Measurement Manual - Tasmanian Gas Pipeline

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MEASUREMENT MANUAL QR4-005PA-MM

DOCUME NT APPROV AL RE CORD

BUSINESS AREA

Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd

DOCUMENT OWNERS

Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd

DOCUMENT TITLE Measurement Manual APPROVED BY

NAME

VERSION

DOCUMENT NUMBER

REVIEW PERIOD

4

QR4-005PA-MM

2 years

SIGNATURE

DATE

GENERAL MANAGER TGP (OSD Asset Services)

Barry Parsons

July 2013

GENERAL MANAGER TGP (Palisade)

Lindsay Ward

July 2013

DIRECTOR (Palisade)

Daniel Roberts

DOCUMENT CONTROL Document Processed for Approval/Master stored Document Control Register Amended Templates/Forms/External Distribution? Issue (and Withdrawals) Advised

July 2013 SIGNATURE

DATE

QR4-005PA-MM Version 4 - July 2013

T AB L E O F C O NT E NT S DOCUMENT APPROVAL RECORD ..................................................................................................................... 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................................................ 2 PREPARATION RECORD..................................................................................................................................... 3 CONTROLLED COPY REGISTER ........................................................................................................................ 3 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL ............................................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Scope ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 1.2 Application ................................................................................................................................................ 4 1.3 TGP Facility Map....................................................................................................................................... 6 1.4 Standards and Definitions.......................................................................................................................... 7 1.5 Enquiries Regarding this Document ......................................................................................................... 10 1.6 Copyright ................................................................................................................................................ 10 2 GAS VOLUME MEASUREMENT ................................................................................................................ 11 2.1 General and Overview ............................................................................................................................. 11 2.2 Meter Assembly ...................................................................................................................................... 11 2.3 Pressure and Temperature Measurement................................................................................................ 13 2.4 Flow Computers ...................................................................................................................................... 13 3 GAS QUALITY ............................................................................................................................................ 14 3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 14 3.2 Specifications .......................................................................................................................................... 15 3.3 On Site Analysis Equipment .................................................................................................................... 15 3.4 Analysis Equipment by Others ................................................................................................................. 16 4 VALIDATION .............................................................................................................................................. 17 4.1 Validation Overview................................................................................................................................. 17 4.2 Validation spreadsheet ............................................................................................................................ 17 5 REFERENCE AND LOCAL CONDITIONS .................................................................................................. 23 5.1 Reference Conditions .............................................................................................................................. 23 5.2 Local Conditions...................................................................................................................................... 23 APPENDIX 1 VALIDATION CHECK DATA & TOLERANCES ........................................................................ 24 APPENDIX 2 - VALIDATION REPORTS ............................................................................................................. 26

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PREPARAT IO N RECO RD

4 3 2 A Rev

Reviewed and updated with change of operator. Minor amendments including meter validation schedule in Section 4.1 Company name change from TGP BBI Pty Ltd to Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd Amended from Alinta to BBI TGP document Description

B Richmond

B Parsons

L Ward

July 2013

A Bambridge

A Bambridge

R Sheather

August 2011

A Bambridge

A Bambridge

J Cleland

February 2010

DEI

A Bambridge

R Sheather

23.2.2009

Originator

Reviewed

Approved

Date

CONTROLLED COPY REGISTER Electronic distribution and notification to staff, main service providers and to third parties impacted by this plan is by email which includes a controlled copy of the plan. Controlled hard copies are distributed to the following parties: COPY No

TITLE

MASTER

Document Controller

Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Ltd.

1

General Manager

Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Ltd.

2

Document Controller

Jemena, Mt Waverly, Victoria

3

Operations Manager

Zinfra, Youngtown, Tasmania

5

Director of Energy Safety

Energy Safe Victoria

6

Director of Gas Safety

Department of Justice - Workplace Standards, Tasmania

7

Director

Office of the Tasmanian Economic Regulator

This document is controlled within the TGP Sharepoint System PRINTED OR DOWNLOADED COPIES OF THIS DOCUMENT ARE DEEMED UNCONTROLLED

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1

SCO PE AND GENERAL

1 . 1 Sc o p e The manual provides a technical reference for the operation and maintenance of the Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd gas measurement and monitoring systems on the Tasmanian Gas Pipeline (TGP). The TGP is operated and maintained by OSD on behalf of Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd and any queries regarding this manual should be directed to OSD. Operation of a typical gas measurement and billing system includes the following processes: -

Equipment specifications Equipment calibration Data acquisition Data transmission Data, storage, manipulation and computation Data validation Billing procedures Discrepancy resolution and billing adjustments System auditing Gas Sales Contracts or Agreements

The hardware used to implement this billing system includes: -

Gas Meters – Coriolis Gas Meters - Ultrasonic Flow Computers SCADA systems Gas Chromatograph Calibration Equipment and Instruments.

The manual includes general details on technical aspects of the overall measurement system and equipment. Other aspects of the measurement process such as billing procedures, system auditing, and billing adjustments are covered under separate procedures as part of the function of the Central Control Centre and OSD commercial team. The manual is not intended to provide specific details of Gas Sales Contract terms and conditions. The manual covers: -

-

General Information on validation of measurement data Specifications of measurement equipment Specifications of measurement tolerances and levels of uncertainty Details of calculations used for equipment calibration and data validation General procedures for calibration of measurement equipment. Guidelines for adjustment of measured flow quantity.

1 . 2 Ap p l i c a t i o n Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd is the measurement authority for the TGP. The scope of the manual applies to all OSD operated custody transfer facilities on the Tasmanian Gas Pipeline extending from the receipt facility at Longford to delivery facilities along the pipeline route in Tasmania. TGP Facility Map and Table 1 provide an overview of the measurement facilities maintained on the Tasmanian Gas Pipeline at the time of issue of this manual. Inspection and testing of both the fiscal and non-fiscal measurement equipment are addressed in the manual. For specific operational details, refer to OSD standard operating procedures. The inspection and testing procedures for independently owned and operated measurement facilities on the TGP are not addressed in this manual. © Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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Such independent facilities include: Receipt metering at Longford, Victoria. Receipt gas quality measurement at Longford, Victoria.

