Harvard Style - Imperial College London

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Citing & Referencing:

Harvard Style

Contents 1. What is referencing?

1

2. Why should I reference?

1

5.9 Citing from works with no obvious author

6

3. What should I reference?

2

5.10 Citing from multimedia works

6

4. What is a citation?

2

5.11 Citing from an interview or personal communication

6

5.12 Tips on good quotation practice

7

5. How do I write citations using the Harvard style?

5.8 Citing an image/illustration/table/diagram/ photograph/figure/picture5

3

6. How do I write a reference?

5.1 Citing one author

3

7. How do I write a reference list?

12

5.2 Citing two or three authors

3

8. Example of a reference list

12

5.3 Citing four or more authors

4

5.4 Citing works by the same author written in the same year

4

9. What is a bibliography?

15

5.5 Citing from chapters written by different authors

4

5.6 Secondary referencing

4

10. How to write references for your reference list and bibliography: Harvard style

15

5.7 Citing a direct quotation

5

11. Sources of further help

24

9

There are many styles that can be used for referencing. When you are given coursework or dissertation guidelines, check which style of referencing your lecturer or department asks you to use. If you don’t check, and you use a style that is not the one stated in your guidelines, you could find you lose marks. This guide introduces you to the Harvard referencing style, which uses an ‘author-date’ approach. If your lecturer or department does not ask you to use any particular style, we would recommend using Harvard. It’s easy to learn, simple to use, and when you get stuck, there is lots of advice available to help you out. When you begin your research for any piece of work, it is important that you record the details of all the information you find. You will need these details to provide accurate references, and to enable you to locate the information again at a later date, should it be necessary to do so. Section 6 of this guide will help you identify what information you need, regardless of which referencing style you choose to use.

1. WHAT IS REFERENCING? It is a method used to demonstrate to your readers that you have conducted a thorough and appropriate literature search, and reading. Equally, referencing is an acknowledgement that you have used the ideas and written material belonging to other authors in your own work. As with all referencing styles, there are two parts: citing, and the reference list.

2. WHY SHOULD I REFERENCE? Referencing is crucial to you to carry out successful research, and crucial to your readers so they can see how you did your research. Knowing why you need to reference means you will understand why it is important that you know how to reference.

What is referencing?

1

1. A ccurate referencing is a key component of good academic practice and enhances the presentation of your work: it shows that your writing is based on knowledge and informed by appropriate academic reading. 2. Y ou will ensure that anyone reading your work can trace the sources you have used in the development of your work, and give you credit for your research efforts and quality. 3. If you do not acknowledge another person’s work or ideas, you could be accused of plagiarism. Plus your lecturers are very keen to see good reference lists. Impress them with the quality of the information you use, and your references, and you will get even better marks.

3. WHAT SHOULD I REFERENCE? You should include a reference for all the sources of information that you use when writing or creating a piece of your own work.

4. WHAT IS A CITATION? When you use another person’s work in your own work, either by referring to their ideas, or by including a direct quotation, you must acknowledge this in the text of your work. This acknowledgement is called a citation. When you are using the Harvard style, your citation should include: 1. The author or editor of the cited work 2. The year of publication of the cited work

What is referencing?

2

5. HOW DO I WRITE CITATIONS USING THE HARVARD STYLE? There are a number of rules relating to citations depending on the number of authors of a work, and if you are citing a quotation.

5.1 Citing one author A recent study investigated the effectiveness of using Google Scholar to find medical research (Henderson, 2005). or Henderson (2005) has investigated the effectiveness of Google Scholar in finding medical research.

5.2 Citing two or three authors

If the work has two or three authors, include all names in your citation. For more than three authors, see section 5.3. Recent research indicates that the number of duplicate papers being published is increasing (Errami & Garner, 2008). Evidence shows that providing virtual laboratory exercises as well as practical laboratory experience enhances the learning process (Barros, Read & Verdejo, 2008).

