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© Copyright State of NSW and Office of Environment and Heritage With the exception of photographs, the State of NSW and Office of Environment and Heritage are pleased to allow this material to be reproduced in whole or in part for educational and non-commercial use, provided the meaning is unchanged and its source, publisher and authorship are acknowledged. Specific permission is required for the reproduction of photographs. The Office of Environment and Heritage (OEH) has compiled this guideline in good faith, exercising all due care and attention. No representation is made about the accuracy, completeness or suitability of the information in this publication for any particular purpose. OEH shall not be liable for any damage which may occur to any person or organisation taking action or not on the basis of this publication. Readers should seek appropriate advice when applying the information to their specific needs. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this document is accurate at the time of publication. However, as appropriate, readers should obtain independent advice before making any decision based on this information. Published by: Office of Environment and Heritage NSW 59 Goulburn Street, Sydney NSW 2000 PO Box A290, Sydney South NSW 1232 Phone: (02) 9995 5000 (switchboard) Phone: 131 555 (environment information and publications requests) Phone: 1300 361 967 (national parks, climate change and energy efficiency information, and publications requests) Fax: (02) 9995 5999 TTY: (02) 9211 4723 Email: [email protected] Website: www.environment.nsw.gov.au Report pollution and environmental incidents Environment Line: 131 555 (NSW only) or [email protected] See also www.environment.nsw.gov.au ISBN 978 1 74293 963 6 OEH 2012/0997 December 2012 Printed on environmentally sustainable paper

Table of contents

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Contents 1

Your guide to successful M&V projects ............................................................................ 1 1.1 Using the M&V Operational Guide ................................................................................. 1 1.2 The Motors, Pumps and Fans Applications Guide (this guide) ..................................... 2

2

Understanding M&V concepts ........................................................................................... 4 2.1 Introducing key M&V terms ............................................................................................ 4 2.2 Best practise M&V process ............................................................................................ 5

3

Getting started ..................................................................................................................... 6 3.1 Proposed motor, pump and fan ECM(s) ........................................................................ 6 3.2 Decide approach for pursuing M&V ............................................................................... 7

4

M&V design and planning ................................................................................................... 8 4.1 M&V design .................................................................................................................... 8 4.2 Prepare M&V plan ........................................................................................................ 13

5

Data collection, modelling and analysis ......................................................................... 16 5.1 Measure baseline data ................................................................................................. 16 5.2 Develop energy model and uncertainty ....................................................................... 19 5.3 Implement ECM(s) ....................................................................................................... 21 5.4 Measure post retrofit data ............................................................................................ 21 5.5 Savings analysis and uncertainty................................................................................. 22

6

Finish .................................................................................................................................. 23 6.1 Reporting ...................................................................................................................... 23 6.2 Project close and savings persistence ......................................................................... 23

7

M&V Examples ................................................................................................................... 24 7.1 Examples from the IPMVP ........................................................................................... 24 7.2 Examples from this guide ............................................................................................. 25

Appendix A: Example scenario A ............................................................................................ 26 Getting started ..................................................................................................................... 26 Summary of M&V plan ......................................................................................................... 28 Conducting measurements .................................................................................................. 29 Calculating savings .............................................................................................................. 29 Estimating uncertainty ......................................................................................................... 30 Reporting results .................................................................................................................. 32 Appendix B: Example scenario B ............................................................................................ 33 Getting started ..................................................................................................................... 33 Summary of M&V plan ......................................................................................................... 34 Conducting measurements .................................................................................................. 35 Developing an energy model ............................................................................................... 37 Calculating savings .............................................................................................................. 37 Estimating uncertainty ......................................................................................................... 39 Reporting results .................................................................................................................. 42

Your guide to successful M&V projects

1

1

Your guide to successful M&V projects

The Measurement and Verification (M&V) Operational Guide has been developed to help M&V practitioners, business energy savings project managers, government energy efficiency program managers and policy makers translate M&V theory into successful M&V projects. By following this guide you will be implementing the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) across a typical M&V process. Practical tips, tools and scenario examples are provided to assist with decision making, planning, measuring, analysing and reporting outcomes. But what is M&V exactly? M&V is the process of using measurement to reliably determine actual savings for energy, demand, cost and greenhouse gases within a site by an Energy Conservation Measure (ECM). Measurements are used to verify savings, rather than applying deemed savings or theoretical engineering calculations, which are based on previous studies, manufacturerprovided information or other indirect data. Savings are determined by comparing post-retrofit performance against a ‘business as usual’ forecast. Across Australia the use of M&V has been growing, driven by business and as a requirement in government funding and financing programs. M&V enables: § calculation of savings for projects that have high uncertainty or highly variable characteristics § verification of installed performance against manufacturer claims § a verified result which can be stated with confidence and can prove return on investment § demonstration of performance where a financial incentive or penalty is involved § effective management of energy costs § the building of robust business cases to promote successful outcomes In essence, Measurement and Verification is intended to answer the question, “how can I be 1 sure I’m really saving money? ”

1.1

Using the M&V Operational Guide

The M&V Operational Guide is structured in three main parts; Process, Planning and Applications. Process Guide: The Process Guide provides guidance that is common across all M&V projects. Practitioners new to M&V should start with the Process Guide to gain an understanding of M&V theory, principles, terminology and the overall process. Planning Guide: The Planning Guide is designed to assist both new and experienced practitioners to develop a robust M&V Plan for your energy savings project, using a step-by-step process for designing a M&V project. A Microsoft Excel tool is also available to assist practitioners to capture the key components for a successful M&V Plan. Applications Guides: Seven separate application-specific guides provide new and experienced M&V practitioners with advice, considerations and examples for technologies found in typical commercial and industrial sites. The Applications Guides should be used in conjunction with the Planning Guide to understand application-specific considerations and design choices. Application Guides are available for:

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Source: www.energymanagementworld.org

1.1

2

§ § § § § § §

Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

Lighting Motors, pumps and fans Commercial heating, ventilation and cooling Commercial and industrial refrigeration Boilers, steam and compressed air Whole buildings Renewables and cogeneration

Figure 1: M&V Operational Guide structure

1.2

The Motors, Pumps and Fans Applications Guide (this guide)

The Motors, Pumps and Fans Applications Guide provides specific guidance for conducting M&V for common projects that involve electric motors, pumps or fans. It is designed to be used in conjunction with the Process Guide, providing tips, suggestions and examples specific to motor related projects.

1.2

Your guide to successful M&V projects

3

The Motors, Pumps and Fans Applications Guide is presented as follows:

§ Understanding M&V concepts

Section 2 presents a high level diagram of the best practise M&V process.

§ Getting started

Section 3 provides a discussion on key things that need to be considered when getting your M&V project started.

§ M&V design and planning

Section 4 provides guidance on how to design and plan your motor, pump or fan M&V project and key considerations, potential issues and suggested approaches.

§ Data collection, modelling and analysis

Section 5 provides guidance on data collection, modelling and analysis for your motor, pump or fan M&V project.

§ Finish

Section 6 provides a discussion on reporting M&V outcomes, ongoing M&V and ensuring savings persist over time.

§ References to examples of M&V projects

Section 7 provides a reference list of example projects located within the IPMVP and throughout this guide.

§ Example motor and pump scenario

Appendix A illustrates the M&V process using a worked example of a project

§ Example motor, VSD and fan scenario

Appendix B illustrates the M&V process using a worked example of a project

1.2

4

Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

2

Understanding M&V concepts

2.1

Introducing key M&V terms

The terms listed in Table 1 below are used throughout this guide and are introduced here to assist with initial understanding. Refer to Section 4 within the Process Guide for a full definition and explanation. Table 1: Key M&V terms M&V Term

Definition

Examples

Measurement boundary

A notional boundary that defines the physical scope of a M&V project. The effects of an ECM are determined at this boundary.

Whole facility, sub facility, lighting circuit, mechanical plant room, switchboard, individual plant and equipment etc.

Energy use

Energy used within the measurement boundary.

Electricity, natural gas, LPG, transport fuels, etc

Key parameters

Data sources relating to energy use and independent variables that are measured or estimated which form the basis for savings calculations.

Instantaneous power draw, metered energy use, efficiency, operating hours, temperature, humidity, performance output etc.

M&V Options

Four generic approaches for conducting M&V which are defined within the IPMVP.

These are known as Options A, B, C and D.

Routine adjustments

Routine adjustments to energy use that are calculated based on analysis of energy use in relation to independent variables.

Energy use may be routinely adjusted based on independent variables such as ambient temperature, humidity, occupancy, business hours, production levels, etc.

Non routine adjustments

Once-off or infrequent changes in energy use or demand that occur due to changes in static factors

Energy use may be non routinely adjusted based on static factors such as changes to building size, facade, installed equipment, vacancy, etc. Unanticipated events can also temporarily or permanently affect energy use. Examples include natural events such as fire, flood, drought or other events such as equipment failure, etc.

