HARVARD STYLE REFERENCING

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YOUR GUIDE TO

HARVARD STYLE REFERENCING

UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

INTRODUCTION TO THE HARVARD AUTHOR-DATE REFERENCING STYLE The Harvard system is another name given to the Author-Date style of referencing and citation. Examples in this document have been based on the following text; Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, 6th edn, rev. Snooks & Co., Wiley, Milton, Qld

IN-TEXT REFERENCES •

Harvard uses the ‘author-date’ style of referencing. That is, in-text references (generally) appear in the following format: (Author’s Last Name Year of Publication, Page Number(s)) Example: (Austen 1813, p. 64)



You are also permitted to include the author’s name in a sentence, omitting it from the brackets. Example: Austen (1813, p. 64-67) observes that…



If you are referring to an entire work, include only the author’s last name and year of publication in brackets. If you are referring to part of a work, you must include page numbers or their equivalent (see specific examples for more information).



When citing a source you have not read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read, use the following method: Moore (as cited in Maxwell 1999, p. 25) stated that… Important: You would cite Maxwell, not Moore, in the Reference List Please Note: It is always preferable to cite the original source

REFERENCE LIST • • • •

The reference list should appear at the end of your work on a separate page Only include references you have cited in your work References should be listed in alphabetical order All references should have a hanging indent. That is, all lines of a reference subsequent to the first should be indented

Acknowledgement: The material contained in this document has been adapted, with permission of the authors, from the following publication: University of Canberra Library & Academic Skills Program 2010, A guide to referencing with examples in the APA & Harvard styles, 6th edn, University of Canberra Library, Canberra, viewed 20 January 2011, http://www.canberra.edu.au/library/attachments/pdf/referencing-guide.pdf

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IN-TEXT REFERENCE

REFERENCE LIST

One author – in-text reference placement

‘Information prominent’ (the author’s name is within parentheses):

Cochrane, A 2007, Understanding urban policy: a critical approach, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA.

Note: There are two main ways to use intext references. Firstly, to focus on the information from your source – ‘information prominent’. Secondly, to focus on the author – ‘author prominent’.

The conclusion reached in a recent study (Cochrane 2007) was that…

BOOKS

OR ‘Author prominent’ (the author’s name is outside the parentheses): Cochrane (2007) concluded that…

One author – when fewer than 30 words are quoted Include the material in the paragraph and include specific page number/s. Use single quotation marks to show the exact words.

An interesting view was expressed that ‘the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned’ (Cochrane 2007, p. 117). OR An interesting view was expressed by Cochrane (2007, p. 117) that ‘the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned’.

2

Cochrane, A 2007, Understanding urban policy: a critical approach, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA.

One author – when 30 or more words are quoted

IN-TEXT REFERENCE

REFERENCE LIST

Much has been written about acute care. Finkelman (2006, p. 184),

Finkelman, AW 2006, Leadership and management in nursing, Pearson Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

for example, points out that: Begin quoting the material on a new line, indent it 5 spaces (use the Indent tool to keep all lines of the quote evenly indented), and include specific page number/s.

There are many changes in acute care services occurring almost daily, and due to the increasing use of outpatient surgery, surgical services have experienced major changes. Hospitals are increasing the size of their outpatient or ambulatory surgery departments and adjusting to the need of moving patients into and out of the surgical service in 1 day or even a few hours.

Omit the quotation marks. Use double spacing for your text and single spacing for the indented quote. Make sure the quote is exactly as it was published.

Recently, this trend has been seen in some Australian hospitals and research here…

Two or three authors

When considering the Howard Government’s Indigenous health expenditure, Palmer and Short (2010, p. 63) maintain that…

Palmer, GR & Short, SD 2010, Health care and public policy: an Australian analysis, 4th edn, Palgrave Macmillan, South Yarra, Vic.

More than three authors – when reference to specific page/s required

A recent study (Seeley et al. 2011, p. 143) concluded that…

Seeley, R, VanPutte, C, Regan, J & Russo, A 2011, Seeley’s anatomy & physiology, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

OR For in-text references, use the first author’s family name followed by ‘et al.’

Seeley et al. (2011, p. 143) concluded that…

Use all names in the reference list Several works by same author, same year Arrange alphabetically by title in the Reference List. Place lowercase letters (“a”, “b”, “c”, etc.) immediately after the year.