Using the Harvard style

3

5.3 Citing four or more authors

If the work has four or more authors/editors the abbreviation ‘et al.’ should be used after the first author’s name. It is also acceptable to use ‘et al.’ after the first author if the work has three authors. Social acceptance of carbon capture and storage is necessary for the introduction of technologies (van Alphen et al., 2007).

5.4 Citing works by the same author written in the same year

If you cite a new work which has the same author and was written in the same year as an earlier citation, you must use a lower case letter after the date to differentiate between the works. Communication of science in the media has increasingly come under focus, particularly where reporting of facts and research is inaccurate (Goldacre, 2008a; Goldacre, 2008b).

Secondary referencing You are advised that secondary referencing should be avoided wherever possible and you should always try to find the original work. If it is not possible to obtain the original work please note that you reference the secondary source not the primary resource, only reference the source that you have used.

5.5 Citing from chapters written by different authors

Some books may contain chapters written by different authors. When citing work from such a book, the author who wrote the chapter should be cited, not the editor of the book.

5.6 Secondary referencing

Secondary references are when an author refers to another author’s work and the primary source is not available. When citing such work the author of the primary source and the author of the work it was cited in should be used. According to Colluzzi and Pappagallo (2005) as cited by Holding et al. (2008) most patients given opiates do not become addicted to such drugs. Using the Harvard style

4

5.7 Citing a direct quotation

If a direct quote from a book, article, etc., is used you must: • Use single quotation marks (double quotation marks are usually used for quoting direct speech). • State the page number Simons, Menzies and Matthews (2001) state that the principle of effective stress is ‘imperfectly known and understood by many practising engineers’ (p.4).

5.8 Citing an image/illustration/table/diagram/photograph/figure/picture

You should provide an in-text citation for any images, illustrations, photographs, diagrams, tables or figures that you reproduce in your work, and provide a full reference as with any other type of work. They should be treated as direct quotes in that the author(s) should be acknowledged and page numbers shown; both in your text where the diagram is discussed or introduced, and in the caption you write for it. In-text citation: Table illustrating checklist of information for common sources (Pears & Shields, 2016:p.21). or ‘Geological   map of the easternmost region of São Nicolau’ (Ramalho et al., 2010:p.532). Using the Harvard style

5

5.9 Citing from works with no obvious author

If you need to cite a piece of work which does not have an obvious author, you should use what is called a ‘corporate’ author. For example, many online publications will not have individually named authors, and in many cases the author will be an organisation or company. A national strategy is creating a framework to drive improvements in dementia services (Department of Health, 2009). If you are unable to find either a named or corporate author, you should use ‘Anon’ as the author name.

5.10 Citing from multimedia works

If there is no author Be careful: if you cannot find an author for online work, it is not a good idea to use this work as part of your research. It is essential that you know where a piece of work has originated, because you need to be sure of the quality and reliability of any information you use.

If you need to cite a multimedia work, you would usually use the title of the TV programme (including online broadcasts) or video recording, or title of the film (whether on DVD or video) as the author. If a video is posted on YouTube or other video-streaming service then you should reference the person that uploaded the video (note this might be a username). Therefore, your citation should use the title that you identify as the author.

5.11 Citing from an interview or personal communication

Always use the surname of the interviewee/practitioner as the author.

Using the Harvard style

6

5.12 Tips on good quotation practice

Quotations longer than two lines should be inserted as a separate, indented paragraph. Smith (2004) summarises the importance of mathematics to society and the knowledge economy, stating that: ‘Mathematics   provides a powerful universal language and intellectual toolkit for abstraction, generalization and synthesis. It is the language of science and technology. It enables us to probe the natural universe and to develop new technologies that have helped us control and master our environment, and change societal expectations and standards of living.’ (p.11) or A recent UK report summarised the importance of mathematics to society and the knowledge economy, stating that: ‘Mathematics   provides a powerful universal language and intellectual toolkit for abstraction, generalization and synthesis. It is the language of science and technology. It enables us to probe the natural universe and to develop new technologies that have helped us control and master our environment, and change societal expectations and standards of living.’ (Smith 2004: p.11)