Interactive effects

Changes in energy use resulting from an ECM which will occur outside our defined measurement boundary.

Changes to the HVAC heat load through lighting efficiency upgrades, interactive effects on downstream systems due to changes in motor speed/pressure/flow, etc.

Performance

Output performance affected by the ECM.

System/equipment output (e.g. compressed air), comfort conditions, production, light levels, etc.

2.1

Understanding M&V concepts

2.2

5

Best practise M&V process

The following figure presents the best practise M&V process which is how the rest of the Pump, Motor and Fan Applications Guide is structured. Refer to the Process Guide for detailed guidance on the M&V processes. Figure 2: Best practise M&V process with references to M&V Process Guide

2.2

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Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

3

Getting started

3.1

Proposed motor, pump and fan ECM(s)

3.1.1 Pump, motor and fan projects Pumps and fans are driven by electric motors. Electric motors are also used to drive a broad range of machinery from compressors and machine tools right up to large conveyor belts or blowers. Power is delivered to electric motors which operate through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors to generate force. A fundamental component of improving motor, pump or fan efficiency is to reduce the power delivered to motor as a function of the useful work output. This is achieved by increasing the efficiency of the motor, the efficiency of the transmission mechanism and by matching the load to the demand as accurately as possible. Motor, pump and fan Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) aim to reduce motor demand and/or energy use through: 1. reducing power draw by: a. improving motor efficiency b. improving efficiency of power delivered between the motor and working fluid, such as improving the efficiency of belts or couplings c. installing variable speed drives to motors d. properly matching the pump or fan system to demand e. eliminating voltage imbalance f. reducing friction by removing throttling of pumps and damping of fans 2. introducing or adjusting controls to limit operating times of motors, pumps and fans 3. combinations of 1 and 2 above

3.1.2 Key points to note When considering an M&V, it is important to understand the nature of the site and proposed ECM(s) (what, where, when, why, how much) and the project benefits (e.g. energy, demand, greenhouse gas and cost savings). Key points to note when getting started are: § All options are available, however typically, motor, pump or fan projects use M&V Option A or B, which treat the project in isolation, thus avoiding the need to deal with the effects of other systems - except where the performance affects another part of the system e.g. HVAC condenser fans and chillers. § Identify independent variables that may affect before and after comparison include changing operating hours/patterns, seasonality, human behaviour. § Determine the desired level of uncertainty (precision + confidence). § Determine the required and desirable M&V outcomes. § The length of measurement is determined by the chosen option, and the desired level of accuracy. Section 4.2 provides detailed information on other M&V considerations for motor, pump and fan projects.

3.1

Getting started

3.2

7

Decide approach for pursuing M&V

Once the nature of the M&V project is scoped and the benefits assessed, the form of the M&V can be determined. Decide which M&V approach you wish to pursue: 1. Conduct project-level M&V 2. Conduct program-level M&V using a sample based approach incorporating project level M&V supplemented with evaluation within the program ‘population’. 3. Adopt a non-M&V approach in which savings are estimated, or nothing is done.

3.2

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Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

4

M&V design and planning

4.1

M&V design

4.1.1 M&V Option Use the matrix below to assist with identifying your project’s key measurement parameters and guidance on choosing the appropriate M&V Option. Table 2: Guidance on choosing the appropriate M&V Option Key parameters Typical projects

M&V Option

Changes in efficiency (input power draw versus work output requirement):

Change in power draw

§ Replace existing motor with a high efficiency Electronically Commutated (EC) or High Efficiency Motor (HEM).

§ Replacing inlet vanes on fans with VSD for better control § Matching motor, pump or fan system to actual demand:

§ Replacing pump, drive or fan to properly match system demand and/or with higher efficiency. § Reducing pipe / duct pressure losses: § Unthrottle valves and change pump or impeller. § Increasing pipe/duct diameters to reduce resistance where appropriate. § Replace fan belt with high efficiency synchronous belt. § Voltage optimisation / eliminating voltage imbalance.

4.1

Work output requirement

Operating hours Interactive effects OPTION A

§ Impeller trimming for oversized pumps so they operate at highest efficiency and use less absorbed power.

To estimate or stipulate

(e.g. production within in a process environment, or weather related for HVAC or refrigeration)

§ Motor, pump or fan major refurbishment.

§ Installation of variable speed drive (by removing bypass value and installing associated isolation valving and controls).

To measure

To consider

Rebalancing to meet system demand Future plant capacity requirements Occupant comfort Interactive effects

M&V design and planning

9

Key parameters Typical projects

M&V Option

Changes in controls:

Combination of operational control and motor, pump or fan efficiency initiatives above and additional initiatives listed below:

Operating hours

To estimate or stipulate

To consider

Changes in power draw

Occupant comfort

Interactive effects

Interactive effects Effects on existing motor VSDs

OPTION A

§ Reduction in plant and equipment operating times. § Occupant push-button activation and timer control (e.g. for supplementary condenser water in meeting rooms). § Installation of sensors to control fan or pump operation (e.g. to control contaminates such as carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide in car parks). § Changes to set points for existing sensors such as indoor dry bulb temperature.

To measure

§ Installation of additional low-load / multiple pumps to reduce power draw during low demand periods and reduced operating hours for larger pumps.

Measure the parameter with the biggest impact or uncertainty on the accuracy of the outcome. If both are unknown or uncertain, then Option A cannot be used.

OPTION C

OPTION B

All motor, pump or fan projects

Estimate or stipulate the remaining key parameters, including: § Changes in power draw § Operating hours § Interactive effects

Changes in power draw and work output requirement based on independent variables (e.g. operating hours, sensor based control)

Interactive effects

Whole facility energy consumption and

Interactive effects

Independent variables

Rebalancing to meet system demand Occupant comfort Interactive effects Effects on existing motor VSDs Choice of measurement boundary Rebalancing to meet system demand Future plant capacity requirements Occupant comfort Interactive effects Estimated savings are “large” (>10% of baseline energy) Rebalancing to meet system demand Future plant capacity requirements Occupant comfort

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Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

Key parameters Typical projects

M&V Option

OPTION D

Projects with no metered baseline

To measure

Actual energy consumption and

To estimate or stipulate Simulation input and modelling

Independent variables

To consider

Model calibration Modelling difficulty for certain building types/ECM’s

4.1.2 Measurement boundary Using M&V Option A or B, this is the part(s) of the motor, pump or fan system affected by the project. Similarly, for ease, the measurement boundary can be: § divided into sections (sub-projects), or § expanded to include foreign loads (e.g. connected power) if power draw, usage patterns and independent variables can be ascertained. Using M&V Option C this is the whole facility, or a large segment covered by a utility meter or sub-meter. Using this Option may result in reduced data collection cost, however the boundary covered by the meter usually includes additional loads, which may introduce undue data analysis complexity. In addition, the predicted savings from the motor, pump or fan project should be 10% or more of the total meter usage, in order to use Option C. Option D may be considered in the following situations: § New building design – evaluating the difference between average efficiency and high efficiency designs § Retrofit in the absence of a measured baseline. Suggested ECM related measurement boundaries (for Options A/B): § Motor only § Motor and pump/fan only § Motor pump fan + system Option C is usually not a viable approach unless the site usage is very simple (e.g. pumping station) or the site undergoes significant retrofit to systems (switch CAV to VAV or flour mill motor upgrade) where contribution is significant.

4.1.3 Key parameters The table below lists the key parameters to be considered when conducting M&V for a motor, pump or fan efficiency project.

4.1

M&V design and planning

11

Table 3: Key parameters to be considered when conducting M&V for motor, pump and fan projects Parameter

Description

Power draw and energy use

For motor, pump or fan efficiency retrofit projects, the change in power draw or energy use to the motor relative to its work output is the key parameter to measure. For simplified M&V within motor, pump or fan control projects, it may be assumed that the work output requirement, or duty of the fan or pump system remains unchanged (constant). For more complex systems (e.g. where a VSD is already installed), instantaneous power draw will not be sufficient to determine the change in energy use and as such the power draw must be measured over a suitable baseline period (i.e. energy use). It is important to note that the name plate rating of a motor lists the power output, not the electrical input. To determine the electrical input (at full load) the efficiency of the motor must be considered. The loading of the motor must also be considered. Power draw is usually expressed in kilowatts (kW) for motors however small motors under 1 kW may be expressed in watts (W). Energy use is usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh).

