize the social difference between her/himself and the listener. Therefore, in such circumstance, s/he applies the linguistic feature of her/his own group to show the difference between her/himself and the interlocutor. According to the CAT theory, a speaker may, therefore, make a choice of the language, accent, rate, types of
words or dialect, and other linguistic features and the process of code-switching may occur in the situation. In summary, the communication accommodation theory is used to give some reasons for code-switching/code-mixing and other changes in speech as the speaker or writer want to emphasize or minimize the social differences between her/himself and the person to whom she/he speaks.
Previous Related Research Review Local Studies Kanadpon (2000) studied the English-Thai code-mixing used among 22 Thai employees in the meetings at a company. The research tool comprised field notes, selfreports and interviews, tape recording and a set of questionnaire. The findings revealed that more than fifty percent of the English-Thai code-mixing was subject-specific terminology and the rest was non-technical ones. Seventy per cent of the mixed words were nouns whereas the total of other eight parts of speech amounted to 30%. More than 55% of the participants changed codes when they used technical/ production terms. Some people used English-Thai code- mixing because of their high familiarity with mixed words. Tartlek (1998) studied the attitudes of Bangkokians toward English-Thai codemixing. A questionnaire was used as a research tool. The results of the study showed that the participants with higher occupational prestige were likely to have better English language skills, be more convinced of its use, and make more use of English in their work. Most participants responded that they did not often use English-Thai code-mixing.
Their code mixing was reported to be mostly adopted to the work domain when conversing with familiar communicators of similar social status. Jindaborisutt (1998) studied the use of English-Thai code-mixing of Thai public relations officers functioning in the head offices of Thai commercial banks in Bangkok. The research methodology was interviewing. The data were calculated by means of frequency and percentage. The researcher found that Thai people used more borrowing words than genuine mixing words. The education level variable was not the most significant factor associated with the use of English-Thai code-mixing. Thai men and women had a similar percentage regarding using English-Thai code-mixing. Wongpanicharoen (1997) studied the English-Thai code-mixing of radio announcers on FM radio stations in Bangkok. The research tool was interviewing and the tape recorder was used to record the data. The findings revealed that the radio announcers employed two types of English code-mixing words: general words and technical words. The mixed words were formed by ways of clipping, partial transliteration and complete transliteration. The partial transliteration adopted three kinds of word orders: Thai + English, Thai + English + Thai, and English + Thai. Of the two types of the mixed words, the general words were used more often and the complete transliteration was employed the most in word formation. When the researcher compared the English mixing in each program and speech situation, it was found that the radio announcers of the economic program in their monologues used English the most. The second most mixing words were found in the general knowledge program, and the news announcers employed mixing words the least. In the dialogue situation, however, the news announcers were found to use English mixing the most. When testing statistical significance, it was discovered that the participants’ use of English mixing was
significantly different in two aspects: general words predominated technical ones, and the number of English word used varied according to the radio programs. Dhithiwattana (1996) studied the mixing of English in Thai by lecturers of different disciplines at Kasetsart University. The data comprised the lectures given by 15 lecturers and interviews given by the lecturers regarding their attitude towards the use of English-Thai code-mixing. The major research findings indicated that English lecturers mixed English words, phrases and sentences in their Thai more than other lecturers. Regarding the frequency of mixing English in Thai, English lecturers were at the highest frequency of code-mixing, the political science lecturers were at the second frequency and the Thai lecturers were at the lowest in frequency. The difference was statistically significant at 0.01 level. The lecturers’ attitudes toward code- mixing did not always correspond with their behaviors of mixing English in Thai. The analysis showed that the attitude of eight out of the fifteen participants corresponded with their behavior in mixing the English code in the Thai code. Studies from Other Countries Leung (2010) studied the effects of English-Chinese code-mixing on print advertisements and the attitude of Chinese people toward the use of code-mixing. He analyzed 125 code-mixed print advertisements produced in Hong Kong between 2008 and 2009. The results showed that people could understand most code-mixing used in the print advertisements. Consumer goods and daily products were perceived as suitable to be advertised with code-mixing words. Young people and educated people preferred more code-mixing words in advertising. Moreover, the findings suggested that advertising agencies should be aware of the social status of the targeted consumers and find whether code-mixing properly matches with the images of the products and consumers’ social identities.
Ekola (2010) examined the proportion between Finnish and English in advertisements in two Finnish magazines, Suomen Kuvalehti and Image. The results showed that Finnish was replaced with English most frequently at a phrasal level. Sentential and isolated lexical substitutions were both relatively rare. Additionally, English could be found from every element of a print advertisement but not simultaneously. Muyasaroh (2009) classified the linguistic forms of code-mixing used in Cosmo Girls magazine. The data were gained from letters, notes, homework, and instances of conversation on MSN messengers of 12 participants. The code-mixing in each language were identified and counted. The researcher found that there were two forms of codemixing: word and phrase. There was one type of English-Thai code- mixing which was outer code-mixing. Moreover, three reasons for using code-mixing in the magazines were found as follows: need filling motive, prestige filling and other reasons (to respect, to refine, and to give information). Isharyanti and Stella (2009) examined the occurrences of code switching and code-mixing in a chat room based the environment of non-native English speakers of English from Spanish and Indonesian backgrounds. The findings showed that the Spanish participants exchanged longer interactions in terms of word count than the Indonesian speaking participants. The chatting exchange of Spanish speaking participants used 9,113 words, while the Indonesian 4,119 words. Ho (2007) examined the linguistic forms of Cantonese-English mixing and explored its socio-cultural meaning. The participants of the study were 52 tertiary students in Hong Kong. The data were gained from students’ essays and their responses from the interviews for the focus group as well as the individual comments. The findings revealed that code-mixing in Hong Kong remained in the form of English lexical
insertion in Cantonese speech while a great number of code-mixing items were in unit types of lexical items and phrases. To conclude, this chapter has reviewed topics on code-mixing and related matters such as code-switching, psycholinguistics, the markedness model, and the communication accommodation theory. At the end, the previous related research is provided.
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY
This chapter gives information about the research methodology. The data and the data collection in this study are disclosed. The analysis of the data is later elaborated.