Leadership and change in schools have been major topics of discussion for several years (Fullan 1996a, 1996b) and this conference…

Fullan, M 1996a, ‘Leadership for change’, in International handbook for educational leadership and administration, Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York, NY.

‘Educational change’ has taken on a new meaning in recent years (Fullan 1996b) …

Fullan, M 1996b, The new meaning of educational change, Cassell, London

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Several authors, different years, referred to collectively in your work

IN-TEXT REFERENCE

REFERENCE LIST

The cyclical process (Carr & Kemmis 1986; Dick 2000; Kemmis & McTaggart 1988; MacIsaac 1995) suggests…

Carr, W & Kemmis, S 1986, Becoming critical: education knowledge and action research, Falmer Press, London. Dick, B 2000, A beginner’s guide to action research, viewed 3 June 2004, http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/guide.html

List sources alphabetically by family name in the in-text reference in the order in which they appear in the Reference List.

Kemmis, S & McTaggart, R (eds) 1988, The action research planner, 3rd edn, Deakin University, Melbourne.

Separate each reference with a semicolon.

MacIsaac, D 1995, An introduction to action research, viewed 28 May 2004, http://physicsed.buffalostate.edu/danowner/actionrsch.html E-Book – online book

We found helpful information about deaf children (Niemann, Greenstein, & David, 2004) that meant we could…

Niemann, S, Greenstein, D, & David, D 2004, Helping children who are deaf: family and community support for children who do not hear well, Hesperian Foundation, Berkley, CA, viewed 11 June 2007, http://www.hesperian.org/publications_download_deaf.php

Chapter in edited book

A discussion about Australia’s place in today’s world (Richards 1997) included reference to…

Richards, KC 1997, ‘Views on globalization’, in HL Vivaldi (ed.), Australia in a global world, Century, North Ryde, NSW.

Brochure – author is also publisher

The security of personal information is addressed in the TransACT brochure (TransACT, n.d.).

TransACT n.d., Guide to equipment and service, brochure, TransACT, Canberra.

Editor

Best practice: process innovation management, edited by Zairi (1999) provided useful steps to identify…

Zairi, M (ed.) 1999, Best practice: process innovation management, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

For one editor use the abbreviation (ed.); for more than one editor, use (eds)

OR Indentifying best practice indicators in management are available (ed. Zairi 1999) and…

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IN-TEXT REFERENCE

REFERENCE LIST

This novel by Gaarder (1994) provides an appealing approach to…

Gaarder, J 1994, Sophie’s world: a novel about the history of philosophy, trans. P Møller, Phoenix House, London, original work published 1991.

Macroeconomics considers prices and quantities (Macroeconomics, prices and quantities 1983, pp. 43-57), so it is important to…

Macroeconomics, prices and quantities: essays in memory of Arthur M. Okun 1983, Blackwell, Oxford.

Approximate date of publication

Other academics have provided more up-to-date information (Smythe c. 2007) that…

Smythe, V c. 2007, Ant colonies: how they communicate, Emu Press, Canberra.

No date of publication

Some aspects of forensic science are more challenging than others (Browne n.d.) and for this reason…

Browne, JD n.d., Forensic science as a career, Tower Publishing, London.

Corporate author – when the author is also the publisher

A recent study (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW] 2009) highlighted …

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2009, Indigenous housing needs 2009: a multi-measure needs model, AIHW cat. no. HOU 214, AIHW, Canberra.

Spell out the full name of the corporate body and include an abbreviation in the first instance. Use the abbreviation in subsequent references.

Subsequent in-text reference/s: The AIHW (2009) found that…

Corporate author – commissioned reports

The report prepared by the South Australian Centre for Economic Studies (2009) was discussed.

Local Government Association of South Australia 2009, Local government’s current and potential role in water management and conservation: final report, prepared by the South Australian Centre for Economic Studies, SACES, Adelaide.

Second or later edition

Peters (2001, p. 6) argued that ‘...’

Peters, T 2001, The elements of counselling, 2nd edn, Macmillan, Brisbane.

Compiler, or Reviser, or Translator Use the following abbreviations before the person’s name in the Reference List: comp. rev. trans. No author or editor - Use the title in the position of the author. - The title may be shortened to the main title (omitting the sub-title) or the first few words of the title.