Operating hours

This is simply the amount of time the motor, pump or fan system operates. Control of operating hours is achieved using the following methods: § manual control by staff (e.g. kitchen exhaust fan) § automated controls such as time clocks to switch motors on and off at predetermined times § feedback sensors that monitor variables related to demand for work output (e.g. CO sensor may control when a car park exhaust fan turns on and off). § combinations of above (e.g. time clock + feedback sensor). The operating hours are dictated by the installed controls and subsequent operating patterns of the motor, pump or fan system which may be influenced by: § motor, pump or fan system type and application – HVAC, industrial processes, tools and machinery, utilities (e.g. water pumping) § occupancy times – business hours, 24/7 operation, seasonality, public holidays § operating times of site plant and equipment § type, placement and use of controls § weather effects – typically for HVAC systems that use pumps and fans § staff culture or behaviour affecting manual controls. For motor, pump or fan control projects, the change in operating hours are a key parameter to measure. For simplified M&V within motor, pump or fan efficiency retrofit projects, operating hours may be assumed constant, depending on their variability and associated uncertainty.

4.1.4 Interactive effects If the motor, pump or fan system is part of a larger process (e.g. heated water pumped through a boiler), then there may be interactive effects which should be considered and assessed. Efficiency retrofit projects on motors, pumps and fans that are part of a larger system may have an interactive effect on the other equipment due to: § changes in flow rates and/or pressures § changes in motor operating hours If the change to the other equipment is minor, then its effects can be ignored. If the change is material, then the measurement boundary should be extended to include the other equipment.

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Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

In cases where the interactive effects are complex and overall savings are significant, it may be more practical and cost effective to use Option C and measure the whole facility energy use.

4.1.5 Operating cycle The length of measurement is determined by the operating cycle of the energy system(s), chosen Option, and the desired level of accuracy. The table below outlines the suggested measurement timeframes for baseline and post-retrofit periods. Table 4: Suggested measurement timeframes for baseline and post retrofit periods Measured parameter

Option

A (power draw is key)

Power draw

Metered energy use

Short/instantaneous power draw during relevant time periods.

Not required unless load varies, then between one week and one month or periodic.

Independent variable linked to work output requirement (e.g. operating hours, CO sensor)

Repeat periodically if seasonality is an issue (e.g. weather related, production levels) A (operating hours is key)

Typically between one week and one month or periodic. Repeat periodically if seasonality is an issue (e.g. weather related, production levels)

B

short/instantaneous power draw during relevant time periods

Not necessary for constant electrical loads

Typically between one week and one month or periodic.

For varying loads measure usage for one week to one month or periodic.

Repeat periodically if seasonality is an issue (e.g. weather related, production levels)

Repeat periodically if seasonality is an issue (e.g. weather related, production levels) C

At least one site operation ‘cycle’, that includes changes in other energy systems. For example 12 months baseline data is required where seasonality is a factor. Typically require at least three months of postretrofit data.

4.1

At least one site operation ‘cycle’, that includes changes in other energy systems. For example 12 months baseline data is required where seasonality is a factor. Typically require three months of post-retrofit data.

M&V design and planning

13

Measured parameter

Option

D

Power draw

Metered energy use

Independent variable linked to work output requirement (e.g. operating hours, CO sensor)

For the baseline typically one site operation ‘cycle’ is modelled.

For the baseline typically one site operation ‘cycle’ is modelled.

For the baseline typically one site operation ‘cycle’ is modelled. This is validated with at least one ‘cycle’ of post-retrofit measurement. Within a motor, pump or fan project ,a ‘cycle’ may represent a day, week or longer, depending on operating variables (e.g. weekdays vs. weekends and seasonality such as climate)

4.1.6 Additionality Savings determined from multiple ECM projects may not be mutually exclusive. In other words, the combined savings of multiple ECMs implemented together will be less than the sum of the individual savings from ECMs if implemented in isolation from each other. Below lists the suggested approaches to managing additionality which are described in detail in the Process Guide: 1. Adjust to isolate 2. ‘Black box’ approach 3. Ordered summation of remainders

4.2

Prepare M&V plan

The next step of the M&V process is to prepare an M&V plan which is based on the M&V design and the time, resources and budget necessary to complete the M&V project. Refer to the Planning Guide for further guidance on preparing an M&V plan. The table below outlines issues commonly found when conducting M&V on motor, pump or fan projects and provides suggested approaches for addressing them in you M&V plan and when executing the M&V project.

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Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

Table 5: Considerations, issues and suggested approach for pump, motor and fan projects Consideration

Issue

Suggested Approach

Installing ECMs on motors with existing variable speed drives

Due to the variable nature of VSD’s, ECMs that have an effect on existing VSD operation can introduce complexities and uncertainties in calculating the reduction in load and/or operating hours.

Understand the required work output for the motor. Measure or collate data for current VSD operational trends based on the influencing variables controlling the VSD frequency (e.g. pressure, CO2). Determine if the required useful work output for the motor will change. If not, then either an Option A or B approach can be adopted (e.g.: changing the belt type for a belt-driven supply air fan fitted with a VSD – the air flow requirements remain the same). If the required useful work output will change materially, then an Option A approach should not be considered. Adopt an Option B approach to measure both the input energy use and the required work output. Be careful when using data from the VSD (such as frequency as a proxy for work requirements as this relationship may change as a result of implementing the ECM. We need to base our energy model on data from the independent variable itself

Maintaining comfort conditions

ECMs for a motor, pump or fan system that are part of a large HVAC system may result in changes in comfort conditions.

Ensure the HVAC system can meet the demand, particularly during maximum demand periods. This may require reviewing design documentation and specifications and recalculating heat loads to ensure sufficient HVAC capacity and associated flow rate and pressure is available. Comfort conditions should be monitored to confirm that they have been maintained or improved.

System demand

Any retrofit project to a motor, pump or fan must ensure the system demand can be satisfied.

As with occupant comfort, this may require reviewing existing design documentation and specifications. Consideration to future system demand changes and capacity requirements (e.g. plant expansion) should also be considered.

Power factor

Potential changes in power factor, which might affect demand and thus cost savings.

Technology retrofits may affect the power factor within the M&V boundary. The proposed approach is: 1. estimate the power factor before and after the retrofit by conducting measurements or reviewing equipment specifications. If the change is minor, then its affects can be ignored. If the change is material, then: 2. Determine if the change in power factor is likely to affect overall site maximum demand (if this is an energy cost item). Does the motor, pump or fan system operate at peak demand times? Will an existing power factor correction unit negate this issue? 3. If maximum demand is affected, then apply the appropriate demand cost rates to calculate the financial impact.

Persistence and

4.2

The savings calculated from

When extrapolating the savings verified during the

M&V design and planning

extrapolation

short-term measurements are often extrapolated to ‘estimate’ annual project savings. It is important to incorporate additional factors, which may include: reliance on human behaviour seasonal effects (weather, holidays, etc) varying work output requirements (e.g. production levels, throughput) calibration changes and failures likelihood of future changes within the measurement boundary.

Entire pump, fan system replacement

A pump or fan and its associated motor are replaced with newer technology

15

post-retrofit period to estimate annual savings, it is important to identify influencing factors and assess their impact. If minor, they can be ignored. If material, the M&V plan should document how they are to be addressed. Examples include: a. repeating M&V at various times throughout the year b. collecting appropriate data (such as site closure dates and public holidays) and adjusting accordingly c. combining short-term measurement of power draw with more periodic measurement of control (e.g. human behaviour) d. occasional spot measurements to verify assumptions e. collecting data relating to work output requirements and applying to a developed energy model This is a typical ECM and should not pose any major issues. Confirm that the new system meets the required performance levels. The required work output should remain unchanged we can focus on the change in input energy by developing and comparing appropriate energy models.

Changes to load requirements due to pipe/duct network modifications

The area/system supplied by the pump or fan is altered so that the work output requirements have changed

This may be an ongoing change (e.g. installing isolation valves) or a static change (e.g. changes to ductwork layout), and should be considered on its merits. The change may not be due to an ECM (e.g. renovation or extension), but may affect savings on an existing one. This poses issues for Option A M&V where the work output requirement was estimated. Essentially the work output requirement has changed and needs to be incorporated into analysis.

4.2

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Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

5

Data collection, modelling and analysis

5.1

Measure baseline data

5.1.1 Determine existing motor, pump and fan inventory If not already done, catalogue the baseline motor, pump and fan inventory, including:

§ § § § § § § §

Motor, pump and fan application, types and model numbers. kW or W rating of motors, speed Type of motor starter (e.g. Direct-On-Line (DOL) or Variable Speed Drive (VSD)). Type of connection between motor and equipment, (e.g. belt driven, direct driven, gearbox etc). Controls such as sensors or time clocks. Plant operation times. Control set points such as temperature or pressure. The inventory may be best represented in a spreadsheet which enables application of results of measurements and “what-if” demand calculations.

5.1.2 Measurement data sources, measurement tools and techniques The following provides guidance on measurement and data collection: § Conduct baseline measurement in line with the prepared M&V plan prior to implementing the project. § Ensure appropriate records are kept including the placement of measuring equipment and take lots of photographs. § Collect any associated data required for calculating baseline energy use or adjustments for independent variables. The following sources may be used to provide data as input to an M&V exercise: Table 6: Potential M&V data sources Data Type

Source

Comments

Power draw

Instantaneous measurement using current and voltage meter

Appropriate for Option A where hours are estimated. Use calibrated equipment and measure current, voltage and power factor in order to evaluate energy and demand savings. Appropriate for Option B where motor power draw will be constant.