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1 . 3 T G P F a c i l i t y Ma p

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Location

Meter Assembly

No. Off-Meter Runs

Meter Diameter [mm]

Longford Compressor Station Bell Bay FT8 / GTG Bell Bay RR OCGT

Coriolis Coriolis

Bell Bay Mitsubishi CCGT

Ultrasonic

Comalco (Bell Bay Aluminium)

Coriolis

Bridgewater

Coriolis

Port Latta

Coriolis

ECKA, Bell Bay

Coriolis

Carrick (Launceston)

Coriolis

Westbury

Coriolis

Longford

Coriolis

Spreyton (Devonport)

Coriolis

Burnie

Coriolis

Wynyard

Coriolis

Ullverstone

Coriolis

2 Series or parallel 2 Series or parallel 2 Series or parallel 2 Series or parallel 2 Series or parallel 2 Series or parallel 2 Series or parallel 2 Series or parallel 2 Series or parallel 2 Series or parallel 2 Series or parallel 2 Series or parallel 2 Series or parallel 2 Series or parallel

Flow Computer

Temperature & Pressure Measurement

SCADA

Gas Analyser (GC only)









80 x 1









80 x 1









200 x 1 (NB – Only one meter fitted currently)









25 x 2









50 x 2









50 x 2









50 x 1









25 x 1









25 x 1









25 x 1









25 x 1









25 x 1









25 x 1









25 x 2









Table 1: Delivery Measurement Equipment

1 . 4 St a nd a rd s a nd D e f i ni t i o ns 1.4.1

Measurement and Standards

Number AS/NZS 1376:1996 ISO 6976:1995 AS ISO 1000:1998 AS ISO 13443-2007 AGA Report 3 AGA Report 7 AGA Report 8 AGA Report 9 AGA Report 11

Measurement/Standard Conversion Factors Natural Gas: Calculation of Calorific Values, Density, Relative Density and Wobbe Index from Composition The International System of Units (SI) and its application Natural Gas – Standard reference conditions Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and other related Hydrocarbon Fluids Measurement of Natural Gas by Turbine Meter Compressibility Factors of Natural Gas and Other related Hydrocarbon Gases Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis meter. National Measurement Act 1960.

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1.4.2

Definitions

TERM ABM AGA Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd owned gas Billing Period Calibration Gas

Contract(s) Control

Central Control Centre Custody Transfer Delivered

Energy Energy Accounting

Gas

Gas Used

Gigajoule (GJ) GOFXL2008 Gross Heating Value (GHV)

Imbalance

Input Quantity Joule Kilopascal (kPa) Linepack Longford Compressor Station Measurement

DEFINITION Australian Bulk Minerals American Gas Association A subsidiary of Prime Infrastructure Holdings and the owner of the TGP asset The quantity (in GJ) of gas in the pipeline equal to the sum of linepack and imbalance

The period from 0630 hours EST on the first day of each month to 0630 hours EST on the first day of the following calendar month Refers to the gas used by a gas chromatograph to calibrate against known mole percentage values The various agreements for the transport of gas via the Tasmanian Gas Pipeline A function of Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Ltd. in monitoring the TGP via the SCADA system and in executing the necessary actions and directives to ensure the effective receipt, transportation and delivery of gas to the Shippers The place in which "Control" occurs. The central point for remotely monitoring and controlling the operations on the TGP at the Jemena Offices at Mount Waverley, Victoria The transfer of responsibility for the care and keeping of the gas. Gas having left the pipeline at the delivery point specified in the relevant contract as the point of transfer of custody of the gas from Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd to the relevant Shipper The volume of gas in standard cubic metres multiplied by the Gross Heating Value (GHV). Standard units are gigajoules (GJ) The determination of all quantities of gas added to or subtracted from and remaining in the pipeline system each billing period and the determination of the energy content of all such quantities of gas A gaseous fuel consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons of the alkane series, primarily methane but which may also include ethane, propane and higher hydrocarbons in much smaller amounts. It may also include some inert gases, plus minor amounts of other constituents including odorizing agents. Natural gas remains in the gaseous state under the temperature and pressure conditions normally found in service. The amount of gas calculated by Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd to have been consumed by the TGP in normal pipeline operations such as fuel for compressors, heaters, venting and instrument gas consumption Is equal to 109 joules American Gas Association software for the calculation of gas flow. The energy produced by the complete combustion of one cubic metre of gas with air, at a temperature of 15 degrees Celsius and at an absolute pressure of 101.325 kPa, with the water produced by combustion condensed to the liquid state. Also referred to as superior or higher heating value as referred to in AS 4564 and ISO 6976. Exists in relation to an agreement if there is a difference on any day between the quantities of gas received by the access provider at receipt points for a facility user’s account and the quantities of gas delivered to or on account of the facility user at the delivery points The total of all gas received into the pipeline for a given billing period, as measured by the inlet meter The energy expended or the work done when a force of one Newton moves the point of application a distance of one metre in the direction of that force Is one thousand Pascals It is sometimes convenient for instrument calibration to use the term “kilopascal gauge”. This means that the gauge reads zero at atmospheric pressure The calculated quantity of gas contained in the pipeline at a given point in time (which is necessary for physical operation of the pipeline, excluding System Use Gas) The compressor station facility, located immediately prior to the beginning of the pipeline at Longford (Victoria) The pipeline owner

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TERM Authority Measuring Equipment Megajoule (MJ) Month Off-specification Gas Output Quantity Petajoule (PJ) Pipeline

TGP Pipeline Controller Pipeline Inlet

Pipeline Outlet Pipeline Owner Quantity Received Remote Telemetry Unit (RTU) Reconciliation Sales Specification Gas SCADA

Shipper

Specific Gravity Speed of Sound Standard Cubic Metre of Gas Standard Measurement Conditions Super compressibility Supplier