Using the Harvard style

7

If you want to insert a long quotation (over two lines) but do not to want include all of the text, you can remove the unnecessary text and replace with ‘...’. As summarised by Smith (2004): ‘Mathematics   provides a powerful universal language and intellectual toolkit for abstraction, generalization and synthesis ... It enables us to probe the natural universe and to develop new technologies that have helped us control and master our environment, and change societal expectations and standards of living.’ (p.11) You should only do this when you use a quotation taken from one paragraph. Smith (2004) provides a number of reasons as to why mathematics is important, stating that it is: ‘a   powerful universal language and intellectual toolkit for abstraction, generalization and synthesis ... [and] enables us to probe the natural universe and to develop new technologies that have helped us control and master our environment, and change societal expectations and standards of living.’ (p.11)

Inserting words When you use quotations within your text, sometimes you may want to insert one or two words in the quotation so that your complete sentence is grammatically correct. To indicate that you have inserted words into a quotation, these have to be enclosed in square brackets.

Writing skills At your academic level you will be expected to develop your writing skills, and this includes being able to discuss and demonstrate an understanding of other people’s work and ideas in your own words. This is called paraphrasing. It is much better to paraphrase than to use many quotations when you write.

Using What theis Harvard style referencing?

8

6. HOW DO I WRITE A REFERENCE? To write your own references you need different bits of information about each item that you read when you are researching a piece of work. These bits of information are called ‘bibliographic’ information. For all types of references the key bits of information you need to start with are: 1. Author or editor 2. Date of publication/broadcast/recording 3. Title of the item This will form the basis of each reference you have to write. You may find that some items are not as straightforward as others, so be aware of the following: 1. A uthor/editor: This means the primary (main) person who produced the item you are using. If you are using a website or web page, and there isn’t an author, you can use what is called a ‘corporate author’. This will usually be the name of the organisation or company to whom the website or web page belongs. 2. Date of publication/broadcast/recording: This means the date the item was produced. It is usually a year, but if you are using a newspaper article, an email, or a television recording, you will have to include a full date (day/month/year) in your reference. 3. Title of the item: This means the primary (main) title of the item you are using. That sounds very obvious, but have a look at a web page and try to work out what the main title is. We would advise common sense in this situation – you have to identify the key piece of information that describes what you have used, and will allow the reader of your work to identify that information.

How to reference

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The following table tells you about some of the variations you should look for when you are collecting your reference information. 1. Primary author/editor

Email Journal article Newspaper article

Website

Web page

TV broadcast

Personal interview

Book chapter

2. Date of publication

3. Primary title of item

Name of the person who wrote the email

The full date the email was sent: day/month/year

Subject of the email. This may include RE: or FWD:

Name of the person or persons who wrote the article

The year the journal issue was published

Title of the article (not the title of the journal)

Name of the journalist, or if there is no journalist name, the name of the newspaper

The full date on which the article was published: day/month/year

Title of the article (not the title of the newspaper)

This can be tricky. Use an individual name if you can find one, or the name of the organisation or company to whom the website belongs

Usually the current year, the year when the website was last updated, or the latest date next to the copyright statement/ symbol

Title of the website

This can be tricky. Use an individual name if you can find one, or the name of the organisation or company to whom the website belongs

Usually the current year, but if the web page has a full date of publication, you may also need that: day/month/year

Title of the web page. You will need to use the title of the website if the web page doesn’t have an individual title

Title of the programme, or if the programme is part of a series, use the series title

The year the programme was broadcast

Title of the programme (it does not need to be written twice if you used it as the author information)

Name of the person being interviewed

The full date on which the interview took place: day/ month/year

No title needed

Name of the author of the chapter

The year the book was published

Title of the book chapter (not the title of the book)

How to reference

10

Depending on the type of material you want to reference you will also need other bits of information, such as: • Name of publisher

• Report number

• Place of publication

• Book or conference editor (if not your primary author)

• Page numbers • Volume number • Issue number • URL (website or web page address) • DOI (Digital Object Identifier – for published outputs)

• Book or conference title (if not your primary title) • Journal title (the journal article title will be your primary title) • Date of access (for online material)

• Title of conference proceedings The more references you have to write, the more familiar you will be with what you need to know. If you are unsure, check our guides, ask us, or check with your lecturers.