Energy usage

Manufacturers’ product specifications

Can be used when power draw is estimated (as it is not being measured) when Option A is used.

Utility bills

Typical frequency of one to three months. Can be used for Option C, and are considered 100% accurate, when not estimated by the supplier.

Revenue meter – interval data

Typically 30 minute data intervals, which can be used to accurately calculate savings across a day, week or longer. Can also be used to estimate operating hours based on profile changes. Data provided by a Meter Data Agent is used for billing and is considered 100% accurate.

5.1

Data collection, modelling and analysis

17

Data Type

Source

Comments

Energy usage

Permanent sub-meter or BMS trend log – interval data

Similar characteristics to the revenue meter above. Data quality will be high, but may not be revenue quality. Data should be reviewed for meter ‘drop outs’.

Temporary energy logger

Similar to a sub-meter, an energy data logger is connected to a circuit and acts as a temporary meter. Data quality depends on the quality, range and an accuracy of the logger and associated CTs. Some units experience difficulties capturing large changes in loads. Be careful to size the CTs for the load to be measured. A tong reading will assist with sizing, however all operating loads should be considered.

Manual meter readings (e.g. hourly/daily)

Periodic manual readings of a revenue/sub-meter. Take care to read the meter in the correct way and apply any meter multiplier ‘k factor’ to the values if stated on the meter. Contact the electricity supplier if unsure how to read the meter.

Security system records (access swipe cards)

Time stamped records may be available from security systems, which may assist with tracking occupancy and operating patterns.

Existing metering or temporary data logging

Electrical load profiles can be used to interrogate when electrical motors turn on and off. Temporary temperature or vibration data loggers could also be fitted to a motor’s casing which could be a cost effective method for ascertaining operating hours.

Plant and equipment control schedules/settings (e.g. time clocks, building management systems, run on time settings, VSDs)

Fixed or logic based control parameters that are in place for the motor, pump or fan system. The control system can usually be interrogated to extract the controlling variable however this may require timed observations (see below).

Production schedules

Production schedules can be used to interrogate when a particular system was operating

Timed observations

Manual readings taken periodically to approximate the work output for an area or control patterns for a motor, pump or fan system. This is time intensive, but may be achieved using a data log sheet filled in by various staff as they come and go.

Facility management records including BMS or SCADA system trend logs

Trend logs may be configured within control systems to record relevant work output variables. These will usually be automated sensors which provide feedback to the motor via the control system.

Work output requirements (i.e. independent variables such as operating hours, temperature, pressure, liquid flow, CO/CO2 sensors)

Operating schedules can also be obtained. Business hours of operation schedules

Published business schedules, such as stated hours of operation including public holidays or non-occupancy periods.

5.1.3 Conducting measurements Electrical measurements can be conducted in a variety of ways as per the table below.

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Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

Table 7: Methods for conducting electrical measurements Technique

Placement

Guidance

Direct measurement of whole measurement boundary

Energy meter or data logger that covers all energy use within the measurement boundary

This provides highly accurate project measurements.

Various direct measurements at selected motors

Energy meter or data logger connected to relevant motor circuits

This approach may be necessary for large, complex or distributed projects. Logging selected switches/circuits enables different motors to be segregated and savings can be calculated separately and in aggregate. Consistent results may be extrapolated across the project.

Should a meter or logger be placed where it covers several motor systems with different operating patterns, then an instantaneous ‘load test’ could be conducted where each motor system is operated separately to determine the power draw (providing the motor loads are stable), from which the relevant operating hours could be applied.

For example, various metering points may be required to measure the effects of an ECM that will affect a distributed conveyor system. Direct measurement using a sample based approach using selected motors

Temporary data logger (for energy use) or instantaneous power meter (for power draw) measures selected motors

Measuring instantaneous power load for motors before and after retrofit may be very cost effective if motor loads are stable. It is important that the number of motors involved (before and after) is known to correctly calculate savings. This may be supplemented with measurements elsewhere within the project to ensure all system losses are captured. This is not suitable for motors with variable speed drives or variable system loads.

Measurements for output parameters can be conducted as per the following table.

5.1

Data collection, modelling and analysis

19

Table 8: Methods for conducting measurements of output parameters Technique

Placement

Guidance

Direct measurement by appropriate measurement device (e.g. motor vibration meter and button temperature logger).

The placement is dependent on the type of measurement device used.

It is important to ensure the measurement device collects data as accurately as possible. As such, the position and configuration of the measurement device should be carefully considered to avoid failures or registration of false readings.

Indirect measurement using energy load profile data

Data is derived from electrical measurement

Refer to product instructions.

Applicable for determining operating hours. Depending on the meter placement and level of data resolution, motor operation can be clearly visible on load profiles. The observed on/off times can be used to create an operation schedule. Please note: § Typical revenue meter data summates in 30 minute intervals, and rapid or complex switching may not be accurately observed. § Temporary data loggers can often record data in shorter time intervals. § Interval data may include a variety of loads and deciphering the correct operating patterns with certainty may not be possible.

5.2

Develop energy model and uncertainty

Typically for motor, pump or fan projects, an energy model will be established for the associated motor that will take on the following form: 𝑛

𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 (𝑘𝑊ℎ) = � 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑤(𝑘𝑊𝑡 )𝑥 ∆𝑡 Where

𝑡=1

𝑘𝑊𝑡 is the average motor power draw at time interval Δt. Motor power draw will fluctuate as the loading on a motor changes. Where motor power draw is constant, the equation above can be simplified to: 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 (𝑘𝑊ℎ) = 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑤 (𝑘𝑊) × 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 (ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠)

Note that the energy consumption calculated above is derived from measurements of motor power draw which is dependent on the loading of the motor. Where the motor loading is likely to change, power draw should be measured over an extended period and the first equation above should be applied. The term ‘load factor’ is used to describe the extent to which a motor is loaded. It is determined as follows: 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =

𝑎𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 (𝑘𝑊) 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 (𝑘𝑊)

5.2

20

Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

Where the motor power draw cannot be measured, load factor should be used in conjunction with the information from the motor name plate to determine motor rating (electrical input) and estimate motor power draw: 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑤 (𝑘𝑊) = 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 (𝑘𝑊𝑒 ) × 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 Where:

𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 (𝑘𝑊𝑒 ) =

𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑛𝑎𝑚𝑒 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 (𝑘𝑊𝑁𝑃 ) 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦

The motor demand model will take on the following form: 𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑑𝑒𝑚𝑎𝑛𝑑 (𝑘𝑊) =

𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑤 (𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑠) 1000

For single phase motors, the power draw is: 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑤 (𝑘𝑊) =

𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 (𝑉) × 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡(𝐼) × 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 1000

For three phase motors (balanced load), the power draw is:

𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑤 (𝑘𝑊) = √3 × (𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒𝐿𝑁 (𝑉) × 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡(𝐼) × 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 ×

Where:

1 1000

voltageLN (V) is the voltage as measured between the line and neutral current(I) is the current measured through one of the phases

More complex energy models may be developed using regression and analysis for motor, pump and fan projects, typically if the load (wattage) and operating hours are variable and suitable independent variable(s) can be identified e.g. chilled water load, weather, etc. Uncertainty can be introduced into the energy model due to inaccuracies of measurement equipment, sampling errors and regression modelling errors. These inaccuracies need to be quantified as an overall uncertainty statement which includes a precision and confidence level. Refer to the Process Guide for further guidance on calculating and expressing uncertainty. Motor electrical load will vary dependent on the motor’s load, and cannot simply be read from the motor name plate. As an alternative to direct measurement of motor power draw, motor electrical load can be calculated from name plate and other details as follows: 1. Measure motor shaft speed (RPMs) using a tachometer or similar (‘measured RPM’)

2. Obtain the following data from the motor name plate or from the manufacturer:

§ § § §

5.2

Motor shaft output power (kW NP) Full load shaft speed (‘full load speed RPM’) (RPM) Motor efficiency (fraction or %) Number of pole pairs for the motor

Data collection, modelling and analysis

21

3. Determine ‘no load’ motor speed: 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑠 × 60 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑁𝑜 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑(𝑅𝑃𝑀) = 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑜𝑙𝑒 𝑝𝑎𝑖𝑟𝑠 50

Note: The electricity supply frequency in Australia is 50 cycles per second or 50 Hz. For example a 2-pole pair motor has a No Load Speed of 1,500 RPM. 4. Calculate full load slip (design slip): 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑆𝑙𝑖𝑝 (𝑓𝑢𝑙𝑙 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑠𝑙𝑖𝑝) = 𝑛𝑜 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑅𝑃𝑀 − 𝑓𝑢𝑙𝑙 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑅𝑃𝑀 5. Calculate actual slip: 𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑆𝑙𝑖𝑝 = 𝑛𝑜 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑅𝑃𝑀 − 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑅𝑃𝑀 6. Calculate load factor which is a measure of how loaded the motor is: 𝑙𝑎𝑜𝑑 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =

𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑆𝑙𝑖𝑝 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑆𝑙𝑖𝑝

7. Finally, calculate the motor input power draw using: 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 (𝑘𝑊𝑒 ) =

𝑘𝑊𝑁𝑃 × 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦

Note that care should be taken with the approach above for old or rewound motors as details from the name plate may not be available or may no longer be accurate.