DEFINITION Includes, but is not limited to the pipeline owner’s meters, temperature and pressure transmitters, flow computers and gas chromatographs Is 106 joules A period extending from the beginning of the first day in a calendar month to the beginning of the first day in the next calendar month Gas other than Sales Specification Gas The total amount of gas delivered by the pipeline in a given period as measured by the meters at pipeline outlet locations 15 means 10 joules The pipeline known as the Tasmanian Gas Pipeline (the Pipeline) licensed under Pipeline Licence No. 1 issued by the State of Tasmania under the Gas Pipelines Act 2000 (Tas), Offshore Tas Pipeline Licence No. 1 issued by the State of Tasmania under the Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1982 (Tas), Pipeline Licence No., 236 issued by the State of Victoria under the Pipelines Act 1967 (Vic) and Offshore Vic Pipeline Licence No. 30 and 30 (v) issued by the State of Victoria under the Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967 (Commonwealth), extending from Longford, Victoria to Port Latta and Bridgewater, Tasmania Means the natural gas transmission pipeline network (and associated infrastructure and equipment) located in Tasmania An employee (or a service provider working on behalf of Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd) working at the Central Control Centre. The location(s) at which gas enters the pipeline, specified in the relevant contract as the point of transfer of custody of the gas from the relevant Supplier to the Shipper and simultaneously and instantaneously from the Shipper to the pipeline owner The location(s) at which gas leaves the pipeline specified in the relevant contract as the point of transfer of custody of the gas from the pipeline owner to the Shipper Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd The quantity of gas measured in terms of its energy content Gas having passed the inlet delivery point specified in the relevant contract as the point of custody transfer from the Supplier to Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd. Monitors the field digital and analog parameters and transmits all the data to the SCADA system The process through which Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd conducts an energy balance at the end of each billing period and allocates any System Use Gas in an agreed manner The gas that meets all of the agreed requirements for content and properties as set out in Section 3.2 Is the acronym for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition and refers to the electronic means of receiving remote data and of sending remote control signals and data to pipeline facilities An entity receiving transportation service on the pipeline pursuant to an effective Transportation Service Agreement (also known as the “facility user” or, in certain circumstances, “access provider” under the Pipeline Access Principles). The density of dry gas divided by the density of dry air, both at 15oC and at a pressure of 101.325 kPa The speed of sound for a particular gas composition. The unit of volume of gas free from water vapour which would occupy a volume of one o cubic metre at a temperature of 15 degrees Celsius (15 C) and an absolute pressure of 101.325 kilopascals Defined as 101.325 kPa and 15oC (same as standard reference conditions as per AS ISO 13443-2007) A factor expressing a deviation of a gas from perfect gas laws The party contracted by a Shipper to supply gas at any of the pipeline inlets for transport in the Tasmanian Gas Pipeline

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TERM System Use Gas

DEFINITION The quantity of gas used in the operation of the pipeline, including fuel gas and lost or unaccounted for gas OSD Asset Services Pty Ltd acts as the pipeline owner’s representative. 1012 joules

OSD Terajoule Validation Verification Wobbe Index

or

The process of periodically checking and servicing the measurement equipment to ensure that it continues to function within agreed levels of accuracy The gross heating value of the gas on a volumetric basis at standard reference conditions, divided by the square root of the relative density of the gas at the same standard reference conditions

1 . 5 E nq ui ri e s R e g a rd i ng t hi s D o c um e n t General Manager TGP –Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd

1 . 6 Co p y ri g ht The copyright of this publication is the property of Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by photocopying or by any other means without the prior written permission of Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd.

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2

G AS VOL UME MEASUREME NT

2.1

G e n e ra l a nd O v e r v i e w

Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd is the measurement authority for the Tasmanian Gas Pipeline (TGP) with responsibility for measurement and reconciliation of all gas received and delivered by the TGP. Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd owns, and OSD operates and maintains, gas quality measuring equipment at the receipt points and at selected delivery points on the pipeline. Generally, flow measurement facilities are maintained by OSD at each receipt point and delivery point. Where receipt or delivery point measurement equipment is owned or operated by a third party, they will be maintained in accordance with this manual and OSD requirements. Data transfer from on-site RTUs to the SCADA system achieves remote monitoring of flow and gas quality. Land communications link the Control Room to on-site measurement equipment at receipt and key delivery points. Measured flow is corrected for temperature, pressure, and gas composition to produce instantaneous volumetric and energy based flow rates at standard conditions in the on-site flow computer. The flow computer also calculates and maintains an accumulated record of volume and energy passing through the meter assembly. In conjunction with Line Pack calculations, the accumulated quantities from each meter are used for the daily reconciliation and balancing of the pipeline. Shipper delivery points have either ultrasonic or Coriolis meters. The data obtained from the flow computers of each meter assembly is used to calculate the flow over the billing period.

2 . 2 Me t e r As s e mb l y The meter assembly measures dynamic flow properties for use in the calculation of volumetric flow. There are two styles of meter assembly in service on the TGP pipeline. The first style of meter assembly is ultrasonic and they are used at receipt points e.g. the Bell Bay facility. The second style of meter assembly is Coriolis and they are used at delivery points eg the Comalco, Bridgewater and Port Latta facilities. For specific operating details for each meter assembly, refer to the site specific design basis manual and/or Bell Bay Facility Operating Principles (PO615-RP-001) et al.

2.2.1

Ultrasonic Meters

An ultrasonic meter measures the difference in time taken for sound waves to travel in the gas stream between up and downstream paired transducers. Ultrasonic sound pulses are launched in each direction (as shown in figure 1) from a number of pairs of transmitters/receivers and their time of transit is measured, and the difference can be related to the speed of flow in the pipe. Ultrasonic meters have several sound wave paths through the gas in the pipe. Algorithms are used to derive the average flow velocity and to determine if swirl or turbulence is present. The actual volumetric flow rate is calculated from the average velocity and the internal diameter of the meter. The flow computer converts the actual volumetric flow rate to volumetric flow rate at standard conditions and energy flow rate using inputs from pressure and temperature sensors and gas quality data.