Data The data for this study were collected from seven Thai health magazines, of the April edition 2011, comprising Be well, Cheewachit (ชีวจิต), Good Health, Health Today, Health Plus, Morchoaban (หมอชาวบ้าน) and Sukapapdee (สุขภาพดี). This study emphasized only English words, phrases and sentences written both in English and in Thai, such as team or ที ม in ทำงำนเป็ นที ม or ทำงำนเป็ น team. All the English words used in all columns of the magazines from the cover page to the back cover were applied in the analysis. Advertisements were not included in this investigation because the advertisement register was different from the common text. The seven magazines selected for the study were specifically about health topics for the whole magazines. There were some other magazines available in the market with some articles on health, but just only as part of the whole magazines. The seven magazines were available at the bookstores at the time when the study was conducted. The reason why the researcher focused her study on health magazines was because of three major reasons. First, the researcher herself was interested in the health topic. Second, the health topic was in the interest of the Thai people at the time the study was conducted. Lastly, there was no research on this topic yet. The extent and patterns of
code-mixing were revealed, allowing people who are interested in this topic to learn about this language phenomenon. Data Analysis The data were analyzed based on two classification frameworks applied by two researchers: Ho (2007) and Kannaovakun (2003). The procedures were as follows: 1. The English codes found in the three Thai health magazines were listed and classified based on classification framework used by Ho’s (2007) as follows: 1.1 Letters of the alphabet: use of a letter/s instead of words or phrases. For example, CEO is used for Chief Executive Officer. 1.2 Short forms: truncation of a word such as hi-tech is a short form of high technology. 1.3 Proper nouns: names of a person or specific thing/place such as Asia Pacific, electrolytes and progesterone. 1.4 Lexical words: nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs of which meanings are generally understood such as academy, degree, and diet. 1.5 Phrases: a group of words functioning as a single unit in the structure of a sentence such as the book on the floor. 1.6 Incomplete sentence: a group of words which are only part of a complete thought, but it needs some element which is grammatically necessary to the entire thought such as if only I were younger. 1.7 Single full sentence: a statement which contains a subject and a predicate, with a clear meaning such as I am a full- time dentist. 2. The results of the analysis based on Ho’s (2007) classification framework, as earlier mentioned, were statistically calculated in terms of frequency and percentage and were
presented in the form of tables. The extent of the linguistic patterns of code-mixing used in the six health magazines was demonstrated as shown in Appendix A. 3. The data were later classified based on the nativized feature classification framework applied by Kannaovakun (2003) as follows: 3.1 Truncation: a word which is shortened, instead of using a complete word; for example, celeb is a truncation of celebrity. 3.2 Hybridization: a combination of an English word and a Thai word such as
รถTaxi. This code-mixing is a combination of the two languages. 3.3 Conversion: a change from one part of speech to another. An example is เรำอีโก้ กัน
มำกขึน้ (BT: We have more ego than before.). The word ego which is a noun is used as a verb in the Thai context. 3.4 Semantic shift: a change in the meaning of a word in one language when it is used in another language; for example, ดิฉันและแฟน (BT: My boyfriend/ husband and I…). The meaning of fan used in the Thai context is not the same as that in English. Its meaning has changed to a boyfriend or a husband. 3.5 Reduplication: use of a word in a sentence repeatedly, for example, บ๊ ำย บ๊ ำย(BT: bye bye) 3.6 Word order shift: a change in word order of the second/ foreign language when mixed in the first/native language. For example, คอสฟิ ตเนส (BT: course fitness) in the Thai context has shifted the English word order from fitness course to course fitness. 4. The results of the analysis based on the nativization classification framework applied by Kannaovakun (2003) were statistically calculated in terms of frequency and percentage and presented in the form of tables. 5. Plausible explanations for the analysis of English-Thai code-mixing in health magazines were attempted.
CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS
This chapter presents the findings of the study on English-Thai code mixing in seven Thai health magazines of the April 2011edition comprising Be well, Cheewachit
(ชี วจิ ต), Good Health, Health Today, Health Plus, Morchoaban (หมอชาวบ้ าน) and Sukapapdee (สุขภาพดี). The analysis was based on two classification frameworks applied by two researchers, Ho (2007) and Kannaovakun (2003). First, the data gained from the seven magazines studied were classified based on the classification framework used by Ho’s (2007) comprising seven elements: letters of the alphabet, shorts forms, proper nouns, lexical words, phrases, incomplete sentences, and single full sentences. The number and patterns of English-Thai code-mixing found were shown in the form of tables. Examples of each of the seven patterns of the linguistic units were illustrated. After that, the data were analyzed based on the classification framework on nativized features applied by Kannaovakun’s (2003). The nativized features used comprised truncation, hybridization, conversion, semantic shift, reduplication, and word order shift. The frequency and percentage as well as examples for each of the six features of nativization were also shown in the form of tables.
1. Classification of English-Thai code-mixing based on Ho (2007)’s framework First of all, the total number of English-Thai code-mixing found in seven Thai Health magazines was categorized into seven linguistic patterns based on Ho’s classification framework as shown in the following table.
Table 1: English code-mixing based on Ho’s (2007) classification framework Linguistic Patterns
Number of English Mixing Code
1. Letters of the Alphabet
2. Short Forms
3. Proper Nouns
4. Lexical Words
6. Incomplete Sentences
7. Single Full Sentences
As shown in Table1, 1,150 English code mixing items were found used in the Thai context in the seven Thai health magazines. The linguistic pattern which was highest frequently used was proper nouns (36.27 %), followed by lexical words (28.69%), phrases (25.04%), letters of the alphabet (8.27%), short forms (1.05 %) and single full sentences (0.60%) respectively. The linguistic pattern of incomplete sentences was used at the lowest frequency (0.08%). To elaborate the findings above, examples for each linguistic pattern were provided. This was to promote a better understanding and how the English code-mixing was used in the Thai context.
Table 2: Examples of letters of the alphabet code-mixing Letter of the Alphabet OPD
Code-Mixing in the Text
ทีมงานให้การต้อนรับ ณ บริ เวณแผนกผูป้ ่ วยนอก OPD (BT: The team welcomes us at the Out-Patient Department)
Liquid Crystal เลือกใช้คอมพิวเตอร์ชนิด LCD (จอแบน) ซึ่ งช่วยถนอมสายตา Display (BT: Choose the liquid crystal display computer which helps to protect eye sight.)