5.3

Implement ECM(s)

During the implementation phase of ECM(s), no M&V baseline or post retrofit data should be collected. Measurement and collection of post retrofit data can commence after ECM(s) have been installed and commissioned, preferably allowing for a period of time for the ECM(s) to be “embedded” into normal operations.

5.4

Measure post retrofit data

Conduct post-retrofit measurement in line with the prepared M&V plan using the same techniques as for the baseline (section 5.1). Position the measurement equipment in the same place where possible. Ensure appropriate records are kept and take photographs. Collect any associated data required for calculating post-retrofit energy use or adjustments based on independent variables (e.g. changes in operating hours). Confirm data integrity and completeness. Post-retrofit performance should not be measured immediately post-retrofit, but allow for a “bedding-in” period prior to measurement.

5.3

22

5.5

Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

Savings analysis and uncertainty

Analyse the data and calculate savings according to the prepared M&V plan. Analyse postretrofit performance against baseline to: 1. Calculate savings, adjusting for independent variables 2. If included, adjust savings for interactive effects such as the impact on air conditioning 3. Estimate the savings uncertainty

5.5.1 Savings equations The general equation for energy savings is:

Savings = (Baseline Energy – Post-Retrofit Energy) ± Adjustments

In the case of motor, pump or fan projects, energy savings can be calculated as:

kWhsavings = (kWbase x OHbase) – (kWpost x OHpost) ± Adjustments Where:

kWhsavings

= total energy savings, measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh)

kWpost

= the kilowatt (kW) demand of the post-retrofit system

kWbase OHbase OHpost

= the kilowatt (kW) demand of the existing system

= operating hours during the baseline period = operating hours during the post-retrofit period

The installation of new pumps, motors and fans generally results in an overall demand reduction. The general equation for calculating demand savings is:

kWsavings = kWbase – kWpost

Total cost savings are determined by multiplying the energy and demand savings by the appropriate cost rates.

Annual Cost Savings ($)

5.5.2 Extrapolation

= Demand Saving + Energy Saving

= ([kW savings] x [monthly demand cost rate] x 12) + ([kWh savings] x [energy cost rate])

If a sample-based approach is used (selected motors and/or sites), then extrapolate across the project’s measurement boundary or across the population. Extrapolate the calculated savings for the measured period as required.

5.5.3 Uncertainty Estimate the savings uncertainty, based on the measurement approach, placement, impact of variables, length of measurement and equipment used. Refer to the Process Guide for further guidance on calculating and expressing uncertainty.

5.5

Finish

23

6

Finish

6.1

Reporting

Prepare an outcomes report summarising the M&V exercise. Ensure any extrapolated savings are referred to as estimates, as the ‘actual’ savings only apply to the measurement period.

6.2

Project close and savings persistence

Periodic performance review of the retrofit should be undertaken. This may not require the measurement of power usage but may be limited to: § An inspection of the area to ensure equipment remains consistent with that specified in the installation. § Review of pump/fan fluid flow and head characteristics. § Review of valve/damper positions. § Review of wire to air/water efficiency (i.e. motor input vs. power imparted to the fluid).

6.1

24

7

Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

M&V Examples

Both the IPMVP and this guide contain several worked example M&V projects. These are provided to assist readers with applying M&V concepts in real world situations, and to demonstrate the design and analytical components of successful M&V projects.

7.1

Examples from the IPMVP

The table below lists the example M&V projects that can be found within the IPMVP. Table 9: Example M&V projects from the IPMVP M&V Project Name

IPMVP Option

Location

Pump/Motor Efficiency Improvement

A

Volume 1: Appendix A – A-2

Pump/Motor Demand Shifting

B

Volume 1: Appendix A – A-2-1

Lighting fixture upgrade

A

Volume 1: Appendix A – A-3

Lighting control

A

Volume 1: Appendix A – A-3-1

Lighting – new fixtures and dimming

B

Volume 1: Appendix A – A-3-2

Compressed-Air Leakage Management

B

Volume 1: Appendix A – A-4

Turbine/Generator Set Improvement

B

Volume 1: Appendix A – A-5

Boiler Efficiency Improvement

A

Volume 1: Appendix A – A-6

Multiple ECMs with metered baseline data

C

Volume 1: Appendix A – A-7

Whole facility energy accounting relative to budget

C

Volume 1: Appendix A – A-7-1

Multiple ECMs in a building without energy meters in the baseline period

D

Volume 1: Appendix A – A-8

New building designed better than code

D

Volume 1: Appendix A – A-9

Solar water heating test

A

Volume 3: Renewable Energy

Direct measurement centralised solar hot water heater

B

Volume 3: Renewable Energy

Indirect measurement residential solar hot water heater

B&D

Volume 3: Renewable Energy

Building integrated photovoltaic system

D

Volume 3: Renewable Energy

Solar Water Heating

D

Volume 3: Renewable Energy

7.1

M&V Examples

7.2

25

Examples from this guide

The table below lists the example M&V projects that can be found within this guide. Table 10: Example M&V projects from the M&V Operational Guide M&V Project Name M&V design examples

IPMVP Option

Location

A, B, C, D

Process: Appendix A

Demand and cost avoidance calculation example

n/a

Process: Appendix A

Regression modelling and validity testing

n/a

Process: Appendix E

Lighting fixture replacement within an office tenancy

A

Applications: Lighting – Scenario A

Lighting fixture and control upgrade at a function centre

A

Applications: Lighting – Scenario B

Lighting fixture retrofit incorporating daylight control

B

Applications: Lighting – Scenario C

Pump retrofit and motor replacement

A

Applications: Motors, Pumps and Fans – Scenario A

Car park ventilation involving CO monitoring and variable speed drive on fans

B

Applications: Motors, Pumps and Fans – Scenario B

Replacement an inefficient gas boiler with a high efficiency one

C

Applications: Heating, Ventilation and Cooling – Scenario A

Upgrade freezer controls within a food processing plant

B

Applications: Commercial and Industrial Refrigeration – Scenario A

Compressed air leak detection within a manufacturing site using sampling analysis

B

Applications: Boilers, Steam and Compressed Air – Scenario A

Steam system leak detection within a food processing site using regression analysis

B

Applications: Boilers, Steam and Compressed Air – Scenario B

Multiple ECMs involving compressed air and steam system optimisation, combined with lighting controls at a cannery

C

Applications: Whole Buildings – Scenario A

Commercial building air conditioning central plant upgrade

C

Applications: Whole Buildings – Scenario B

Evaluate performance efficiency of a newly installed cogeneration unit a a school

D

Applications: Renewables and Cogeneration – Scenario A

Installation of a cogeneration plant at a hospital

C

Applications: Renewables and Cogeneration – Scenario B

Use of solar hot water system on a housing estate

B

Applications: Renewables and Cogeneration – Scenario C

7.2

26

Appendix A: Example scenario A

Appendix A: Example scenario A The scenario below provides details of how Option A is used to measure and verify the savings from a pump efficiency project.

A beer brewery company wants to reduce its energy use. The brewery contains a glycol beer cooling system which comprises a duty and standby pump each directly coupled to a 112 kW electric motor. The cooling system demands a constant flow rate of 5,455 litres per minute. The duty and standby pumps are rotated on a weekly basis with the cooling system operating 24 hours with an average shutdown time of 2 weeks per year. A recent energy audit was conducted on the pumping system with the following findings: § The gate valve on both pump discharge was substantially closed. § Recent pressure measurements show the pumps produce 90 meters of head. § It was calculated 70 percent of the 90m head produced by the pumps was being consumed by the substantially closed gate valve on each pump discharge. § The original design specification states the system requires 30m of head and 5,455 litres per minute to operate at peak system pressure (maximum required flow). § The pumps have an impeller diameter of 432 mm. The energy auditor advised the duty and standby pump and motor had been oversized in the original design and recommended to properly match the pumping system to the system demand by implementing the following: § Trim the pump impeller diameters to 300 mm. § Replace the two 112kW motors with new high efficiency 56kW motors. § Fully open the gate valves on the pump discharge. The energy auditor guarantees the pumping load will reduce by 30%.

Getting started Budget The required output from the M&V exercise is to confirm the level of savings being achieved from the pump efficiency project are greater than 30%. An external consultant will be engaged to conduct the M&V project and a budget of $2,000 is allocated. This represents less than 3% of the estimated savings from the project. With such a small budget available, M&V Option A has been chosen.