Figure 1 Ultrasonic Meter schematic. Where: © Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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D L A&B v

= Diameter of pipe = Ultrasonic wave path distance = Transducers = Angle between pipe axis and acoustic path = Velocity of gas

Ultrasonic meters are installed, operated and maintained as per the requirements of the AGA XQ0701:2007: American Gas Association (AGA) Report No. 9 - Measurement Of Gas By Multipath Ultrasonic Meters and the manufacturer’s installation, operating and maintenance manual. Periodic checks, called validations, are carried out to confirm the accuracy and integrity of the meter set. These include checks of the automatic gain and level control, correct ultrasonic pulse rate and velocity of sound. This data indicates if any of the ultrasonic paths are fouled, the meter is subject to external noise or any of the ultrasonic transducers are deteriorating. Monitoring of the measured velocity of sound will show if there is any change in a critical dimension or the reference clock has drifted. Temperature and pressure transmitters are also checked for calibration during a validation. On-line diagnostics continuously monitor the performance of the meter. These diagnostic checks help to locate any metering discrepancies. Once identified, a discrepancy is investigated by OSD. Metered data validations will be initiated to prove metering at any site as dictated by the field investigation. Where possible, receipt point meters will be operated in series with a nominated duty meter and a stand-by meter.

2.2.2

Coriolis Meter

A Coriolis meter uses an obstructionless U-shaped tube as a sensor. Inside the sensor housing, the sensor tube vibrates at its natural frequency. The sensor tube is driven by an electromagnetic drive coil located at the centre of the bend in the tube and vibrates similar to that of a tuning fork. (Figure.2).

(Figure 2)

(Figure 3)

(Figure 4)

The fluid flowing into the sensor tube is forced to take on the vertical momentum of the vibrating tube. When the tube is moving upward during half of its vibration cycle, the fluid flowing into the sensor resists being forced upward by pushing down on the tube. (Figure 3). The fluid flowing out of the sensor has an upward momentum from the motion of the tube. As it travels around the tube bend, the fluid resists changes in its vertical motion by pushing up on the tube. The difference in forces causes the sensor tube to twist. When the tube is moving downward during the second half of its vibration cycle, it twists in the opposite direction. This twisting characteristic is called the Coriolis Effect. (Figure 4). The amount of sensor tube twist is directly proportional to the mass flow rate of the fluid. Electromagnetic velocity detectors located on each side of the flow tube measure the velocity of the vibrating tube. Mass flow is determined by measuring the time difference exhibited by the velocity detector signals. During zero flow conditions no tube twist occurs, resulting in no time difference between the two velocity signals. With flow, a twist occurs with a resulting time difference between the two velocity signals. This time difference is directly proportional to mass flow.

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The flow computer receives data from the meter in terms of pulses/kg and live gas quality data from a gas chromatograph. This enables calculation of gas volume and energy flow rates at standard conditions.

2 . 3 P re s s u re a nd T e mp e ra t u re Me a s u r e me nt Pressure transmitters and resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) are mounted with each meter assembly depending on site requirements. They are used in the calculation of the correction factor which converts the ‘actual’ metered flow to a net volume at standard measurement conditions.

2.3.1

Static Pressure Transmitter

The static pressure transmitter comprises a simple diaphragm of which one side is exposed to operating pressure. The amount of pressure placed on this diaphragm provides a corresponding distortion, which can be measured to give a static pressure reading. The static pressure sensing lines are leak tested and the transmitter is calibrated across its range during routine validations using a dead weight tester (DWT) or electronic pressure calibrator. The flow computer display pressures are compared to known test values during calibration..

The DWT and electronic pressure calibrator are regularly bench calibrated at a National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA) certified facility. Allowance is made for local gravity, barometric pressure head of oil and temperature for the DWT. For ultrasonic meters, pressure transmitters are mounted on each meter assembly. The static pressure is used in the calculation, which converts the ‘actual’ metered volumetric flow to a volume flow at standard conditions. For Coriolis meters, pressure transmitters are mounted on the meters for pressure compensation of the sensor tube.

2.3.2

Resistance Temperature Detectors & Temperature Transmitters

The operating principle of the resistance temperature detector (RTD) is relatively simple. A platinum wire is fixed within a probe positioned mid-stream in the pipe. The resistivity of the platinum is related to its temperature. Hence, variation in gas temperature can be inferred from the variation in the measured resistance across the platinum wire. A temperature transmitter monitors the resistance across the platinum wire and converts it to a digital signal for use in flow calculations. Accuracy of the RTD and flow computer inputs is checked periodically as part of routine validations. The RTD temperature probes are calibrated using a water bath and a multimeter. The measured resistivity is compared to that of a NATA certified temperature probe. The temperature transmitters are calibrated using a certified resistance device. A known resistance is placed on the input to the transmitter and the expected temperature is compared to that indicated on the flow computer.

2 . 4 F l o w Co mp ut e rs The flow computer performs three main functions: Computation of volume, mass, energy flow rate and super-compressibility; Updating of flow accumulation registers; and Data transfer. Each ultrasonic meter is connected to a local electronic flow computer, which receives volume flow signals from the meter. It also receives pressure and temperature information from the transmitters. From these inputs, and along © Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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with the gas analysis, the flow computer continuously calculates the corrected volume and energy flow through the meter. Each Coriolis meter is connected to a local electronic flow computer, which receives a mass flow signal from the meter. Volume at standard conditions and energy flow rates through the meter are calculated from this signal and gas quality data provided by a gas chromatograph. All flow computers accumulate volume and energy totals. All calculations done by the computer are in accordance with recognised industry standards. Gas quality data electronically downloaded to each flow computer includes: -

Gross heating value Relative density Nitrogen content Carbon dioxide content Hydrocarbon components

Inputs manually programmed into the flow computers are: -

Site specific atmospheric pressure Contract base pressure Contract base temperature

SCADA outputs from the flow computer are: -

Pressure Temperature Flow rate Energy rate Accumulated flow Accumulated energy Specific gravity Heating value Gas component data Yesterday’s energy Yesterday’s volume Contract energy accumulator Contract volume accumulator

Flow calculations are carried out as per the AGA standard appropriate to the metering apparatus. Calculation of super-compressibility for the purpose of flow correction is in accordance with the requirements of the AGA Report No. 8 - Compressibility Factor of Natural Gas and Related Hydrocarbon Gases (1994). All functions of the flow computer are checked using electronic test equipment. A flow calculation is performed using measured properties substituted into custom software (GOFXL 2008) and comparing the result with that from the flow computer. For specific operating details for each meter assembly, refer to the site specific design basis manual and/or Facility Operating Principles (PO-615-RP-001).