Deoxyribo ท่านจบมาทางด้านการพัฒนา DNA (BT: He graduated in the Nucleic Acid area of deoxyribo nucleic acid development.)
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
มีความเสี่ ยงเกิดโรคไหลตายในเด็ก(SIDS) สูงขึ้น
Chief Executive Officer
CEO สายเลือดใหม่มองโลกการแข่งขัน (BT: The new generation chief executive officer views the competitive world)
มาถึง SF ที่แรกที่อยากเที่ยว ก็หนีไม่พน้ สะพานโกลเด้นเกท
(BT: There is a high risk for children to have SIDS.)
(BT: The first place we want to visit, when we arrive at San Francisco is the Golden Gate Bridge.)
Docosahexae กรดไขมันดีเอชเอ(DHA) ในโอเมก้า 3 มีส่วนสาคัญ noic Acid ในการพัฒนาสมอง(BT: Docosahexaenoic acid in omega 3 is essential for brain development.)
ปกป้ องยูวีอย่างไรให้ได้ผล (BT: How can you effectively protect yourself from ultra violet?)
Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid
สารEDTA เข้าไปจับโลหะ (BT: Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid mixes with metal.)
Cathode Ray จอแบนซึ่ งจะช่วยถนอมสายตาได้ดีกว่าคอมพิวเตอร์ แบบเก่า (CRT) Tube (BT: The flat screen helps to protect your eye sight better than the old cathode ray tube computer.)
As illustrated in the above table, ten groups of letters of the English alphabet were used in the studied Thai magazine. For example, OPD comes after the Thai phrase in the example แผนกผู้ป่วยนอก OPD (BT: at the out-patient department). The letters OPD stand for the Out-Patient Department. Meanwhile, CEO, an abbreviation for Chief Executive Officer, is frequently used and commonly well-known in the business arena. The next pattern is short forms. This pattern of code-mixing was found the fifth in frequency. The following table shows examples of how English short- form code-mixing words were used. Table 3: Examples of short form code-mixing Short Form
Code-Mixing in the Text
ทุกคนก็ป๊อบกันหมด(BT: Everyone is now popular.)
Hot Celeb:ศิริน หอวัง (BT: Sirin Horwang is a hot celebrity)
Condominium หากคุณอยู่ หอพัก คอนโด อพาร์ทเม้นท์ไม่มีสวนไม่มีสนามให้วงิ่ จ๊อกกิ้ง (BT: If you stay in a condo or an apartment where there is no park or garden for jogging.)
แบบ Hi-cut ช่วยเพิ่มความเพรี ยวให้รูปร่ างสมดุลขึ้น (BT: The hi-cut style helps you look slender.)
มีเลือกเฉพาะไฮไลท์ ที่คิดว่าน่าจะโดนใจชาวสุขภาพดีกนั ทุกคน (BT: I chose only the hi-light which I thought it was attractive to all health-concerned readers.)
หากเราเน้นความเป็ นแพทย์แบบไฮเทคมากไปแล้ว อนาคตอาจมีการพัฒนา หุ่นยนต์แพทย์ข้ นึ มาแทนแพทย์จริ งๆ(BT: If we heavily focus on hi-tech doctors , we may develop a robot doctor instead of having a live doctor.)
ในปัจจุบนั มีการผ่าตัดโดยการใช้กล้องขยาย micro surgery
Menstruation การมีประจาเดือนหรื อที่ผห ู ้ ญิงหลายคนมักจะเรี ยกหรื อรู ้จกั กันว่า เมนส์ (BT: menstruation or mens.)
(BT: At present, there is an operation with a microscope known as a micro surgery.)
โปรกอล์ ฟที่ตอ้ งเดินทางแข่งขันระหว่างประเทศ (BT: A professional
เราจึงไม่มีปญหาเด็กติดเกม(คอม) (BT: We don’t have the problem
golfer who has to travel for international matches…)
of computer-game addicted children.) In Table 3, some examples of the short forms of English words which were mixed in the Thai text, instead of using the full forms were presented. For example, the word Condo is a shortened form of Condominium, or Celeb of a hot celebrity. The highest frequently used English-Thai code-mixing found in this study was proper nouns. The following table shows examples of how English proper noun codemixing was used in the Thai studied text. Table 4: Examples of proper noun code-mixing Proper Noun
คุณหมอสเตฟานี สตู เตนสกี้/ พิทเบริ์ ก
Code-Mixing in the Text
คุณหมอสเตฟานี สตูเตนสกีอ้ าจารย์แพทย์ของมหาวิทยาลัยพิทเบริ์ ก กล่าว (BT: Dr. Stephanie Studenskie, medical professor from Pittsburg University.)
เบเลสซ่ าสปามีทรี ทเม้นท์นวดผ่อนคลายเพื่อคุณหนู(BT: เบเลสซ่าสปา
Bellezza Spa provided a relaxing massage treatment for children.)
คุณ Karen Ritchie เจ้าของรายการได้กล่าวถึงคาเฟอีน (BT: Karen Ritchie
บริ บทั ยูนิลีเวอร์/ Sunsilk Perfect Salon Nestle Fitness
Miss Karen Ritchie, the program host mentioned about caffeine.)
บริ บทั ยูนิลีเวอร์ ประเทศไทยจากัดได้เปิ ดตัว Sunsilk Perfect Salon (BT: Unilever company (Thailand) Limited launched Sunsilk Perfect Salon.) Nestle Fitness สาหรับผูห้ ญิงวัยทางาน (BT: Nestle Fitness for working women.)
ร้อยละ75ของผูป้ ่ วยจะอยูใ่ นแถบเอเชี ยแปซิ ฟิก (BT: 75 percent of the patients were in the Asia
Health Todayหวังว่าท่านจะได้ขอ้ มูลที่เป็ นประโยชน์ (BT: Health Today hopes you will get useful information.) กว่า Health Plus ฉบับนี้จะถึงมือผูอ้ ่านเราคงทักทายหน้าร้อนไป
หลายตลบแล้ว (BT: You may have facing the hot summer for a while already by the time this Health Plus reaches you.)
มาดามทุสโซสุดยอดพิพิธภัณฑ์หุ่นขี้ผ้ งึ ระดับโลก (BT: มาดามทุสโซ
Madame Tussauds Museum is the world class wax museum.)