Key parameter(s) The project involves retrofits to the supply pumps that aim to improve their efficiency. Power draw has been determined to be the key measurement parameter. The work output is the amount of fluid pumped, which is a function of flow rate and operating hours. Neither of these parameters is predicted to materially change, and so they will be stipulated.

Measurement boundary The measurement boundary is chosen to be the two pumps and associated motors that supply the glycol beer cooling system.

Appendix A

Appendix A: Example scenario A

27

Approach for conducting measurement As the operation of the pumping system remains constant, instantaneous readings of input motor power will be taken at the switchboard the day before the efficiency retrofit project. The same measurements will be repeated two weeks after the efficiency retrofit to allow an even rotation of duty/standby pumps and some time for “bedding in”. Measurement is to be conducted by a qualified electrician and the estimated time for conducting measurements is 60 mins each time.

Pump and motor inventory The existing and pump and motor system inventory is shown below: Pump Specifications

Motor Specifications

Pump type

Single Stage Centrifugal

Motor Type

AC Induction 3 phase 4 pole

Motor Make/Model

[Make & Model Number]

Motor Make/Model

[Make & Model Number]

Pump Flow Rate (max)

6,160 L/min

Power Supply

415 Volts 50Hz

Pump Head

90m measured (100m max)

Rated Motor Power

112 kW

Pump Impeller Diameter

432 mm

Rated Motor Efficiency

87%

Operating Pressure (max)

1,600 kPa

Motor Speed

1,300 rpm

Discharge Valve Type

Gate valve (X% closed)

Drive Type

Direct-On-Line (DOL)

63m calculated pressure drop Application

Glycol/chilled water beer cooling system, constant flow rate through chiller of 5,455 L/min

Control Type

Manual on/off

Operating Times

24/7 (typical shutdown duration of 2 weeks per annum)

Comments

Duty/standby pump and motor arrangement rotated on a weekly basis

Operating hours The cooling system runs continuously and is controlled by the plant operator to rotate the duty and standby pumps on a weekly basis for maintenance. The operating hours are not affected, so the baseline and post-retrofit period are stipulated. In order to confirm this, annual operational records have been reviewed and anecdotal evidence from the brewery management staff indicates the plant is typically shutdown for 2 weeks during the holiday break. The operating hours for the cooling pump and motor system are: Operating hours = 24 hours/day x (365 days – 14 days)/annum = 8,424 hours per annum

Appendix A

28

Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

Interactive effects with refrigeration system The application of the pump and motor efficiency retrofit project may affect the operation of the chiller which cools the chilled water and glycol fluid. This is because the flow rate through the chiller may be altered slightly from the efficiency retrofit and the opening of the gate valves. It is likely such interactive effects will negligibly benefit/burden these systems and thus may be ignored for the purpose of the motor and pump efficiency M&V.

Summary of M&V plan The key elements of the project’s M&V plan in summary are: Item

Plan

Project summary

Retrofit to two 112 kW pumps which circulate glycol within the industrial refrigeration plant. The pumps are oversized for the application and the circuit is throttled via a gate valve as a consequence. The retrofit actions involve: § Trimming the pump impeller diameters from 432 to 300 mm. § Replacing the two 112kW motors with new high efficiency 56kW motors. § Fully opening the gate valves on the pump discharge

Required outcome

To confirm that savings of 30% or more are being achieved from the pump and motor efficiency project.

Budget

$2,000

M&V Option

Option A – Project Isolation Key Parameter Measurement

Measurement boundary

Two 112 kW glycol pumps and associated motors. The pumps cycle between duty/standby,

Key measurement Parameters

Power draw

Other parameters to consider

operating hours

Potential interactive effects

Potential for minor flow rate changes, which may affect chiller operation

Approach for conducting measurement and collecting data

Power draw: Instantaneous power readings are to be measured of the each pump prior to and post-retrofit.

Measurement equipment required

A true rms power meter will be used to measure the voltage and current and determine the real power draw of each pump.

Measurement period

Instantaneous measurement conducted prior to retrofit, and repeated once the ECM has been installed.

Approach for calculating results

Savings are to be estimated by multiplying the estimated operating hours by the change in average power draw from the two pumps.

Operating hours: to be estimated following a review of historical operation schedules

Cost savings will be calculated using an average rate of $0.153/kWh. Uncertainty will be calculated using statistical methods by determining the overall standard error, absolute precision and relative precision to 90% confidence level.

Appendix A

Appendix A: Example scenario A

29

Conducting measurements The baseline and post-retrofit power draws were determined by measuring real power by connecting the line current (via a current transformer) and voltage using a digital true rms power meter. Each measurement was held for approximately 15 seconds to ensure that a steady-state reading was obtained. To establish the baseline, the input motor power to the duty pump (which was currently in operation) measured a constant 110.2 kW. The duty pump was then shutdown and the standby pump was started. Once a steady state was reached by the standby pump, the input motor power was measured at a constant 109.8 kW. The process was repeated for the post-retrofit period. For the duty and standby pump stated above, the input motor power measured a constant 54.5 kW and 53.2 kW respectively. The dates and times when the readings were taken were recorded.

Calculating savings Since the duty and standby pumps are evenly rotated on a weekly basis, the average of the pre and post retrofit readings can be used to calculate the reduction in power draw:

Average pre-retrofit load Baseline energy use

Baseline energy cost

= (110.2 + 109.8) / 2 = 110.0 kW

= 110.0 kW x 8,424 hours per annum

= 926,640 kWh pa

= kWhbase x average cost rate

= 926,640 kWh x $0.153

Post-retrofit:

= $141,776

Average post-retrofit load

= (54.5 + 53.2) / 2 = 53.85 kW

Post-retrofit energy use

Post-retrofit energy cost

= 53.9 kW x 8,424 hours per annum

= 453,632 kWh pa

= kWhpost-retrofit x average cost rate

= 453,632 kWh x $0.153

Thus, savings are:

= $69,406

Demand saving

= 110.0 – 53.85 = 56.15 kW

Energy saving

= 926,640 kWh - 453,632 kWh = 473,008 kWh

% saving

= 473,008 / 926,640 = 51%

Cost saving

= $141,776 - $69,406 = $72,370

Appendix A

30

Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

Estimating uncertainty Option A provides the simplest and most inexpensive method of M&V; however this may result in higher levels of uncertainty. The level of accuracy is determined by the accuracy of the equipment inventory, the estimation of the operating hours and the capability of the metering equipment. The manufacturer’s specification for the power meter was consulted and it was found the measurement relative precision is ±1.0% of the reading. This is assumed to be with a confidence level of 95%. It is noted the power reading was taken within the acceptable limit ranges for temperature, frequency, current and voltage. Further analysis was also carried out to quantify the uncertainty of the stipulated operating hours. The Site Manager advised that plant operation has been consistent without any major changes in the past 5 years. A statistical analysis of operational records over the past 5 years show mean annual operating hours of 8,424 hours per annum with an absolute precision of ±72 hours at a 95% confidence level. This can be calculated to a relative precision of ±0.9% (rounded up). Management also advised they don’t foresee any major operational changes over the next few years. A summary of values used in calculating the uncertainty is presented in the table below. Measured power draw

Stipulated operating hours

(kW load) relative precision measured value(s)

±1.0%

±0.9%

Pre retrofit 1 (A): 110.2 kW

8,424 hours per annum

Pre retrofit 2 (B): 109.8 kW Post retrofit 1 (C): 54.5 kW Post retrofit 2 (D): 53.2 kW ∞

5

confidence factor

95%

95%

t-value (t)

1.96

2.78

samples

Note: For power draw it is assumed that the accuracy of the power meter has been extensively tested by the manufacturer across a large sample set – hence the number of samples has been chosen as infinity. The t-values have been obtained from Table 27 within Appendix G of the Process Guide by referencing the column representing 95% confidence, and using look up values for degrees of freedom as follows: § Operating hours - DFhours = 5 -1 = 4 § Power draw – DFpower draw = ∞ Uncertainty is estimated as follows: 1. Calculate the standard error for each input 2. Calculate the standard errors for change in power draw and operating hours 3. Calculate the standard error for energy savings 4. Calculate the absolute precision of the energy savings (based on confidence) 5. Calculate the relative precision of the energy savings

Appendix A

Appendix A: Example scenario A

31

The standard error (SE) of measured loads and stipulated hours is calculated using the equation below: SE =

𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 × 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑡

Using the values from the previous table, SE (A kW) is calculated as follows: 𝑆𝐸 (A kW) =

0.01 × 110.2 1.96

= 0.562

Repeating the process for other measurements, the results are: 𝑆𝐸 (𝐵 𝑘𝑊) = 0.560 𝑆𝐸 (𝐶 𝑘𝑊) = 0.278