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Multi-volume work

IN-TEXT REFERENCE

REFERENCE LIST

Inge, Duke and Bryer (1978, p. 27) claim that there is much to learn about these writers which results in…

Inge, MT, Duke, M & Bryer, JR (eds) 1978, Black American writers: bibliographical essays, vols 1 & 2, St Martins, New York.

OR

Clark, CMH 1978, A history of Australia, vol. 4, The earth abideth for ever,1851-1888, Melbourne University Press.

There is so much to learn about our country (Clark 1978, p. 42) that we kept returning to…

JOURNAL, NEWSPAPER & NEWSLETTER ARTICLES Journal article with one author – separated paging (paginated by issue)

In an earlier article, it was proposed (Jackson 2007)…

Jackson, A 2007, ‘New approaches to drug therapy’, Psychology Today and Tomorrow, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 54-9.

Journal article with two or three authors – continuous paging throughout a volume.

Kramer and Bloggs (2002) stipulated in their latest article…

Kramer, E & Bloggs, T 2002, ‘On quality in art and art therapy’, American Journal of Art Therapy, vol. 40, pp. 218-31.

If the journal volume page numbers run continuously throughout the year, regardless of issue number, do not include the issue number in your Reference List entry.

This article on art (Kramer & Bloggs 2002) stipulated that…

Journal article with more than three authors

A recent study to investigate the effects of an organisational stress management program on employees (Elo et al. 2008, p. 11) concluded that…

If each issue of a journal begins on page 1, include the issue number

OR

For all in-text reference, give the first author’s family name followed by ‘et al.’

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Elo, A, Ervasti, J, Kuosma, E, & Mattila, P 2008, ‘Evaluation of an organizational stress management program in a municipal public works organization’, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 10-23.

Journal or magazine article with no volume or issue number

IN-TEXT REFERENCE

REFERENCE LIST

Wychick and Thompson (2005) foreshadow that scam will still be enticing…

Wychick, J & Thompson, L 2005, ‘Fallen for a scam lately?’ AustraliaToday, 24 November, pp. 54-60.

OR An interesting approach to scam (Wychick & Thompson 2005) suggested that… Article in online journal or magazine

An article linking ethical behaviour and religion (Noor 2008)…

Noor, A 2008, ‘Ethics, religion and good governance’, JOAAG: Journal of Administration & Governance, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 62-77, viewed 17 November 2009, http://www.joaag.com/Home_Page.php

Journal article retrieved from a database

A study examining priming (Johns & Mewhort 2009) discovered …

Johns, E & Mewhort, D 2009, ‘Test sequence priming in recognition memory’, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, vol. 35, pp. 1162-1174, viewed 20 November 2009, PsyARTICLES database.

Book review in a journal

In his review of Thomas Samaras’ latest book, Marson (2009) identifies…

Marson, SM 2009, ‘How big should we be? A Herculean task accomplished’, review of Human body size and the laws of scaling: physiological, performance, growth, longevity and ecological ramification, by T Samaras, Public Health Nutrition, vol. 12, pp. 1299–1300, viewed 20 November 2009, EBSCO EJS database.

Newspaper article – with an author

The notion of a Bill of Rights may be inappropriate in the Australian context (Waterford 2007).

Waterford, J 2007, ‘Bill of Rights gets it wrong’, Canberra Times, 30 May, p. 11.

Newspaper article – without an author

The redesign of the Internet (‘Internet pioneer’ 2007) is said to…

‘Internet pioneer to oversee network redesign’ 2007, Canberra Times, 28 May, p. 15.

Newspaper article retrieved from a database

In an attempt to save the tiger, Darby (2002) provided…

Darby, A 2002, ‘Rarest tiger skin a rugged survivor’, Sydney Morning Herald, 20 August, viewed 10 May 2006, Factiva database.

Do a Web search to locate the URL of the newspaper’s home page & include it in the Reference List.

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Online newspaper or newsletter article

IN-TEXT REFERENCE

REFERENCE LIST

Saulwick (2011) referred specifically to…

Saulwick, J 2011, ‘Sydney train project derails Downer’, Sydney Morning Herald, 27 January, viewed 12 February 2011, http://www.smh.com.au.

GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS Government department as author For corporate authors with long names, spell out the full name of the body and include an abbreviation in the first in-text reference. Use the abbreviation in subsequent references. Legislation

The need for guidelines to manage and use multiple channels to deliver e-government services (Department of Finance and Administration [DOFA] 2006) presents Australian Government agencies with…

Department of Finance and Administration 2006, Delivering Australian Government services: managing multiple channels, DOFA, Canberra.

Subsequent in-text reference/s: DOFA (2006) identified …

First in-text reference: In relation to action regarding unsuitable goods, s. 74B of the Trade Practices Act 1974 states…

Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cwlth), viewed 20 November 2009, http://www.comlaw.gov.au/

Subsequent in-text reference/s: According to the Trade Practices Act… Government publication – with identifying number

Recently released statistics from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS 2007) reveal interesting changes in Australian society.

Includes report numbers, catalogue numbers, etc.

Subsequent in-text reference/s: The ABS (2007) reported that …

Government report – online

First in-text reference: A recent government report (Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet [PM&C] 2008) examines a selection of key topics … Subsequent in-text reference/s: Families in Australia were highlighted (PM&C 2008)…

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Australian Bureau of Statistics 2007, Australian social trends, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra.

Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet 2008, Families in Australia: 2008, viewed 20 November 2009, http://www.dpmc.gov.au/publications/families/index.cfm#contact

Government approved standards

IN-TEXT REFERENCE

REFERENCE LIST

…and “including data in computer systems, created or received and maintained by an organisation” (Standards Australia 1996, p. 7) as well as…

Standards Australia 1996, Australian Standard AS4390: Records Management, Standards Australia, Sydney.

UNIVERSITY PROVIDED STUDY MATERIAL Lecture / tutorial notes, etc. – online

Septicemia is one of many infections commonly acquired in hospitals (Maw 2010).

Maw, M 2010, NURS5082 Developing nursing practice, lecture 2, week 1: Healthcare-associated infections and their prevention, lecture PowerPoint slides, viewed 18 March 2010, http://learn-online.ce.usyd.edu.au/

The plight of the flapper skate was recently highlighted (Keim 2009)…

Keim, B 2009, ‘ID error leaves fish at edge of extinction’, Wired Science blog, web log post, 18 November, viewed 20 November 2009, http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/11/extinction-error/

Lyrics from Paul Kelly’s song “From little things big things grow” (1997) were used in recent television advertisements.

‘From little things big things grow’ 1997, on Songs from the south: Paul Kelly’s greatest hits, CD, Mushroom Records, Melbourne. Written and performed by Paul Kelly.

OTHER SOURCES Blog post - List the author’s name as it is used in the posting (including nicknames). - For a blog comment, use ‘web log comment’ instead of ‘web log post’ and include the exact title (including ‘Re:’ if used) CD recording – music

9

IN-TEXT REFERENCE

REFERENCE LIST

Conference or seminar papers in published proceedings – print

In a paper about conservation of photographs (Edge 1996), the proposition that…

Edge, M 1996, ‘Lifetime prediction: fact or fancy?’, in MS Koch, T Padfield, JS Johnsen & UB Kejser (eds), Proceedings of the Research techniques in photographic conservation conference, Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Copenhagen, pp. 97-100.

Conference or seminar papers in published proceedings – online

Tester (2008) points to the value of using geothermal sources for power and energy.

Tester, JW 2008, ‘The future of geothermal energy as a major global energy supplier’, in H Gurgenci & AR Budd (eds), Proceedings of the Sir Mark Oliphant International frontiers of science and technology Australian geothermal energy conference, Geoscience Australia, Canberra, viewed 5 January 2010, http://www.ga.gov.au/image_cache/GA11825.pdf

Dictionary / Encyclopaedia – print

According to one definition of “bivalence” (VandenBos 2007, p. 123)…

VandenBos, GR (ed.) 2007, APA dictionary of psychology, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

Dictionary / Encyclopaedia – online

A psychological overview of ADHD (Arcus 2001)…

Arcus, D 2001, ‘Attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)’, in B Strickland (ed.), The Gale encyclopedia of psychology, viewed 21 November 2009, Oxford Reference Online Database.

Discussion group, list, etc. – online

There are strongly held views about knowledge management (Weidner 2007) and from personal experience…

Weidner, D 2007, ‘KM reducing in popularity’, discussion list message, 11 June, ActKM, viewed 11 June, http://actkm.org/mailman/listinfo/actkm_actkm.org

DVD / Videorecording

Jane Austen’s world came alive in Sense and sensibility (1995)

Sense and sensibility 1995, DVD, Columbia TriStar Home Video, Australia. Directed by Ang Lee.

