injection molding machine for metal injection molding (mim) - IIT Delhi

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DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MICROINJECTION MOLDING MACHINE FOR METAL INJECTION MOLDING (MIM) A dissertation Submitted in partialfulfiffment for the award of the degree of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY in

PRODUCTION ENGINEERING Su6mitted 6y

VIKASH KUMAR 2004MEP2498 Vlicr the guidance of

Dr. Naresh Bhatnagar

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, DELHI MAY 2006

0E467E101TE

This is to certify that the report entitled "Design and Development of MicroInjection Molding Machine for Metal Injection Molding", being submitted by Mr. Vikash Kumar to the Indian institute of Technology, Delhi, in partial fulfillment of the award of the Master of Technology degree in Production Engineering. Mr. Vikash Kumar has working under my guidance and has fulfilled the requirements for the submission of the report, which is to our knowledge, has the requisite standard. The works carried out in this report have not been submitted in part or in full, to any other university or Institute for the award of any degree or diploma during the year 2005-2006.

Place: New Delhi

Supervisor,

Date: 20th May 2006

Dr. Naresh Bhatnagar Associate Professor, Dept. of Mech. Engg. IIT, Delhi

Acknowledgements First, I would like to thank my Supervisor, Dr. Naresh Bhatnagar, Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT-Delhi, who provided me this opportunity and blessed with infinite patience. For every stumble and fail use as I tried to find my way, I was given a chance to find out the answer. It goes without saying that his technical advice was always flawless and timed perfectly. My foremost, thanks are due to my parents for their encouragement, support, love and affection, which keep me going always. I also acknowledge the help of Dr. P. V.Madhusudhan Rao, Associate Professor, Dr. R.Sagar, Professor and Dr. Pulak Mohan Pandey, Assistant professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT-Delhi, for their invaluable suggestions and encouragement at every stage of my work, without which I could not have accomplished my task. I am very thankful to Mr. P. Selvakumar, Research scholar and Ms. Parvin, Research scholar, Mr. D.C. Kushwaha, Mr. Tulsiram, Mr. Shrichand Sharma for their kind help and cooperation throughout my project. I would also like to thank all the staff members and technicians especially of Production Lab, NC lab and Machine Tool Laboratory for their kind cooperation in carrying out my experiments. I also thank all those people who helped me directly or indirectly but have gone unnoticed.

New Delhi 20th May 2006

Vikash Kumar 2004MEP2498

ii

ABSTRACT

Metal injection molding (MIM) is a metalworking technology for costeffectively producing small, complex, precision metal parts in high run volumes. Metal Injection Molding or MIM, also called Powder Injection Molding or PIM, is a net-shape process for producing solid metal parts that combines the design freedom of plastic injection molding with material properties near that of wrought metals. With its inherent design flexibility, MIM is capable of producing an almost limitless array of highly complex geometries in many different alloys ranging from stainless steels, alloy steels, and soft magnetic materials, controlled expansion materials and custom alloys. [1] In this process metals involves mixing a very high volume of metal powder with organic binders to produce a feedstock. A bonded metal 'green' part is then molded. Careful removal of the binders leaves a skeleton of metal, which is then subjected to high temperature sintering. After sintering, full density can be realized and for that reason the mechanical properties of MIM components are generally superior to those of traditional powder metallurgy parts. MIM components have properties similar to wrought materials and dimensional tolerances superior to investment casting. As most of these products are complex and small, the use of conventional injection molding machine is not advocated therefore the metal injection molding is a very complex area of research. The objective of present work was to design and develop a Micro-Injection Molding Machine for Metal Injection in order to manufacture a high quality tensile and flexure specimen. Keywords: Metal injection molding, Debinding, Sintering, Binders, Mold, Metal powder, Microstructure.

iii

Table of contents

CERTIFICATE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ii

ABSTRACT

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

iv- vi

LIST OF FIGURES

vii- viii

LIST OF TABLES

ix

LIST OF DRAWING NOMENCLATURE & ABBREVIATIONS

xi

CHAPTER-1: INTRODUCTION

1-17

1.1 Metal Injection Molding

1

1.2 Background

1

1.3 How Does PMIM Work?

2

1.4 MIM Process Outline

2

1.4.1 Feedstock Preparation and mixing

5

1.4.2 Molding

6

1.4.3 Debinding

7

1.4.4 Sintering:

7

1.5 Basic Attributes of MIM Process

8

1.6 Feedstock Characteristics

8

1.7 Molds Characteristics

11

1.8 Part Characteristics

11

1.9 Part Tolerances

12

1.10 Tools for metal injection moulding

12

1.11 Advantages of the MIM process

13

1.12 Process limitations

14

1.13 Metal Injection Molding Vs Other Production Technologies

15

1.14 Application of MIM

16

1.15 Product Status

16

iv

CHAPTER-2: LITERATURE REVIEW AND MOTIVATION

18-24

2.1 International Status

18

2.2 Motivation

24

2.3 Problem definition

24

2.4 objective

24

CHAPTER-3: MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY

25-42

3.1 Metal Powder & Binder

25

3.2 Furnaces Environment for debinding and sintering process:

28

3.3 Design Parameters

29

3.3.1 Part Size Range

29

3.3.2 Part Section Thickness

29

3.3.3 Weight Range of Parts

30

3.3.4 Density / Porosity of Parts

30

3.3.5 Part Tolerances

30

3.3.6 Surface Finish of Parts

30

3.3.7 Part complexity

30

3.4 Feedstock Shrinkage Design

31

3.5 Mold Plate Design and manufacturing

32

3.5.1 Mold plate Material selection

32

3.5.2 Gate Design

33

3.5.3 Runner Design

34

3.5.3 Ejection system

34

3.5.4 Venting

35

3.6 Fabrication of Mold

36

3.7 Various stages followed in the manufacture of mold

36

3.7.1 Stage 1: Finishing the impression:

37

3.7.2 Stage 2: Aligning cavity and core

37

3.7.3 Stage 3: Bedding down

38

3.7.4 Stage 4: Fitting of ejector system

39

3.7.5 Stage 5: Sprue bush and registering fitment

41

3.7.6 Stage 6: Tryout and hardening

41

3.8 Mold Design

42

CHAPTER-4: EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

43-46

4.1 Experimental Setup

43

4.2 Measurement of Particle Size of Iron Powder

44

4.3 Preparation of Feedstock

44

4.3.1 Preparation of iron powder and polyethylene glycol

44

4.5.2 Preparation of copper powder and polypropylene

45

4.4 Preparation of specimen for tension test and flexural test

CHAPTER-5: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

45

47-52

5.1 Specimen produced through iron powder feedstock

47

5.2 Mechanical Properties of mixture of Copper powder with PP

48

5.3 Microstructure of specimens made from mixture of copper and PP 49 5.4 Development of Micro Injection Molding Machine

49

5.5 Working of modified injection molding machine

50

CHAPTER-6: RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

53

REFERENCES

54-56

APPENDIX-A: CNC codes for milling impression on mold plate 57-58 APPENDIX-B: The detailed drawings of the modified MIM

59-70

APPENDIX-C: Various fabricated parts for Modified injection molding machine 71

vi

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injection molding machine for metal injection molding (mim) - IIT Delhi

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MICROINJECTION MOLDING MACHINE FOR METAL INJECTION MOLDING (MIM) A dissertation Submitted in partialfulfiffment for the awar...

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