Calories Blah Blah
Calories Blah Blah ร้องเต้นเล่นคุยกับผูช้ ม (BT: Calories Blah Blah sang, danced, played and talked with the audience.)
In Table 4, examples of the English proper nouns found in the Thai text were illustrated, for instance, Health Today, a magazine and Calories Blah Blah, a musical band. They both appeared in the Thai context in their English forms. The next linguistic pattern is lexical words. This pattern was found the second highest frequently used code-mixing with a total of 330 words or 28.69%. Examples of lexical word code-mixing used are shown in the following table. Table 5: Examples of lexical word code-mixing Lexical Word
อาร์ตเวิร์ค กูรู แพลน โชว์
Code-Mixing in the Text
ร้านนี้แสดงงานอาร์ ตเวิร์คร่ วมสมัย (BT: This shop shows the trendy artwork.)
ทางเรามีกูรูให้คาปรึ กษาด้านความงาม(BT: We have a beauty guru to give you advice.)
วันเสาร์หยิงจะต้องแพลนเลยว่าจะต้องทาอะไรบ้าง (BT: On Saturday, Ying has to plan what to do.)
สาวเจ้าเนื้อหันมาโชว์ แผ่นหลังกับชุดคอวีและกางเกงสี เข้ม (BT: That plump woman, in her V-neck blouse and
dark color trousers, turned back to show her broad back.)
ซี ซั่นนี้เนเน่มีชุดวายน้ าหลากแบบ (BT: This season, Nene
has various styles of swimming suits
ฉบับนี้เธอพาเรามาชิมสมูธตีแ้ ก้วโปรด(BT: This volume,
she invites us to taste her favorite smoothies.)
ที่ชอบเพราะจะแมตช์ กบั ชุดว่ายน้ าได้หลายชุด(BT: I like it
because it matches with many swimming suits.)
ส่วนมากจะถ่ายรู ปอาหารดีสเพลย์ ต่างๆ(BT: Mostly, I like
taking photos of different food displays.)
มาเริ่ มกันที่เทรนด์ ประจาฤดูใบไม้ผลิฤดูร้อนปี นี้กนั ก่อนเลย (BT: เทรนด์
Let’s start with the spring and summer trend of this year.)
The above table shows ten examples of lexical words. For example, the word plan is used as a verb in a Thai context: จะต้องแพลนเลยว่า (BT: has to plan) while trend in
เทรนด์ ประจาฤดูใบไม้ผลิฤดูร้อน (BT: the spring and summer trend) is another example of English noun, commonly used among Thai people in their speaking and written communication in Thai. The third highest frequently used code-mixing items in the study were in the phrasal form. The total number of the phrases amounted to 298. The table below shows some examples of English code-mixing found. Table 6: Examples of phrasal code-mixing Phrase
Code-Mixing in the Text
จริ งๆแล้วหลักเลยก็ Positive thinking นุ๊กเอามาใช้ตลอดเวลา (BT: The positive thinking is the principle which I apply to my life.
Natural anti-aging ธรรมชาติบาบัดเพื่อความเยาว์วยั (BT: Natural anti-aging is a natural therapy to remain young.)
Working woman ต้องกล้าและลุย (BT: A working woman must be brave and challenged.
Private time มาถึงแล้ว (BT: It’s now our private time.)
มีกิจกรรมเพื่อนทางจดหมายหรื อPen friend (BT: There is a pen friend activity.)
รู มเมททักทายแล้วยิม้ (BT: The room maid greets and smiles.)
Happy Work Place
นอกจากนั้นความสุขจากการทางานหรื อ Happy Work Placeก็จะ หาได้ยาก (BT: Moreover, the happy work place is rarely found.)
ฉบับนี้ได้ Beach girl ตัวจริ งมาเป็ นแบบให้ (BT: The real beach girl was modeled in this magazine.)
ปวดศีรษะแบบตึงเครี ยด (Tension headache) พบได้มากถึง7 ใน10 ของผูม้ ีอาการปวดศีรษะ (BT: Tension headache is found in seven out of ten patients of headache.)
Hot on the beach
Hot on the beach อวดผิวสวยกับแฟชัน ่ ตัวเก่ง (BT: Hot on the beach: Show your beautiful skin with your favorite fashionable clothes.)
In the table above, 10 out of 298 English code-mixing phrases found in the study were demonstrated. For example, the phrases pen friend was used with a Thai phrase of similar meaning, เพื่อนทางจดหมายหรื อPen friend. The least frequently linguistic patterns of code-mixing based on Ho’s (2007) classification framework was the incomplete sentence. The incomplete sentence was found only once (0.08%) and it is What a man wants?
The last pattern is the full sentences. Five sentences were found as shown in the table below. Table 7: Single full sentence code-mixing Sentence
Code-Mixing in the Text Are you in hot flush hell? เมื่ออาการร้อนวูบวาบทาให้คุณร้อนรุ่ ม
Are you in hot flush hell?
เป็ นไฟ (BT: Are you in a hot flush hell and it makes you boiling hot?)
I want to look fantastic.
I want to look fantastic. (Heading of a column.)
Ask your pharmacist.
Ask your pharmacist. (Heading of a column.)
Meet the expert.
Meet the expert. (Heading of a column.)
The kids are all right.
The kids are all right. (Name of a movie.)
Table 7 reveals five English code- mixing complete sentences which were found in the study. Code-mixing in the form of complete sentences are rarely found. In summary, based on Ho’s (2007) classification framework, 1,150 English codes used in the Thai text were classified into seven groups. Proper nouns were found the highest in number (36.27%) while the incomplete sentences were the least in number (0.08 %). 2. Classification of English-Thai code-mixing based on Kannaovakun ’s (2007) framework The code-mixing found in this study based on the framework which Ho (2007) used in his study comprising seven linguistic patterns, was later classified into six categories based on the nativized features, the framework which Kannaovakun applied in
her study. They are truncation, hybridization, conversion, semantic shift, reduplication, and word order shift. This is to observe how the found code-mixing was formed.