How to reference

11

7. HOW DO I WRITE A REFERENCE LIST? This is your list of all the sources that have been cited in the assignment. The list is inclusive showing books, journals, etc., listed in one list, not in separate lists according to source type. • The list should be in alphabetical order by author/editor. • Books, paper or electronic journal articles, etc., are written in a particular format that must be followed. • Your reference list contains all the items you have cited or directly quoted from. • When you have used more than one piece of work by the same author, in your reference list you should list the works in date order, beginning with the most recently published work.

8. EXAMPLE OF A REFERENCE LIST Barros, B., Read, T. & Verdejo, M. F. (2008) Virtual collaborative experimentation: an approach combining remote and local labs. IEEE Transactions on Education. 51 (2), 242–250. Available from: doi:10.1109/TE.2007.908071. Department of Health. (2009) Living well with dementia: a national dementia strategy. Available from: www.gov.uk/government/publications/living-well-with-dementiaa-national-dementia-strategy [Accessed 4th June 2015]. Errami, M. & Garner, H. (2008) A tale of two citations. Nature. 451 (7177), 397–399.

Writing a reference list

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Goldacre, B. (2008a) Dore – the media’s miracle cure for dyslexia. Bad Science. Weblog. Available from: http://www.badscience.net/2008/05/dore-the-medias-miracle-cure-fordyslexia/#more-705 [Accessed 19th June 2015]. Goldacre, B. (2008b) Trivial Disputes. Bad Science. Weblog. Available from: http://www.badscience.net/2008/02/trivial-disputes-2/ [Accessed 19th June 2015]. Henderson, J. (2005) Google Scholar: A source for clinicians? Canadian Medical Association Journal. 172 (12), 1549–1550. Holding, M. Y., Saulino, M. F., Overton, E. A., Kornbluth, I. D. & Freedman, M. K. (2008) Interventions in Chronic Pain Management. 1. Update on Important Definitions in Pain Management. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89 (3, Supplement 1), S38–S40. Pears, R. & Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. Palgrave study skills. 10th ed. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Ramalho, R., Helffrich, G., Schmidt, D.N. & Vance, D. (2010) Tracers of uplift and subsidence in the Cape Verde archipelago. Journal of the Geological Society. 167 (3), 519–538. Available from: doi:10.1144/0016-76492009-056. Simons, N. E., Menzies, B. & Matthews, M. (2001) A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope Engineering. London, Thomas Telford Publishing. Available from: http://www.myilibrary. com?ID=93941 [Accessed 18th June 2015]. Smith, A. (2004) Making mathematics count: the report of Professor Adrian Smith’s inquiry into post-14 mathematics education. London, The Stationery Office.

Writing a reference list

13

Van Alphen, K., Voorst, Q. V. T., Kekkert, M. P. & Smits, R.E.H.M. (2007) Societal acceptance of carbon capture and storage technologies. Energy Policy. 35 (8), 4368–4380. The layout for each type of publication can be found on the following pages. If you are using the bibliographic software RefWorks, you should use the ‘Imperial College London – Harvard’ style which follows the same format as this guide.