Email – NEVER cite addresses without permission of the owner of the address

Ms Coleman provided details in an email on 11 July 2007.

Usually, no entry in Reference List.

Include information about editions, volume numbers and page numbers in parenthesis following the title in the Reference List.

Only included if permission to include the address has been granted, and if it is considered helpful to your reader. If included, this is the format to use in the Reference list: Coleman, M 2007, email, 11 July, [email protected]

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Facebook update

IN-TEXT REFERENCE

REFERENCE LIST

$52 million will be provided to deploy Australian civilian troops (Rudd, 2009)

Rudd, K 2009, ‘Australian civilian corps to help in crises’, Kevin Rudd and Labor, Facebook update, 24 October, viewed 20 November 2009, http://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=200124043571&ref= mf

Graph The internal processes were well described (Kaplan & Norton 2004) which led to…

Graph Kaplan, RS & Norton, DP 2004, ‘Internal processes deliver value over different time horizons’, graph, in Strategy maps: converting intangible assets into tangible outcomes, Harvard Business School, Boston, MA, p. 48

List the author’s name as it is written (including nicknames).

Figure, Table, Graph, Map or Chart Cite each of these as you would for a book. Include the type of entry immediately after the title:

Map To locate a property just outside the Australian Capital Territory, use the 1:100 000 map produced by Geoscience Australia (2004) which covers…

Map Geoscience Australia [NATMAP] 2004, ACT region, New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory, map, Geoscience Australia, Canberra.

Image – online

The effective use of light in Monet’s ‘Haystacks’ (Monet 1890)…

Monet, C 1890, Haystacks, midday, painting, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, viewed 18 November 2009, http://artsearch.nga.gov.au/ Detail-LRG.cfm?IRN=29073&View=LRG

Interview – on radio

In a recent interview with the Prime Minister (Mornings with Neil Mitchell 2009)…

Mornings with Neil Mitchell 2009, radio broadcast, Radio 3AW, Melbourne, 16 October. Interview with the Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd.

Interview – on television

He demonstrated his professionalism and sensitivity in an interview with Raelene Boyle (Enough Rope with Andrew Denton 2006) and…

Enough Rope with Andrew Denton 2006, television broadcast, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Sydney, 25 September. Interview with Raelene Boyle.

Motion picture (movie)

The evidence (The lord of the rings 2003) that belief in a world…

The lord of the rings: the return of the king 2003, motion picture, Imagine Films, Auckland, NZ. Produced by Steve Pyke; directed by Peter Jackson.

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IN-TEXT REFERENCE

REFERENCE LIST

J. Francis (personal communication, 6 August 2007) was able to confirm that the floods had not reached their area.

Not included in Reference List. Cite in-text only.

Podcast (audio)

Listening to the news on my MP3 player (AM: news & current affairs 2007) was a new experience and I decided…

AM: news & current affairs 2007, audio podcast, ABC Radio, Sydney, 28 April, accessed 28 May 2007, http://abc.net.au/news/subscribe/amrss.sml

Radio program – broadcast

When discussing how people write about music, (The Book Show 2009)…

The Book Show 2009, radio broadcast, ABC Radio National, Melbourne, 19 November.

Radio program – transcript

The views of the internationally renowned author and public speaker, De Bono, prompted me to follow up one of the interviews (‘Are we hardwired for creativity?’ 2005) which…

‘Are we hardwired for creativity?’ 2005, Innovations, radio program transcript, Radio Australia, Melbourne, 14 February, viewed 6 June 2007, http://www.abc.net.au/ra/innovations/stories/s1302318.htm Interview with Edward de Bono.

Speech

Amongst the views expressed about war and peace (Hodson 2000) were…

Hodson, A 2000, ‘Peace in today’s world’, Remembrance Day Speech presented at the Australian Veterans Memorial Service, Lightning Ridge, NSW, 11 November.

Speech – online

In her ANZAC Day speech (Clark 2007), the Prime Minister of New Zealand referred to…

Clark, H 2007, ‘Prime Minister’s 2007 Anzac Day message’, 25 April, viewed 5 June 2007, http://www.anzac.govt.nz

Television advertisement

The problems of teenage anxiety were graphically captured (Beyondblue 2009)…

Beyondblue 2009, Beyondblue: anxiety, television advertisement, WIN TV, Canberra, 29 November.