Table 8: Classification of code-mixing based on Kannaovakun’s (2007) framework Nativized Features
4. Semantic shift
6. Word order shift
1. Truncation 2. Hybridization
Table 8 shows that hybridization was found at the highest level at 84.78 %. This feature was found to be extraordinarily high compared with the rest of the features. The second highest feature found was word order shift which was at only 8.07%, followed by truncation at 3.76%, conversion at 1.24%, semantic shift at 1.24% and reduplication at 0.93% respectively. It is noticeable that only 322 out of 1,150 code-mixing items could be classified based on Kannaovakun’s (2007) framework which focused on nativized features. It is plausible to explain that the rest of code-mixing items amounting to 828 were formal English pattern. The nativized features deal more with informal feature of English pattern.
Some examples for each of the six features were provided to observe the phenomena of how the code-mixing was formed. The order in presenting the examples follows the sequence shown in Table 8. The first nativized feature is truncation or code-mixing resulting from a process of shortening a word. The total number of this kind was only 12 and examples are illustrated in Table 9 below.
Table 9: Examples of truncation code-mixing Truncation
Code-Mixing in the Text
Air conditioned room
คนชอบอยูใ่ นห้องแอร์ (BT: People like to stay in an air conditioned room.)
ผมทา Cardio เป็ นประจา (BT: I always do the Cardio
แพทย์ใช้วธิ ีการBio scan มากขึ้น (BT: Doctors apply biological scan more than before.)
การมีประจาเดือนหรื อที่ผหู ้ ญิงหลายคนมักจะเรี ยกหรื อรู ้จกั กันว่า เมนส์ Menstruation
(BT: Menstruation or some women call it mens.)
เราจึงไม่มีปญหาเด็กติดเกม(คอม) (BT: We don’t have the Computer
problem of children hooking on game com.)
รวมทั้งการแวะเวียนมาไม่ขาดสายของเหล่าเซเลบมาก หน้าหลายตา (BT: Including the visits of different celeb groups)
ในปัจจุบนั มีการผ่าตัดโดยการใช้กล้องขยาย micro surgery Micro surgery
(BT: At present, there is an operation with a microscope known as a micro surgery.)
โปรกอล์ ฟที่ตอ้ งเดินทางแข่งขันระหว่างประเทศ โปรกอล์ฟ
(BT: A professional golfer who has to travel for international matches…)
หากคุณอยู่ หอพัก คอนโด อพาร์ทเม้นท์ไม่มีสวนไม่มีสนามให้วงิ่ Condominium จ๊อกกิ้ง (BT: If you stay in a condo or an apartment
where there is no park or garden for jogging…)
มี่เลือกเฉพาะไฮไลท์ ที่คิดว่าน่าจะโดนใจชาวสุขภาพดีกนั ทุกคน ไฮไลท์
(BT: I chose only the hi-light which I thought was attractive to all health-concerned people.)
แบบHi-cut ช่วยเพิ่มความเพรี ยวให้รูปร่ างสมดุลขึ้น
(BT: The hi-cut style helps you look slender.)
หากเราเน้นความเป็ นแพทย์แบบไฮเทคมากไปแล้ว อนาคตอาจมี การพัฒนาหุ่นยนต์แพทย์ข้ ึนมาแทนแพทย์จริ งๆ (BT: If we focus heavily on hi-tech doctors, we may develop a robot doctor instead of having a live doctor.)
Table 9 shows examples of truncation found in the study. This type of the nativized feature is the third highest frequently used. In this Thai statement, หากคุณอยู่หอพัก
คอนโด (BT: If you stay in a dormitory, a condo…) the word condo is shortened from condominium. Another word that is also familiar among Thais is hi- tech, which is a shortened form of the word high technology. The second feature is hybridization, the feature found in this study to be at the highest frequency (84.78%). As known, hybridization is the process of one language being blended with another. Examples of hybridized code-mixing found in the seven Thai health magazines are shown in Table 10. Table 10: Examples of hybridization code-mixing Hybridized Phrase
วันพาร์กินสันโลก ครี มกันแดด
BT World’s Parkinson day Sun block Cream
Code-Mixing in the Text
วันที่11 เมษายน เป็ นวันพาร์กินสันโลก (BT: April 11 is the World’s Parkinson day.)
เตรี ยมอุปกรณ์กนั แดดอย่างเช่นแว่นกันแดด หมวดกันแดดและครี มกัน
แดด(BT: Prepare the sun protection equipment such as sunglasses, a hat and sun block cream.)
รังสี ยวู ี
เนื่องจากชายทะเลจะมีความเข้มข้นของแสงแดดสูง ทาให้ผิวหนังได้รับ รั งสี ยวู ีมาก (BT: Because the sun concentration is high at the beach, the skin can absorb more a UV ray.)
ผลการวิจยั พบว่าการฟังเพลงคลาสสิ ค30 นาทีจะทาให้จิตใจสงบเท่ากับ การกินยาแวเลียมขนาด10 กรัม เพลงคลาสสิ ค
สารอัลฟาทอกซิน บัตรเครดิต ไวรัสตับ อักเสบบี
(BT: The results of the study revealed that listening to classical songs for 30 minutes helped to calm down equally to taking a 10 gram valium.)
เชื้อราบางชนิดจะสร้างสารอัลฟาทอกซิ น (BT: Some fungi will produce Alpha toxin.)
คนจานวนมากขึ้นใช้บัตรเครดิตซื้อของ (BT: More people use Credit card
credit cards to buy things.)
ปั จจุบนั ประชากรโลกประมาณ350-400ล้านคนติดเชื้อไวรั สตับ อักเสบบี (BT: At present, 350-400 million people of the world were infected with the B virus.)
นักวิจยั ก็บอกกับอาสาสมัครว่ายาแก้ปวดกาลังออกฤทธิ์โดยที่ไม่มีการ เปลี่ยนแปลงขนาดโดสของยา (BT: The researcher told the volunteers that the pain killer was working without changing the amount of dose.)
ภายในงานมีนิทรรศการให้ความรู ้ดา้ นโรคมะเร็ ง การตรวจประเมิน ความเสี่ ยงโรคมะเร็ งด้วยระบบคอมพิวเตอร์ (BT: At the fair, there are an exhibition of cancer and cancer risk evaluation using the computer system.)
มีหน่วยงานที่รณรงค์เกี่ยวกับโรคพาร์กินสันในหลายประเทศทัว่ โลกใช้ ดอกทิ วลิป (BT: There were sectors that campaigned on Parkinson in several countries around the world by using tulips as a symbol.)