Writing a reference list

14

9. WHAT IS A BIBLIOGRAPHY? There may be items which you have consulted for your work, but not cited. These can be listed at the end of your assignment in a ‘bibliography’. These items should be listed in alphabetical order by author and laid out in the same way as items in your reference list. If you can cite from every work you consulted, you will only need a reference list. If you wish to show to your reader (examiner) the unused research you carried out, the bibliography will show your extra effort. Always check the guidance you are given for coursework, dissertations, etc., to find out if you are expected to submit work with a reference list and a bibliography. If in doubt, ask your lecturer or supervisor.

10. HOW TO WRITE REFERENCES FOR YOUR REFERENCE LIST AND BIBLIOGRAPHY: HARVARD STYLE Remember: Your lecturers consider accurate and consistent referencing to be an important part of your academic work. Always check your course guidelines so you know which style of referencing to use, and always use the help guides especially if you’re using a new style. The examples on the following pages are in two parts: • the information you should collect about each piece of work you use; and

If you cannot find the type of work you need to provide a reference for, please contact your librarian for more help (see section 11).

• how this information is presented when you write a full reference. Layouts for your reference list and bibliography

15

Book: print • • • • • • •

Author/Editor (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name) (Year of publication) Title (this should be in italics) Series title and number (if part of a series) Edition (if not the first edition) Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named) Publisher Simons, N. E., Menzies, B. & Matthews, M. (2001) A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope Engineering. London, Thomas Telford Publishing.

Book: online/electronic • • • • • • • •

Author/Editor (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name) (Year of publication) Title (this should be in italics) Edition (if not the first edition) Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named) Publisher Available from: URL [Date of access] Simons, N. E., Menzies, B. & Matthews, M. (2001) A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope Engineering. London, Thomas Telford Publishing. Available from: http://www.myilibrary. com?ID=93941 [Accessed 18th June 2015]. Layouts for your reference list and bibliography

16

Book: chapter in an edited book • • • • • • • • • •

Author of the chapter (Year of publication) Title of chapter followed by In: Editor (always put (ed.) after the name) Title (this should be in italics) Series title and number (if part of a series) Edition (if not the first edition) Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named) Publisher Page numbers (use ‘p.’ before a single page number and ‘pp.’ where there are multiple pages) Partridge, H. & Hallam, G. (2007) Evidence-based practice and information literacy. In: Lipu, S., Williamson, K. & Lloyd, A. (eds.) Exploring methods in information literacy research. Wagga Wagga, Australia, Centre for Information Studies, pp. 149–170.

Journal article: print • • • • • • •

Author (Year of publication) Title of journal article Title of journal (this should be in italics) Volume number Issue number Page numbers of the article (do not use ‘p.’ before the page numbers) Chhibber, P. K. & Majumdar, S. K. (1999) Foreign ownership and profitability: Property rights, control, and the performance of firms in Indian industry. Journal of Law & Economics. 42 (1), 209–238.

Layouts for your reference list and bibliography

17

Journal article: online/electronic

Most online articles will have a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and you should use this in your reference. The DOI is a permanent identifier provided by publishers so that the article can always be found, if the article has a DOI you will not usually be required to add a date of access. If the article only has a URL then do include a date of access. Always check your student handbook and coursework guidance as some lecturers/tutors will provide specific guidance on the use of DOI or URL. To find the DOI, when you read an article online, check the article details as you will usually find the DOI at the start of the article. For more help, contact your librarian. If you read the article in a full-text database service, such as Factiva or EBSCO, and do not have a DOI or direct URL to the article you should use the database URL. • • • • • • • •

Author (Year of publication) Title of journal article Title of journal (this should be in italics) Volume number (Issue number) Page numbers of the article Available from: URL (Include [Date of access]) or DOI (if available) Errami, M. & Garner, H. (2008) A tale of two citations. Nature. 451 (7177), 397–399. Available from: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v451/n7177/full/451397a.html [Accessed 20th January 2015]. or

Layouts for your reference list and bibliography

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Wang, F., Maidment, G., Missenden, J. & Tozer, R. (2007) The novel use of phase change materials in refrigeration plant. Part 1: Experimental investigation. Applied Thermal Engineering. 27 (17–18), 2893–2901. Available from: doi:10.1016/j. applthermaleng.2005.06.011. or Read, B. (2008) Anti-cheating crusader vexes some professors. Chronicle of Higher Education. 54 (25). Available from: http://global.factiva.com/ [Accessed 18th June 2015].