3

G AS QUAL IT Y

3 . 1 G e n e ra l Gas entering the pipeline shall meet certain specifications before it is transmitted through the line. Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd monitors the gas quality to ensure it meets specifications via data received upstream at Longford Compressor Station and then secondly via the gas chromatograph at the Bell Bay facility. © Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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3 . 2 Sp e c i f i c a t i o ns The Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd Gas Transportation Agreement (GTA) Standard Terms and Conditions for the Tasmanian Gas Pipeline states the acceptable gas quality limits that apply to gas to be transported. The gas condition is generally dry and clean and must meet the requirements specified in Australian Standard, 2011Specification for General Purpose Natural Gas. Table 3.2 specifies the gas quality minimum and maximum parameters recognised as an industry standard. Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd is contractually obligated to flow, on behalf of its Shippers, only gas that meets the specification. It is the Shipper’s responsibility to ensure that gas to be transported meets this specification at its receipt point. Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd shall notify the Shipper when off-specification gas has been delivered into the Tasmanian Gas Pipeline.. Steps as outlined in the Emergency Response Management Plan (NM2-002P-ERP) may be taken by Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd in the event that unauthorised off-specification gas has been delivered into the Tasmanian Gas Pipeline. However, this action, nor the knowledge of the presence of offspecification gas by personnel acting on behalf of Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd, relieve the Shipper from its contractual obligation for providing gas meeting specifications, or liability for any consequential damage incurred by Shippers directly or indirectly due to the acceptance of off-specification gas on behalf of a Shipper.

Table 3.2 Gas Specification Parameter Delivery temperature Hydrocarbon dew point (at 3,500kPa) Oxygen

Units ºC ºC mol %

Minimum 2 -

Maximum 50 2 0.2

Water Total Sulphur Hydrogen Sulphide Mercaptan sulphur Higher heating value

mg/m³ mg/m³ mg/m³ mg/m³

36.5

62 50 5.7 5.0 42.3

Wobbe Index

MJ/m

46.0

52.0

MJ/m

3 3

Test Method C9+ GC Calculation ISO 6974 & ISO 6975; OR ASTM D1945 - 03 ASTM D1142 - 95(2006) ASTM D1072 - 06 ISO 6326 ISO 6326 ISO 6976 ASTM D3588 - 98(2003)

3 . 3 O n S i t e An a l y s i s Eq ui p me n t Gas chromatographs provide on-site gas analysis and heating value. A natural gas sample is extracted from the flowing pipeline, transported to the analyser, processed for particle removal and phase integrity and injected onto the gas chromatograph columns where component separation occurs. The sample is then vented and results are stored in memory and communicated to Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd’s SCADA system. The resulting information consists of mole percent values for the following: Methane Ethane Propane N-Butane I-Butane N-Pentane I-Pentane Neo-Pentane Nitrogen Carbon Dioxide Hexane Plus (C6+)

(C1) (C2) (C3) (N-C4) (I-C4) (N-C5) (I-C5) (Neo-C5) (N2) (C02) + (C6 )

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The existing gas analyser at Bell Bay Meter Station measures a C6+ peak. The existing gas analyser is due to be replaced by a C9+ Gas Chromatograph in 2013. Additional information is calculated from the gas composition. The basis of these calculations is ISO 6976. Calculated values include: Real relative density (specific gravity) Heating value Wobbe Index These calculated values and gas composition data are supplied to the flow computers for correcting the meter data to standard volume and energy conditions. The gas chromatograph is checked as part of routine validations of metering equipment. Details on the Gas Chromatograph validation report can be found in Section 4, Clause 4.2.6. 3.4

An a l y s i s E q u i p m e n t b y O t h e r s

Gas quality measurements are also made at the inlet to the pipeline at Longford, Victoria. Currently this equipment is operated by Jemena and data provided to the TGP via the SCADA system. This equipment consists of a C9+ Gas Chromatograph providing calculated heating value data, Relative density, Wobbe index, and hydrocarbon dewpoint.

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4

VAL IDAT IO N

4 . 1 Va l i d a t i o n O ve r vi e w Validation is the process of ensuring the accuracy of the gas quality and energy accounting equipment. Validations are performed at each of the pipeline metering stations. The validation tests are conducted at regular intervals based on throughput as set out below: Ultrasonic Meters - on a 6 weekly basis. Coriolis Meters - on a 12 weekly basis. Coriolis Meters Bell Bay - on a 6 weekly basis. Representatives of each of the parties having a direct interest in the accounting of quantities of gas passing through a given meter are given at least 48 hours notice in writing of the proposed date and time of the tests so that they may witness the tests. Witnesses are given the opportunity to sign report forms at the site to signify their witnessing of and agreement with the validation result. In the event that any or all of the invited witnesses do not attend, the test results will nevertheless be deemed to be an accurate statement of current performance and shall be accepted by all parties. One copy of each of the completed test reports will be forwarded to the relevant parties within 14 days of the test being completed. A copy of each report is filed at the OSD office. In the event of equipment failure, damage or accuracy drift, the pipeline owner may conduct interim validations without witnesses, but shall, where possible, give prior notice to the relevant parties that an interim validation is to be undertaken. In any case, all interested parties will receive full written details of the validation results and any adjustments made as a result of the findings, including changes to manually programmed input data in flow computers. Any party may request that a validation be conducted between scheduled dates. In the event that the equipment is found to be within specified tolerances, the requesting party is required to pay the costs of conducting the extra validation. Where possible, any maintenance will be done during a scheduled validation to be witnessed by all parties. Calibration of validation equipment is carried out according to the table shown in Appendix 2. Examples of validation check data can also be found in Appendix 2.