Television program – broadcast

Examining future plans for Canberra’s city area (Stateline 2009)…

Stateline 2009, television broadcast, ABC TV, Canberra, 4 September. Presented by Chris Kimball.

Personal communication Includes private letters, memos, email, telephone conversations, personal interviews, etc. These are cited in-text only, not in the Reference List.

Always check the television station’s website and use the transcript, if one is available, for direct quotes.

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IN-TEXT REFERENCE

REFERENCE LIST

Television program – transcript

Cyclones often affect Australia, especially in the north (‘Cyclone Tracy’ 2004) and it is worthwhile…

‘Cyclone Tracy’ 2004, Rewind, television program transcript, ABC TV, Sydney, 7 November, viewed 21 May 2007, http://www.abc.net.au/tv/rewind/txt/s1233697.htm

Thesis or Dissertation – print

Nurses working in an acute care environment tend to experience a high degree of workplace conflict (Duddle 2009, p. ii).

Duddle, M 2009, ‘Intraprofessional relations in nursing: A case study’ PhD thesis, University of Sydney.

Thesis or Dissertation – retrieved from a database

The field of engineering has largely developed around the positivist philosophical position (Hector 2008).

Hector, DCA 2008, ‘Towards a new philosophy of engineering: Structuring the complex problems from the sustainability discourse’ PhD thesis, viewed 13 September 2010, Australasian Digital Theses database.

Thesis or Dissertation – retrieved from the web

Lacey (2011, p. 12) differentiates between instrumental violence and violence inflicting injury for its own sake.

Lacey, D 2011, ‘The role of humiliation in collective political violence’, Masters thesis, University of Sydney, viewed 8 July, 2011, http://hdl.handle.net/2123/7128

Video blog post

The Prime Minister, speaking about Australia’s role in the G20 forum (Rudd 2009)…

Rudd, K 2009, Update on new G20 arrangements, online video, 29 September, viewed 20 November 2009, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i8IdJ-0S5rs

Web document – dated & author or sponsor given

An RBA paper (Simon, Smith & West 2009) found that participation in a loyalty program and access to an interest-free period…

Simon, J, Smith, K & West, T 2009, Price incentives and consumer payment behaviour, Reserve Bank of Australia, Sydney, viewed 24 November 2009, http://www.rba.gov.au/PublicationsAndResearch/RDP/RDP200904.html

Web document – author or sponsor given but not dated

The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is designing several energy-efficient electric machines to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (CSIRO n.d.).

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation n.d., Reducing Australia’s greenhouse emissions factsheet, CSIRO, Canberra, viewed 21 November 2009, http://www.csiro.au/resources/ps282.html

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Web source with no page numbers

IN-TEXT REFERENCE

REFERENCE LIST

Usually the author or creator of a work is the copyright owner (University of Sydney 2010, ‘Who owns copyright?’, para. 1).

University of Sydney 2010, Guide to copyright, University of Sydney, viewed 24 January 2011, http://sydney.edu.au/copyright/students/coursework.shtml#who

Include in in-text references: Note: The heading of the section was ‘Who owns copyright?’ - A paragraph number with the abbreviation ‘para’ (count paragraphs if numbers are not visible) OR - A section heading and paragraph number (e.g. Introduction, para. 3). A long section heading may be shortened and enclosed in single quotation marks. Website – entire website

The new website of the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR 2009) includes useful information on current government education policy.

Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations 2009, DEEWR, Canberra, viewed 21 November 2009, http://www.deewr.gov.au/

Wiki

The role of media corporations in the media literacy movement is discussed (‘Great debates’ n.d.)

‘Great debates in media literacy: theory and practice of media literacy’ n.d., Wikiversity, wiki article, viewed October 27 2009, http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Great_Debates_in_Media_Literacy

Include the date retrieved, as the information is likely to change in these sources.

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HARVARD STYLE REFERENCING

YOUR GUIDE TO HARVARD STYLE REFERENCING UNIVERSITY LIBRARY INTRODUCTION TO THE HARVARD AUTHOR-DATE REFERENCING STYLE The Harvard system is another...

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