𝑆𝐸 (𝐷 𝑘𝑊) = 0.271

𝑆𝐸 (ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠) = 27.272 The reduction in kW load is calculated from the difference between the average pre and post retrofit measured kW load. Therefore, the standard error for the change in kW load is calculated as per the following: SE(∆kW) = �𝑆𝐸 (𝐴 𝑘𝑊)2 + 𝑆𝐸 (𝐵 𝑘𝑊)2 + 𝑆𝐸 (𝐶 𝑘𝑊)2 + 𝑆𝐸 (𝐷 𝑘𝑊)2

SE(∆kW) = �0.5622 + 0.5602 + 0.2782 + 0.2712

𝑆𝐸 (∆𝑘𝑊) = 0.883 kW

The standard error of the energy savings is calculated:

𝑆𝐸 (𝑘𝑊ℎ 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠) = 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠(𝑘𝑊ℎ) × �� 𝑆𝐸 (𝑘𝑊ℎ 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠) = 473,008 × ��

𝑆𝐸 (𝑘𝑊ℎ 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠) = 7,594 kWh

𝑆𝐸(∆𝑘𝑊) 2 𝑆𝐸(ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠) 2 � + � � ∆𝑘𝑊 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠

0.883 2 27.272 2 � + � � 56.15 8424

Absolute precision (AP) can be calculated using the t-value for more than 30 readings. The tvalue can be found within Table 27 of Appendix G within the Process Guide. 𝐴𝑃 = 𝑡 × 𝑆𝐸

Relative precision (RP) is then calculated to be: 𝑅𝑃 =

𝐴𝑃 𝐸𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒

Appendix A

32

Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

In the table below, absolute and relative precision are calculated at various levels of confidence by applying the appropriate t-value: Confidence Level

50%

80%

90%

95%

t-value

0.67

1.28

1.64

1.96

Absolute Precision (AP)

= 7,594 x 0.67

= 7,594 x 1.28

= 7,594 x 1.64

= 7,594 x 1.96

= 5,088 kWh

= 9,720 kWh

= 12,455 kWh

= 14,884 kWh

Relative Precision (RP)

= 5,088 / 473,000

= 9,720 / 473,000

= 1.1%

= 2.1%

= 12,455 / 473,000

= 14,884 / 473,000

= 2.6%

= 3.1%

Reporting results Finally, the energy savings can be expressed as: It is 90% probable that the energy savings will equal 473,008 kWh per annum ± 2.6%. In other words, it is 90% probable that the annual energy savings will range between 460,545 and 485,455 kWh per annum. The figures are more appropriately quoted as 473,000 kWh per annum ± 2.6% with 90% confidence.

Appendix A

Appendix B: Example scenario B

33

Appendix B: Example scenario B The scenario below provides details of how Option B is used to measure and verify the savings from a car park exhaust VSD project.

The body corporate of a large residential apartment complex wants to reduce energy consumption and associated costs. The apartment complex has a large underground car which contains a 24 kW exhaust fan to remove carbon monoxide (CO) and other exhaust particulates. The car park exhaust fan currently operates 24 hours, 7 days per week irrespective of vehicle traffic. Vehicles enter and exit the car park through a boom gate which requires swipe card access where a date/time stamp is recorded on the Building Management System (BMS) for security purposes. A recent energy audit suggested installing a Variable Speed Drive (VSD) on the car park fan and a number of CO sensors throughout the car park to control fan speed proportional to minimum and maximum CO predefined set points. The sensor with the maximum CO reading will drive the fan operation. The fan will not operate if all the CO readings are below the minimum set point and will ramp up to maximum speed if any of the sensors exceed the maximum CO set point. The body corporate is able to apply for a government grant to support project funding it can be demonstrated the energy savings have been calculated with a precision of +/- 20% at 80% confidence using the M&V principles of IPMVP.

Getting started Budget The VSD retrofit project is expected to save approximately $15,000 per annum. Since it is important to get the M&V right to apply for the government grant, an initial M&V budget of 10% of estimated savings ($1.500) will be allocated.

Key parameter(s) Daily energy consumption will be the key parameter to measure. Since the fan currently operates 24 hours, 7 days per week irrespective of vehicle traffic there will be no independent variables during the baseline measurement period. During the post retrofit project, the daily energy consumption of the fan will be dependent on the daily number of vehicles entering and exiting the car park which will be a key parameter to measure.

Measurement boundary The measurement boundary will encompass the car park exhaust fan and motor. No other equipment will be within this boundary.

M&V Option M&V Option B has been selected since both the car park exhaust fan load and operating hours will be affected by the VSD retrofit project.

Appendix B

34

Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

Approach for conducting measurement Fan energy consumption will be measured by installing a temporary electrical data logger at the mechanical switchboard circuit that powers the fan motor. The data logger will remain during the baseline and post retrofit periods. Once the post retrofit period concludes, the BMS system will be interrogated to extract vehicle entry and exit date/time stamp data. The data will be manipulated to count the number of vehicle entries and exists for each day during the 2 week post retrofit period. An energy model will be developed for the post retrofit fan operation which relates daily fan energy consumption to daily vehicle entry/exit numbers. The energy model will then be used to extrapolate expected energy savings across an entire year using the previous year’s vehicle exist and entry time stamp data which is assumed representative.

Interactive effects No significant interactive effects are anticipated.

Performance The performance of the car park exhaust system will not be affected as the minimum and maximum CO set points have been selected to meet applicable standards and codes.

Summary of M&V plan The key elements of the project’s M&V plan in summary are: Item

Plan

Project summary

VSD retrofit project to car park exhaust fan using CO control. Energy savings are expected due to the reduced fan load and operating hours. A VSD will need to be installed to the fan motor located in a basement plant room. CO sensors will be installed and wired throughout the car park and connected to the BMS which controls the fan.

Required outcome

Demonstrate energy savings have been calculated with a precision of +/20% at 80% confidence using the M&V principles of IPMVP.

Budget

The actual budget ($1,960) is slightly higher than the initial budget of $1,500 however it is within an acceptable limit. Total budget: $1,960 Data logger hire: $1,000 (5 weeks @ $200 per week) Data logger setup/installation/removal: $360 (4 hours @ $90/hour) M&V data collation/analysis/report: $1,200 (8 hours @ $150/hour)

M&V Option

Option B – Full Parameter Measurement

Measurement boundary

Car park exhaust air fan and motor

Key measurement Parameters

Daily energy consumption and daily number of vehicles entering/existing the car park

Appendix B

Appendix B: Example scenario B

35

Item

Plan

Other parameters to consider

Performance - car park CO levels remain below the maximum threshold as per the relevant standards and codes.

Potential interactive effects

There may be additional electricity consumed through the communications and control network between CO sensors, BMS and car park fan VSD. This has been assumed insignificant.

Approach for conducting measurement and collecting data

Place temporary electrical data logger at the mechanical switchboard circuit that powers the fan motor. The data logger will remain during the baseline and post retrofit periods. BMS system will be interrogated after the post-retrofit period to extract vehicle entry and exit date/time stamp data.

Measurement equipment required

Electrical data logger

Measurement period

The VSD retrofit project will be implemented during the Christmas holiday period. Baseline measurements will occur 2 week prior and post-retrofit measurements will occur 2 weeks after the VSD retrofit.

Approach for calculating results

An energy model will be developed for the post retrofit fan operation which relates daily fan energy consumption to daily vehicle entry/exit numbers. The energy model will then be used to extrapolate expected energy savings across an entire year using the previous year’s vehicle exist and entry date/time stamp data which is assumed representative.

Conducting measurements The chart below shows the daily measurements of the car park exhaust air fan energy consumption over the 2 week baseline measurement period. Daily energy consumption remains relatively constant between 500 and 600 kWh per day.

Appendix B

36

Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

600 Average = 558.5

Daily energy consumption (kWh)

500

400

300

200

100

0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

9

8

10

11

12

13

14

Day

The total consumption measured across the 14-day baseline period is 7,820 kWh. The consumption for the post-retrofit period is shown in the chart below. The chart also includes data for the number of cars per day that frequent the car park. 600

400

350

Daily energy consumption (kWh)

500 300

400

300

200

150

200 100

100 50

0

0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

Day

The total consumption measured across the 14-day post-retrofit period was 1,536 kWh. The chart below shows the regression analysis results of the daily measurements of the car park exhaust fan energy consumption over the 2 week post-retrofit measurement period correlated with the daily vehicle entry/exit numbers.

Appendix B

Cars / Day

250

Appendix B: Example scenario B

37

Daily energy consumption (kWh)

200

y = 0.6572x - 54.866 R² = 0.8326 150

100

50

0 0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Vehicles

Developing an energy model The energy model for the baseline period is simple; the daily car park exhaust fan energy consumption is simply the average hourly consumption across all intervals (558.5 kWh/day), as seen in the previous baseline chart. Developing an energy model for the post retrofit period is more complex and a relationship between the daily number of vehicle entry/exit and daily car park exhaust fan energy consumption needs to be established. From the chart above, the energy model for the post retrofit data will be: 𝑑𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑦 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 (𝑘𝑊ℎ) = 0

𝑑𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑦 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 (𝑘𝑊ℎ) = 0.6572𝑥 − 54.87

where 𝑥 is the daily number of vehicle entries and exits.