4 . 2 Va l i d a t i o n s p r e a d s he e t An Excel spreadsheet is used to assist in the validation process. It helps to ensure that the process is consistent between different sites. Following is a list of all relevant validation forms within the spreadsheet. VAL 601 – Test Equipment VAL 602 – Ultrasonic Diagnostic Check VAL 603 – Pressure Transmitter Tolerance Check VAL 604 – Temperature Transmitter Tolerance Check VAL 605 – Ultrasonic Meter Flow Computer vs GOF Check VAL 606 – Gas Chromatograph Tolerance Check VAL 607 – Coriolis Meter Flow Computer vs GOF Check VAL 608 – Meter Comparison Check VAL 620 – Data Transfer Check Note: GOF is proprietary software (GOFXL2008) that is "called" from the spreadsheet to calculate gas flow data in accordance with the AGA standards. © Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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Val 601 Test Equipment - is a register for all certified test equipment used during a Validation. At the commencement of each Validation, the model number, serial number, data of last certification and accuracy of each piece of equipment is entered onto the sheet. The sheet is then printed and signed for acceptance that the information entered is correct. An example of Val 601 is shown in Appendix 2. Val 602 Ultrasonic Diagnostic Check - is used to assess ultrasonic meter operational status. Data accessible via a computer are used as key indicators of meter performance, and the nature of problems affecting that performance. There are five main indicators of meter performance found on Val 602 Ultrasonic Diagnostics Check. Sample rate Velocity of sound Stability AGC Levels AGC Limits Sample rate - Used to determine that all ultrasonic pulses sent by the emitting transducer are being collected by the receiving transducer. The sample rate for all ultrasonic meters is 15 Hz with a tolerance of + or – 1 Hz. Velocity of Sound or (VOS) - is output as an average value of all pulse paths in the meter (m/s). The VOS calculated by the meter is compared against that calculated from gas quality, pressure and temperature using VOS calculated using proprietary software. This comparison is then used to determine whether there is any performance faults with the meter. A tolerance of 1.5 m/s is set for VOS comparison. Stability - This measures the status of axial path, swirl path, flow and swirl. A value up to 4 represents correct functioning. AGC Levels - The AGC levels or automatic gain control levels are outputs from each transducer. The ultrasonic meter relies on the transit time from when one transducer emits an ultrasonic pulse until when the receiving transmitter “hears” that pulse. Certain devices commonly used on standard meter stations such as pressure regulators can produce ultrasonic noise. In such noisy environments, gain levels increase to enable the detection of each transmitted pulse. The meter automatically adjusts the gain of each transducer to achieve optimal metering capability. AGC Limits - AGC limits are also outputs from each transducer. The limits are adjusted automatically by the signal processing unit and are defaulted to a maximum level. The AGC characteristics are best represented as a ratio of AGC limits to AGC levels. A ratio of 3:1 is a minimum requirement, with ratios of up to 10:1 being typical. The information required for Val 602 Ultrasonic Diagnostic Check is obtained from the site Flow Computer List 50 and 51 Data View and is pasted into the diagnostics tab in the validation spread sheet. If a Qsonic data link fault is present on the meter to be validated, information contained in List 50 will not be "live" data. In this instance the meter data log file is the source of the data entered into the list on the diagnostics tab. An example of Val 602 is shown in Appendix 2. Val 603 Pressure Transmitter Tolerance Check - is used to validate the accuracy of the pressure transmitter. The type of pressure calibrating equipment to be used for the pressure test selected is either a dead weight tester (DWT) or an electronic pressure calibrator. If the DWT is selected, the oil temperature and hydraulic head are entered to give a corrected "required kPa". © Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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Pressures are applied across the pressure transmitter's range in steps of 10%, 40%, 60% and 90% of site maximum pressure, as displayed on Val 603. From the flow computer, the pressures are then viewed on data view and entered into the "As Found kPa" Table.