As illustrated in Table 10, an English word was blended with a Thai word to form a new word while still maintaining the former meaning. For example, in the
phrases ขนาดโดส (BT: dose), ระบบคอมพิวเตอร์ (BT: Computer system) and ไวรั สตับอักเสบ (BT: B Virus) result from a mixing of the two codes, English and Thai. To elaborate,
ขนาด (BT: amount) is a Thai word while dose is an English word. The two codes are mixed and the new code- mixing phrase still maintain the meaning of each component which it has prior to the combination of the two codes. The code-mixing phrases shown above are common among the Thai people. The third nativized feature is conversion, a change in the part of speech of the English code when mixed with the Thai code. Conversed words are shown in Table 11 below. According to the findings, only four conversed code-mixing words were found. Table 11: Conversion code-mixing Word & Its Original Form Surprise (verb/ noun)
อีโก้ (BT: Ego noun) Cardio(noun)
Code-Mixing in the Text
ของขวัญที่ HP ฉลองปี ที่5 น่า surpriseจังเลย (BT: The HP’s adjective
present on its 5th anniversary is surprising.)
ฉันรู ้สึกว่าเราอีโก้ กนั มากขึ้น(BT: I feel that we have more
ego than before.) นุ๊กจะcardio ประมาณครึ่ งชัว่ โมงถึง 50 นาที (BT: Nook will do the cardio for about half an hour to 50 minutes.)
ผมกาลังยืนชมทะเลและกาลังจะไปดินเนอร์ (dinner) คนเดียว Dinner(noun)
(BT: I’m enjoying the sea view and going to have dinner alone.)
Table 11 shows four conversion code-mixing words. There was a change in the part of speech of the English code when mixed with the Thai code. For example, in this statement, น่า surpriseจังเลย (BT: to be surprising), the part of speech of this English word, surprise, is either verb or noun; however, when surprise is used in this Thai context, น่า surpriseจังเลย, the part of speech of surprise is adjective. Similarly, in นุ๊กจะcardio (BT:
Nook will do the cardio), the word cardio used as a code-mixing word in the Thai context is a verb, not a noun as its original part of speech. The fourth nativized feature is semantic shift code-mixing, a shift in meaning when the English code is mixed with the Thai code. Only four items were found in this category and some are illustrated in Table 12.
Table 12: Examples of semantic shift code-mixing English Code
Shift in Meaning
Code-Mixing in the Text
อาจเป็ นเรื่ องธรรมดาที่ทุกแวดวงสังคมมีเรื่ องกอสซิป เม้ ากระจาย เม้า(BT: Mouth) gossiping ชาร์ตแบต (BT: Charge the battery)
(BT: It’s common in all societies that there will be gossip going round.)
ฝันยังหาโอกาสที่จะเดินทางท่องเทียวเพื่อเป็ นการชาร์ ตแบตให้กบั
increase/store the willpower/ ตนเอง (BT: Fun still looks for a chance to travel to increase her willpower/energy.) energy
ดิฉนั และแฟนกาลังวางแผนเรื่ องแต่งงานกันอยูค่ ่ะ(BT: My แฟน (BT: Fan)
boyfriend and I are planning on our wedding.)
As shown in Table 12, the three code-mixing examples were semantic-shifted. For example, the English word mouth is changed in meaning from a body part to gossiping, when used in the Thai context. The second word charge the battery is to increase the power of an electrical appliance but in the Thai text, this phrase is used to mean an increase in the human willpower energy. The other example, the meaning of a fan, which refers to someone who admires and supports a person, sport teams, etc., is changed to a boyfriend or in some cases to a spouse, when used in the Thai context. The next category of the nativized feature code-mixing based on Kanaovakun ’s (2007) classification framework is reduplication, a process in which a word or part of a word is exactly repeated or with a slight change while the meaning of reduplicated word
is also repeated. This group was found to be the lowest level of frequency with only three code-mixing phrases found as illustrated in Table 13. Table 13: Reduplicated code-mixing Reduplication
Code-Mixing in the Text
เรื่ องรู ปร่ างดูแลอย่างไรให้กระฉับกระเฉงและดูฟิตเฟิ ร์ มขนาดนี้
ฟิ ตเฟิ ร์ม
Fit and firm
(BT: How to take care of yourself to look active as well as fit and firm.)
สาหรับทริ ปนี้มี่ตอ้ งขอ บ๊ าย บายไปก่อนค่ะ(BT: For
this trip, I have to say good bye.)
ฮัลโหลเทสๆ (BT: Hello, this is a test.)
Table13 shows examples of reduplication of the English code-mixing in Thai magazines. There were only three words found. First, fit firm is a code-mixing phrase in the Thai statement ดูฟิตเฟิ ร์ ม (BT: to look active as well as fit and firm). The words fit and firm in the Thai context are reduplicated in meaning. Meanwhile, bye bye and test test are reduplications of exactly the same word with the same meaning. It is possible that the reduplication code-mixing was applied to emphasize the meaning of a word and catch the reader’s attention. Again, this type of nativized features is rarely found in the studied texts. The last nativized feature of code-mixing presented in this paper is the word order shift. This feature was found to be second highest with the total number of 26 occurrences (8.07%). Some examples are shown in Table 14. Table 14: Examples of word-order-shift code-mixing Thai word order
English word Code-Mixing in the Text order
คอนแทกเลนส์ แฟชั่นเป็ นอย่างไร (BT: What is fashion contact lens?)
ทริ ปซานฟราน ฮอร์โมนโปรเจสเตอ โรน
San Francisco (BT: We will end the San Francisco trip with Trip taking all of you to a famous restaurant)
ฮอร์ โมนโปรเจสเตอโรนมีผลดีมากกว่าผลเสี ย (BT: Progesterone Progesterone hormone has more good points than bad ones.) hormone
ทีม Nation Senior
การกอดนั้นช่วยเพิ่มฮอร์ โมนอ๊ อกซิ โตซิ น (BT: Hugging helps to increase oxitocin hormone.)
โดยใช้โปรแกรมคอมพิวเตอร์ พิมพ์ (BT: by using computer programs)
เกมคอมพิวเตอร์ ยงั ไม่มีใครรู ้จกั ในสมัยก่อน (BT: In the past, no one knew about computer games.)
ที ม Nation Senior ที่มีอาจารย์สาทิส ชนะคะ Nation (BT: The Nation senior team, with Ajarn Satit as a Senior Team member, won.)