(𝑥 ≤ 83)

(𝑥 > 83)

Only the coefficient of determination will be used to test the statistical validity of the regression 2 model. Since R is greater than 0.75, it is assumed the model is statistically valid for the purpose of this example.

Calculating savings During the baseline, the total energy consumption is 7,820 kWh. During the post-retrofit period, the energy consumption was 1,536 kWh. As we have like-for-like time periods and no other basis for adjustment, we can calculate savings as follows:

Appendix B

38

Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 (𝑘𝑊ℎ) = 𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦(𝑘𝑊ℎ) − 𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑖𝑡 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 (𝑘𝑊ℎ) = 7,820 − 1,536 = 6,284 𝑘𝑊ℎ

However, we wish to extrapolate these savings across an entire year using the previous year’s vehicle entry and exit date/time stamp data. To do this, the previous year’s daily vehicle entry and exit numbers will be applied to the post retrofit model to calculate the predicted energy consumption which will then be subtracted from the baseline model (average daily energy consumption of 558.5 kWh). This is achieved through the following equation: 𝑛

𝐴𝑛𝑛𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 (𝑘𝑊ℎ) = � 558.5 − 𝐸𝑖 𝑖=1

Where

𝐸𝑖 is the daily energy consumption that is calculated from the post-retrofit energy model, namely: 𝑑𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑦 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 (𝑘𝑊ℎ) = 0

𝑑𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑦 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 (𝑘𝑊ℎ) = 0.6572𝑥 − 54.87

And:

(𝑥 ≤ 83)

(𝑥 > 83)

𝑥 = number of vehicles

The table below illustrates the results of this calculation across a typical week: Day

Cars

Baseline (kWh)

Post-retrofit (kWh)

Savings (kWh)

1

348

558.5

173.8

384.7

2

360

558.5

181.7

376.8

3

296

558.5

139.7

418.9

4

254

558.5

112.1

446.5

5

243

558.5

104.8

453.7

6

115

558.5

20.7

537.8

7

146

558.5

41.1

517.5

Using day 4 as an example: 𝑝𝑠𝑜𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑖𝑡 𝑢𝑠𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝐷𝑎𝑦 4 (𝑘𝑊ℎ) = 0.657 × 254 − 54.87 = 112.1 𝑘𝑊ℎ

Daily values for ‘business as usual’ forecast or ‘adjusted baseline’ as well as post-retrofit usage and daily energy savings are calculated across an entire year.

Appendix B

Appendix B: Example scenario B

39

The extrapolated savings are calculated to be 157,935 kWh.

Estimating uncertainty Actual post-retrofit period savings uncertainty The standard error of the baseline model 𝑆𝐸𝑏 (standard error associated with the average daily energy consumption calculation) is calculated as follows: 𝑆𝐸𝑏 =

𝑠

√𝑛

=

8.712 √14

= 2.3285 = 𝑆𝐸𝑝𝑟

Where 𝑠 is the standard deviation and 𝑛 is the number of data points (14 days) of the measured baseline data. This also equals the daily standard error of the actual post retrofit energy savings. The loggers used to measure the baseline and post-retrofit data have a relative precision of ±1.0%. It is assumed that the accuracy of the power meter has been extensively tested by the manufacturer across a large sample set, assumed to be infinite. It is also assumed that the precision is provided at 95% confidence, which is the most conservative figure. The t-value has been obtained from Table 27 within Appendix G of the Process Guide by referencing the column representing 95% confidence, and using look up value for degrees of freedom, DFpower draw = ∞. The loggers take readings every minute, and so the average value recorded across the 14 days is: average reading =

7,820 14 × 24 × 60

average reading = 0.38788

The standard error (SE) of a reading is calculated using the equation below: SE = =

𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 × 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑡 0.01 × 0.38788 1.96

= 00.00198

The standard error (SEb) of the 14 day baseline period is: 𝑆𝐸𝑏 (𝑘𝑊ℎ) = �14 × 24 × 60 × 𝑆𝐸𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 2 = �14 × 24 × 60 × 0.001982

= 0.281 𝑘𝑊ℎ

Appendix B

40

Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

Applying the process above to the post-retrofit period, the standard error (SEpr) for the 14 day post retrofit period is: 𝑆𝐸𝑝𝑟 (𝑘𝑊ℎ) = 0.055 𝑘𝑊ℎ The standard error for the 14 day savings calculation is calculated as: 𝑆𝐸14 𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 (𝑘𝑊ℎ) = �𝑆𝐸𝑏 2 + 𝑆𝐸𝑝𝑟 2

= �0.2812 + 0.0552

= 0.286 𝑘𝑊ℎ

The absolute precision (𝐴𝑃) for a given confidence level (80% in this case) can then be calculated for the actual savings achieved during the post retrofit period by the following: 𝐴𝑃 = 𝑡 × 𝑆𝐸14 𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 Where 𝑡 is obtained from the t-statistic table for 80% confidence and 14 data points (or 13 degrees of freedom) which equals 1.35 (Refer to Table 27 within Appendix G of the Process Guide). Thus the absolute precision for savings over the two week period: 𝐴𝑃 = 1.35 × 0.286

= 0.387 = ±1 𝑘𝑊ℎ

The relative precision (𝑅𝑃) is calculated by dividing the absolute precision by the savings estimate: 𝑅𝑃 =

1

6,284

= ± 0.02% -> negligible

Given the extremely small value above, metering uncertainty will be ignored.

Extrapolated savings uncertainty The extrapolated savings calculation makes use of energy models for estimating the baseline consumption, as well as forecasting the post-retrofit consumption based on vehicle traffic. Therefore the savings uncertainty will incorporate modelling errors from both models. The standard error of the baseline model 𝑆𝐸𝑏 (standard error associated with the average daily energy consumption calculation) has been calculated as follows: 𝑆𝐸𝑏 =

𝑠

√𝑛

=

8.7124 √14

= 2.3285

Where 𝑠 is the standard deviation and 𝑛 is the number of data points (14 days) of the measured baseline data. The standard error of the post-retrofit regression model 𝑆𝐸𝑌� is calculated as follows.

Appendix B

Appendix B: Example scenario B

𝑆𝐸𝑌� = �

41

2 ∑�𝑌�𝑖 − 𝑌𝑖 � 7,436.67 = � = 24.894 𝑛−𝑝−1 14 − 1 − 1

(𝑥 ≥ 83)

where 𝑌�𝑖 is the model-predicted post-retrofit energy consumption for day 𝑖, 𝑌𝑖 is the actual postretrofit energy consumption for day 𝑖, 𝑛 is the number of data points (14 days) and 𝑝 = 1 is the number of independent variables in the regression model. The table below illustrates the process: Day

Actual (kWh)

Modelled (kWh)

1

15.17

27.28

� 𝒊 − 𝒀𝒊 )𝟐 (𝒀

2

42.07

30.57

132.39

3

39.98

37.79

4.76

4

46.90

46.34

0.31

5

85.19

98.91

188.35

6

103.14

109.43

39.57

7

123.33

117.97

28.73

8

99.64

119.94

412.15

9

185.53

140.31

2044.62

10

190.40

155.43

1223.31

11

189.32

158.06

977.37

12

145.26

160.69

238.04

13

131.19

163.97

1074.81

14

138.80

169.23

925.59

Total

1535.91

1535.91

7436.67

146.68

Since the predicted daily energy consumption is subtracted from the average daily baseline consumption using the previous year’s vehicle entry and exit data, the daily baseline and post retrofit components of uncertainty must be combined by using the following equation: 𝑆𝐸(𝑑𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑦 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠) = �𝑆𝐸𝑏 2 + 𝑆𝐸𝑌� 2

Therefore:

𝑆𝐸(𝑑𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑦 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠) = �2.32852 + 24.8942 = 25.003

The standard error above applies to the daily savings calculations and must be combined using the following equation to cover an entire year (𝑛 = 365 days) using the previous year’s vehicle entry and exit data for the 𝑥 variable.

Appendix B

42

Measurement and Verification Operational Guide

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑆𝐸(𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠) = �𝑆𝐸(𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠1 )2 + 𝑆𝐸(𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠2 )2 + … + 𝑆𝐸(𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠𝑛 )2 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑆𝐸(𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠) = √365 × 25.003 = 477.68

Using the t-statistic of 1.35 (14 data points at 80% confidence), the absolute precision is ±645 kWh and the relative precision is ±0.41%.

Reporting results During the 2 week post retrofit period, savings were measured to be 6,824 kWh ± 0.02% at 80% confidence level. Extrapolating the savings over an entire year using the previous year’s vehicle entry/exit data, savings have been estimated at 157,935 kWh ± 0.41% at 80% confidence level

Appendix B

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