Once all pressures are applied and entered into the "As Found kPa" Table, they are automatically compared to "required kPa" and an error shown. This error is then compared to the acceptable variance to determine whether the transmitter is within tolerance. If the transmitter is found to be within tolerance, the "as found kPa" values are copied into the "As Left kPa" Table and the Val 603 Pressure Transmitter Tolerance Check is complete. If the transmitter is found to be out of tolerance a transmitter calibration is carried out. Upon completion all pressures are re-applied and re-entered into the "As Left kPa" Table. It the transmitter does not calibrate correctly it will be replaced. An example of Val 603 is shown in Appendix 2. Val 604 Temperature Transmitter Tolerance Check - is used to validate the accuracy of the temperature transmitter. The temperature transmitter is calibrated across its range using a decade box. Different resistances are applied to simulate an RTD at different temperatures. The temperature or resistance indicated on Val 604 is dialed on the decade box. The corresponding temperature in the flow computer is viewed on the List 50 Data View. This value is then entered into the "As Found 0C" Table. Once all temperatures are dialed and entered into the "As Found 0C" Table, they are automatically compared to the 0 "required C" and an error shown. This error is then compared to the acceptable variance to determine whether the transmitter is within tolerance. If the transmitter is found to be within tolerance, the "as found kPa" values are copied into the "As Left 0C" Table and the Val 604 Temperature Transmitter Tolerance Check is complete. If the transmitter is found to be out of tolerance, a transmitter calibration is required. Once completed all 0 temperatures are again stepped through and re-entered into the As Left C" Table on Val 604. The transmitter is replaced if it cannot be calibrated to within tolerance. Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) Probes The RTD probes are checked using a certified RTD probe, a water bath and a multimeter. Both the RTD to be validated and the NATA certified RTD are placed in the same water bath and their resistances measured. These resistances are entered into the "As Found RTD" calibration on Val 604 and the variance is automatically calculated. This variance is then compared to the variance limit to determine if the RTD is functioning correctly. If the RTD being validated is found to be in tolerance, the results entered in the “As Found RTD” Table are copied to the “As Left RTD” Table and the RTD calibration is complete. If the RTD being validated is found to be out of tolerance, then the RTD is replaced and a new RTD compared to the NATA certified RTD in the water bath. The resistance of the new RTD and NATA certified RTD are entered into the “As Left RTD” Table. An example of Val 604 is shown in Appendix 2. Val 605 Ultrasonic Meter Flow Computer vs GOF Check - is used to determine if the flow computer is correctly calculating the actual and standard flow accumulators, energy flow accumulators and the super-compressibility (Fpv). The check also confirms that the correct number of pulses is being recorded. © Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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At the commencement of the check via the flow computer data view, list 50 is placed in “Forval” (forward validation) mode and the pressure and temperature control inhibited to insure constant values are retained for the entire check. The pulse generator is also connected to the pulse input line of the flow computer. A copy of list 50 is then taken and pasted into the “Start Accum” tab in the validation spread sheet. Once the data has been copied into the “Start Accum” tab successfully, pulses are injected into the flow computer from the pulse generator to simulate pulses from a meter. Once the pulse injection is complete, another copy of list 50 is taken from the flow computer and pasted into the “End Accum” tab in the validation spread sheet. The number of pulses injected into the flow computer is entered in the pulses cell on Val-605 and the actual, standard and energy flow rates along with the FPV is then automatically calculated. These calculated values are compared to the flow computers calculated values and a percentage variance determined. This variance is then compared to the allowable variance as indicated on Val 605 of the validation spread sheet. An example of Val 605 is shown in Appendix 2. Val 606 Gas Chromatograph Tolerance Check - is used to determine the gas chromatograph’s operational status. Firstly the gas chromatograph serial number is selected on Val 606 along with the calibration bottle to be used for the validation. Once these two parameters have been selected, the calibration bottle gas composite mole percentages are automatically entered into the certified mole % column of Val 606. Using proprietary software (GC Mon) to talk to the gas chromatograph, the gas stream is changed from line gas to calibration gas and let run for three cycles to ensure all line gas is purged from the system. Once the three cycles are complete, the GC Mon report data is taken from the third cycle and pasted into the GC_AF tab in the validation spread sheet. The data from the GC_AF tab automatically updates to Val 606 and is compared to the calibration bottles certified known SG, HV and compressibility to give a total variance. The variance is then compared to the allowable tolerance to determine if the GC readings are within the set tolerances. If the SG, HV and compressibility are found to be within tolerance, the data pasted into the GC_AF tab is copied into the GC_AL tab in the validation spread sheet and the Val 606 GC validation is complete. If the GC is found to be out of tolerance, then a calibration is required. Once the calibration is complete, a copy of the results page of GC Mon is taken and pasted into the GC_AL tab in the validation spread sheet. An example of Val 606 is shown in Appendix 2. Val 607 Coriolis Meter Flow Computer vs GOF Check - is used to determine if the FC is calculating the correct accumulators for mass, standard flow rate and energy flow rate. The check also confirms that the correct number of pulses is being recorded. At the commencement of the check (via the FC data view), update of the SG and HV are control inhibited on list 50 to ensure constant values are retained for the entire check. A pulse generator is connected to the pulse input line of the FC. A copy of list 50 is then taken and pasted into the “Start Accum” tab in the validation spread sheet. Once the data has been copied into the “Start Accum” tab successfully, pulses are injected into the FC from the pulse generator to simulate pulses from a meter. Once the pulse injection is complete, another copy of list 50 is taken from the FC and pasted into the “End Accum” tab in the validation spread sheet. The number of pulses injected into the FC is then entered in the pulses cell on Val 607 and the calculated mass, standard and energy flow accumulators are automatically calculated. © Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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These calculated values are compared to the FC calculated values and a percentage variance determined. This variance is then compared to the allowable variance as indicated on Val 607 of the validation spread sheet. An example of Val 607 is shown in Appendix 2 Val 608 Meter Comparison Check - is used to determine the variance in standard flow rate over a set period of time between two meters. This check can only be carried out on sites where series flow through two meters occurs. From the SCADA system, a snapshot of flow accumulation taken from just after the daily accumulator test is copied and pasted into the “Start Flow Comp” tab in the validation spread sheet. Then the same step is completed in the same accumulation period just before the accumulators reset. This snapshot is copied and pasted into the “End Flow Comp” tab in the validation spread sheet. The data from the two tabs is then entered into Val 608. Once entered the variance between the two meters is automatically calculated and is then compared to the acceptable variance between the two meters. An example of Val 608 is shown in Appendix 2. Val 620 Data Transfer Check - is used to determine if the data that is constantly being transferred to and from meter stations is being done correctly. Firstly the type of Gas Chromatograph must be selected using the selection box on Val 620. The selection box can also be used for sites that have no GC. The data transfer check can be broken up into three main areas: Sites with a Gas Chromatograph Sites without a Gas Chromatograph (excluding Coriolis sites) Coriolis sites Sites with a Gas Chromatograph: If a gas chromatograph is on site then a data transfer from GC to Flow Computer to SCADA system check is conducted. This check comprises three steps: Data from GC. This is copied from GC Mon and pasted into the GC Data Tab in the validation spread sheet. This data automatically updates to Val 620. Data from FC. This data is copied via the FC data view list 50. Once copied, the data is pasted in the FC list 50 data trans tab in the validation spread sheet. This data automatically updates to Val 620. Data from SCADA. This data is copied from the GC data page for the validation site. Once copied, the data is pasted into the SCADA GC data trans tab in the validation spread sheet. The data from the SCADA GC data trans is then entered by hand into Val 620. The variance between the three data down loads is automatically calculated and compared to the tolerance to insure correct operational status. Sites without a Gas Chromatograph: (excluding Coriolis sites) If a GC is not on site then a data transfer SCADA system to FC check is conducted. This check comprises two steps: © Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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Data from SCADA. This data is copied from the GC data page of the site where the gas analysis is conducted. Once copied the data is pasted into the SCADA GC data trans tab in the validation spread sheet. The data from the SCADA GC data trans is then entered by hand into Val 620. Data from FC. This data is copied via the FC data view list 50. Once copied the data is pasted in the FC list 50 data trans tab in the validation spread sheet. This data automatically updates to Val 620. The variance between the two data down loads is automatically calculated and compared to the tolerance to insure correct operational status. Coriolis sites: The Coriolis sites, due to the Coriolis Meters being mass flow meters, only require the specific gravity (SG) and gross heating value (GHV) for operation. Similarly, only the SG and GHV are required to be proved in the data transfer check. This check comprises two steps: Data from SCADA. This data is copied from the GC data page of the site where the gas analysis is conducted. Once copied, the data is pasted into the SCADA GC data trans tab in the validation spread sheet. The data from the SCADA GC data trans is then entered by hand into Val 620. Data from FC. This data is copied via the FC data view list 50. Once copied the data is pasted in the FC list 50 data trans tab in the validation spread sheet. This data automatically updates to Val 620. An example of Val 620 is shown in Appendix 2.

© Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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5

REF ERENCE AND LO CAL C ONDIT IONS

5 . 1 Re f e re nc e Co nd i t i o ns In order to be able to equate flows at differing pressures and temperatures, a common reference needs to be established. Defining the base conditions and converting all volumes to these “standard conditions” achieves this. Australian standard reference conditions (AS ISO 13443) are: Reference Temperature Reference Pressure

15.0 °C (288.15 K) 101.325 kPa (abs)

5 . 2 L o c a l C o n d it i o n s The local gravitational acceleration and atmospheric pressure at each site varies. A universal strategy must be established for determination of the local conditions to allow conversion to “standard conditions”.

5.2.1

Local Gravitational Acceleration

Local gravitational acceleration at each site is calculated in accordance with equation 3-A-10 of AGA3-1992. (American Gas Association Report No. 3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Fluids). The local gravity is dependent on the latitude and elevation of the site. For basic calculations the standard acceleration due to gravity (gs) is 9.80665 ms-2.

5.2.2

Local Atmospheric Pressure

Local atmospheric pressure is also calculated for each site. It is calculated using the following equation and is dependent on the elevation only. P local = 101.325 – (h* density air x gs) 1000 h density air gs

= elevation (m) = 1.2255 kg/m 3 (15 °C, 101.325 kPa abs) = 9.80665 m/s-2

All local reference conditions are listed in Table 5.2

KP

Site

Latitude (deg)

Longitude (deg)

Elevation (m)

Local Gravity Local Atmos. (m/s^2). Pres. (kPa)

Bell Bay Comalco Bridgewater Port Latta

41.1428014054 41.1298086266 42.7201476603 40.8580087536

146.902223264 146.886859047 147.228691112 145.379827047

7.22 39.70 63.00 14.40

9.803215 9.803103 9.804428 9.802943

101.238 100.848 100.568 101.152

Table 5.2 Local Reference Conditions

© Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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APPENDIX 1

VAL IDAT IO N CHECK DAT A & T OLERANCES

VAL 602 & 608 – Ultrasonic Meter Check Complete Test: Gross Flow, deviation compared to other calibrated Meter Sample Rate Velocity of Sound Automatic Gain Control (AGC) Level Automatic Gain Control (AGC) Limit VAL 603 - Line Pressure Check Partial Test: (single point) Transmitter Range: 16000 kPa Transmitter Range: 10000 kPa Full Test: Flow Computer Tolerance (0.01% of input range): VAL 604 - Temperature Partial Test: (single point) Transmitter Tolerance: Full Test: Total Display Tolerance Point Test: RTD Comparison

Tolerance +/- 1.0% 15 +/-1 +/- 1.50 m/s AGC Limit to Level ratio >2 >40000

16 kPa 10 kPa 0.1%

0.5C 0.2C 0.08C

VAL 605 - Flow Computer Total Computational Accuracy:

+/- 0.10%

VAL 606 - Gas Chromatograph GC – FC DAC Accuracy:

0.02%

VAL 607 - Coriolis Meter Flow Computer Computation Accuracy

+/- 0.10%

VAL 620 – Meter comparison Ultrasonic and Coriolis Meters Turbine Meters

0.8% 0.6667%

VAL 609 – Data transfer check

0.000%

FLOW COMPUTER TOLERANCES The basis of the accuracy limits is shown below for the different segments of the flow computer. Analogue Inputs Analogue to digital conversion:

± 0.02% of span

Test voltmeter (DC Range)

± 0.02% of reading

Precision 10 ohm resistor

± 0.02%

Total analogue input limit

± 0.06% of span

© Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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The exception to the above calculation is the temperature (resistance), where Resist to digital conversion

± 0.1% of span

Total resistance box

± 0.02%

Total temperature limit

± 0.12% of span

Computation tolerance

± 0.05%

The flow computer accuracy is added arithmetically to the above limits for the purpose of determining an acceptable instantaneous error limit. Note that if the check computation is based on a flow compute displayed value, the only allowable error limit is the flow computer's computation accuracy.

© Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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APPENDIX 2 - VAL IDAT IO N REPORT S Note: Examples in this manual are closely indicative of the forms and reports that are generated for TGP validations. Val 601 - Test Equipment

© Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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Val 602 Ultrasonic Diagnostics

© Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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Val 603 - Pressure Transmitter

© Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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Val 604 – Temperature Transmitter

© Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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Val 605 Ultrasonic Meter Flow Computer vs GOF

© Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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Val 606 - Gas Chromatograph

© Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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Val 620 – Series Meter Comparison

© Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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Val 608 - Coriolis Meter Flow Computer vs GOF

© Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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Val 609 - Data Transfer

© Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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© Tasmanian Gas Pipeline Pty Ltd 2013

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