น้ าตาลชนิดอื่นๆเช่น นา้ อัดลมไดเอทชนิดกระป๋ อง คุ้กกีไ้ ดเอท (BT: น้ าอัดลมไดเอท/คุก้ กี้ diet cookies other kinds of sugar such as canned diet soft drinks ไดเอท and diet cookies) คอร์สฟิ ตเนส
ฉันไม่มีเงินพอจะไปเข้าคอร์ สฟิ ตเนสดีๆ (BT: I don’t have fitness course enough money to go to a good fitness course.)
Japanese style salad
มีเมนูน่าสนใจอีกเพียบ อาทิ… ซาซิมิสดๆ หรื อสลัดสไตล์ ญี่ปุ่น เป็ น ต้น (BT: …there are various interesting dishes on the menu such as …fresh sashimi, …Japanese style salad)
Table 14 shows some examples of word-order-shift code-mixing phrases. The nativized feature of the word order shift came second after the hybridization. As seen, there was a shift in word order of the English code when mixed with the Thai code. For example, in the Thai context, the phrase course fitness is used instead of fitness course, which is a correct word order in the English language. Another example is trip San Fran instead of a San Francisco trip. In Thai, the main noun comes before its modifier;
therefore, when the English code is mixed with the Thai code, a word order shift in the code-mixing occurs. In conclusion, the classification of the English code-mixing based on the classification framework of Kannaovakun (2007) revealed that the hybridization was found at the highest level (84.78%), the rate which is rather high when compared with the second highest feature, the word order shift (8.07%). The reduplication feature was found to be at the lowest level (0.93%).
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
Conclusion A study of English-Thai code mixing in seven Thai Health magazines was conducted in order to identify the phenomenon of English code-mixing in Thai texts. The purposes of the study were to investigate the extent and patterns of English-Thai codemixing in Thai health magazines based on the classification framework used by Ho (2007) and Kannaovakun (2003). The data were gained from seven Thai health magazines of the April 2011 comprising Be well, Cheewachit (ชี วจิ ต), Good Health, Health Today, Health Plus, Morchoaban (หมอชาวบ้ าน) and Sukapapdee (สุขภาพดี). Initially, all the English codes from the cover page to the back page were listed. Then, they were classified into seven groups: letters of the alphabet, short forms, proper nouns, lexical words, phrases, incomplete sentences and complete sentences based on Ho ( 2007)’s classification framework to observe the linguistic patterns. After that, the researcher classified the data into six groups comprising truncation, hybridization, conversion, semantic shift, reduplication and word order shift based on the classification framework applied by Kannaovakun ( 2003) in order to study how the English code-mixing was formed. The results showed that based on Ho’s (2007) classification framework, the highest frequency of the English code-mixing words fell on proper names (36.27%), followed by lexical words (28.69%), phrases (25.04%), and letters of the alphabet (8.27%) respectively. The rest of the linguistic patterns, short forms, incomplete
sentences and single full sentences were rarely found with the frequency level at 1.05%, 0.60%, 0.08% respectively. Based on Kannaovakun (2003)’s framework of nativized features applied in her study, the highest frequency of the nativized features found was hybridization (84.78%), followed by word order shift (8.07%), truncation (3.76%), conversion 1.24%), semantic shift (1.24%)and reduplication (0.93%), respectively.
Discussion The results of the study revealed that in terms of linguistic patterns based on Ho’s (2007) classification framework, proper noun code-mixing words were found at the highest level with 417 occurrences or 36.27%. It is plausible to explain that the data gained were from health magazines so the articles found were rather formal and full of technical and scientific terms as well as names of people and places. The English codes which were mixed with the Thai context were also technical and scientific, as well as equivalent specific names for people and places, to parallel with the content. This result coincides with that of Kanadpon (2000), who revealed that more than 50% of the English-Thai code-mixing she found in her study, was subject-specific terminology. The rest was non-technical ones. The findings of Wongpanicharoen (1997) also supported the finding of this research, which revealed that proper names were at the highest number. Wongpanicharoen found out that the radio announcers, who were the research participants, used two types of English words in their language mixture: general words and technical words. Technical words were obviously included in the proper name category. The results of this study are correlated to Wongpanicharoen’s study.
The second highest frequency fell on the lexical words with 330 occurrences or 28.69%, followed by phrases with 288 occurrences or 25.04 %. It was found out that the elements of lexical words and phrases were found at a high number. This coincides with the findings of Ho’s (2007) study of which findings revealed that lexical words and phrases stood at two-thirds of the total. It is also interesting to find that the code-mixing phenomenon of the Cantonese and Thai languages were closely correlated. The findings support those of this research that code-mixing items are mostly in the form of lexical words and phrases. The results of this study were also similar to those of Ekola (2010). Ekola found out from the study that Finnish was replaced with English most frequently at a phrasal level and was rarely replaced at a sentence level. The findings of this study also indicated that the letters of the alphabet were found only 8.27% with 95 occurrences. The short forms were found at only 12 occurrences or 1.05 %, followed by the single complete sentences at 7 occurrences or 0.60%. The incomplete sentences were found only once or 0.08%. The number of occurrences of incomplete and complete sentences in this study was at a very low level but this is not surprising. It is possible that the data of this study were collected from Thai magazines and the base language was Thai. English was only mixed in the Thai texts at some points with some reasons. For example, it is essential to use English words because they are technical terms or some are abbreviations. In particular, the written documents in Thai written scarcely use the English code-mixing as a sentence or an incomplete sentence except in case that it is a heading, a movie title, or a quotation. Also, it is plausible to explain that in general, the code-mixing in the form of a sentence or an incomplete sentence in everyday communication or in written documents rarely takes place, when compared with that of a word or a phrase.
Ho (2007) confirms this instance. The findings of her study clearly indicated that the English single word code-mixing, not in the form of a sentence, was significantly found in the native language or the Cantonese context. In terms of classification framework based on the nativized features applied by Kannaovakun’s (2007), the findings of this study showed surprising information. Hybridization was found to be extremely high (273 occurrences or 84.78%) when compared with the rest of the features. The word order shift feature came second, but the gap was extraordinary wide (26 occurrences or 8.07%). The reduplication was found at the lowest level (3 occurrences or 0.93%). It is plausible to explain that Thai people tend to mix the English language with the Thai context which is the form of hybridization because it is a trendy style of communication. People tend to mix English in their conversation and writing, possibly to show that they have English knowledge, they belong to an educated class or they use English automatically with no special intention. Therefore, blending one language into another new word, and once it is widely and frequently used, it becomes familiar to the public such as เพลงคลาสสิ ค (BT: classical songs) and รั งสี ยวู ี (UV ray). From the findings, it is plausible to conclude that writers have included English code-mixing in their works for some reasons as follows: 1. There are no appropriate Thai words to denote the exact meaning of some English words such as technical terms or scientific names. 2. Thai words are sometimes redundant, with a long definition while equivalents in English are easier to use. For example, บัตรเอที เอ็ม (ATM card) is more commonly used than บัตรจ่ ายเงินอัตโนมัติ (ATM card) because บัตรเอทีเอ็ม (ATM card) is more concise. Therefore, Thais tend to mix some English terms in their communication.
3. The writers of these seven magazines, as well as other Thai magazines, wrote mostly in Thai because the target groups are Thai readers. However, the English code-mixing was used, possibly to draw the attention of the readers and to be trendy with what was going on in the society. Currently, there is a lot of code-mixing used in communication locally, particularly in oral communication. 4. The writers may use the code-mixing with an intention to emphasize or clarify specific information to ensure that the readers correctly get the message (Kannaovakun, 2003). For example, in จอทัชสกรี น (BT: touch screen) and ปลาซาร์ ดีน (BT: sardine), these two codemixing phrases possess reduplicated words. The word สกรี น (BT: screen) means the same as จอ (BT: screen) in Thai while a sardine already conveys the meaning of a kind of fish so there is no need to have the word ปลา (BT: fish). Therefore, using จอ (BT: screen) and
ปลา (BT: fish) in these phrases are redundant. However, it is possible that these codemixing words are intentionally used to emphasize the information and make sure that all Thais understand the meanings. 5. The writers want to respond to the social needs of the readers. This reason is confirmed by the findings of Muyasaroh (2009) who found in her study that three reasons for using the English- code mixing were the need filling motive, prestige filling motive and other reasons (such as with a purpose to pay respect and to give information). The results also indicated that out of 1,150 code-mixing occurrences, only 322 could be classified based on Kannaovakun’s (2007) classification framework. It is surprising that the other 829 code-mixing items did not belong to any of the six nativized features. It was plausible to explain that the data in this study were from health magazines and the language used was rather formal. Some nativized or localized features are rather based on an informal form; for example, the word condo is a truncation or a
shortened form of condominium. Other examples are the phrase ไปdinner (BT: go for a dinner) which is conversion or a change in parts of speech, the word เม้ า (BT: gossip) which is a semantic shift or a change in meaning or the word บ๊ าย บาย (BT: bye bye) which is a reduplication. All of the given examples show that they are informal items which are rarely found in writing, except in movie/play scripts or novels. Meanwhile, code-mixing words or phrases such as squeeze technique, fruit cocktail, lifestyle, go green, cover story, refined olive oil, sun protection factor or typhoid cannot be classified based on the six nativized features. They are formal English.
Applications of the Study The findings from the study are hoped to be benefit those who are interested in code-mixing to study the occurrences of a second/foreign language being mixed in a first language written documents. The results of the study revealed the patterns of codemixing items, their frequency and demonstrated how English was mixed in Thai. The findings are able to help support or decline previous studies on similar topics for the academic development and growth of research. This study may propose some inspiration for other researchers to conduct studies on code-mixing or related topics since not much research has been done locally. Most of the previous studies focused more on spoken communication. For example, a study conducted by Dhitiwattana (1997) was about the mixing of English in Thai by lecturers of different disciplines at Kasersart University and that by Isharyanti and Stella (2009) on code switching and code mixing in Internet chatting: between yes and ya and si. In the world of globalization, English is widely used and the tendency in mixing the English code in the Thai communication is greatly increasing. Also, the limitations found in this study help researchers to carefully consider when planning to do research.
Limitations of the Study 1. As the data for this study were from only seven Thai health magazines, the findings may not be applied broadly to other kinds of magazines. 2. The seven Thai health magazines selected for this study were limited to only the volume of April 2011; therefore, they may not be representative of the use of EnglishThai code-mixing in magazines of the whole year. 3. This study was limited to the classification frameworks used by Ho’s (2007) and Kannaovakun (2007) which was based on the nativization proposed by Kachru (1978). The framework of nativization classification was found in this study problematic because only 322 out of 1,150 code- mixing items could be categorized when applied this specific framework. The reason was probably due to the formal language features used as the data. As stated, the data were from health magazines. The framework of nativization features was based more on informal English patterns.
Recommendations for Further Studies With the exception of English code-mixing appeared most frequently in Thai health magazines, the researcher has observed that the English code-mixing occurs in almost all types of magazines, newspapers, advertisements, radio programs, television programs, academic areas, daily life conversations, speeches and so on. Hence, it would be interesting and valuable to study further how English code-mixing is used in these kinds of communication and to investigate factors influencing the use of English codemixing as well as code-mixing in second language acquisition. Another recommended research topic is to conduct a comparative study of English-code mixing found in other languages, especially the languages used in the Asian countries. As seen from the related research that the code-mixing found with the
Cantonese language showed similar results such as that of Ho’s (2007). This recommendation applies to those who are also capable of another language besides Thai and English. In terms of business arena, it is also interesting to focus on research topics on English code-mixing in business such as to study the English codes applied in business communication, either in emails, formal written documents such as terms of reference (TOR), contracts or even meeting minutes as well as oral communication such as business dialogs, business meetings or speeches. In conclusion, a study on English -Thai code-mixing in seven Thai health magazines has revealed interesting findings despite some limitations: proper nouns and lexical words are found at the high level while hybridization stood out prominently. However, the researcher has reviewed related literature and found out that related topics such as code-switching, borrowing words or loan words are also challenging to further study.
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Miss Watcharee Janhom
Date of Birth:
June 17, 1974
Place of Birth:
419/132 Family Park Condo, Ladprao 48, Samsennok, Hauykhang, Bangkok
Education Background: 2011
M.A. ( Business English for International Communication) Srinakharinwirot University
B.A. (English) Ramkhamheang University, Bangkok