Note Articles published online may not have page numbers.

Pre-print journal articles

It is likely you will find articles available online prior to being submitted to the peer review procedure and published in a journal. These articles are preprints and may be placed in an online repository or on a publisher’s website (but not in a specific journal issue). • • • • • • • • •

Author/s (Year of writing) Title of journal article Submitted to/To be published in (if this information is with the article) Title of journal (in italics) Name of repository (in italics) [Preprint] Available from: URL (if available) [Date of access] Silas, P., Yates, J.R. & Haynes, P.D. (2008) Density-functional investigation of the rhombohedral to simple cubic phase transition of arsenic. To be published in Physical Review B. Arxiv. [Preprint] Available from: http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.1692. [Accessed: 23rd July 2010]. In-text citation: (Silas, Yates & Haynes, 2008)

Note There will not be volume, issue or page numbers assigned to pre-print articles.

Layouts for your reference list and bibliography

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Conference proceeding: individual paper • • • • • • • •

Author (Year of publication) Title of conference paper followed by, In: Editor/Organisation (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name) Title of conference proceeding (this should be in italics) Place of publication Publisher Page numbers (use ‘p.’ before a single page number and ‘pp.’ where there are multiple pages) Wittke, M. (2006) Design, construction, supervision and long-term behaviour of tunnels in swelling rock. In: Van Cotthem, A., Charlier, R., Thimus, J.-F. and Tshibangu, J.-P. (eds.) Eurock 2006: Multiphysics coupling and long term behaviour in rock mechanics: Proceedings of the International Symposium of the International Society for Rock Mechanics, EUROCK 2006, 9–12 May 2006, Liège, Belgium. London, Taylor & Francis. pp. 211–216.

Standard • • • • • •

Name of Standard Body/Institution (Year of publication) Standard number Title (this should be in italics) Place of publication Publisher British Standards Institution (2005) BS EN 1993-1-2:2005. Eurocode 3. Design of steel structures. General rules. Structural fire design. London, BSI.

Layouts for your reference list and bibliography

20

Report • • • • •

Author/Editor (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name) (Year of publication) Title (this should be in italics) Organisation Report number: followed by the number of the report (if part of a report series) Leatherwood, S. (2001) Whales, dolphins, and porpoises of the western North Atlantic. U.S. Dept. of Commerce. Report number: 63.

Map • • • • • • •

Author (usually the organisation responsible for publishing the map) (Year of publication) Title (this should be in italics) Scale Series title and number (if part of a series) Place of publication Publisher British Geological Survey. (1998) South London. 270, 1:50 000. London, British Geological Survey.

Layouts for your reference list and bibliography

21

Web page/website • • • • •

Author/Editor (use the corporate author if no individual author or editor is named) (Year of publication) (if available; if there is no date, use the abbreviation n.d.) Title (this should be in italics) Available from: URL [Date of access] European Space Agency. (2015) Rosetta: rendezvous with a comet. Available from: http://rosetta.esa.int [Accessed 15th June 2015].

Email: personal

Personal emails should be referenced as personal communication, unless you have permission from the sender and receiver to include their details in your reference list. • • • • •

Sender (Year of communication) Email sent to Name of receiver Date and month of communication Harrison, R. (2014) Email sent to Mimi Weiss Johnson, 10th June.

Personal communication

• Name of practitioner • Occupation • (Personal communication, followed by the date when the information was provided) Law, James. Engineering consultant. (Personal communication, 26th April 2014).

Layouts for your reference list and bibliography

22

Lecture/presentation • • • • • • •

Name of lecturer/presenter (Year of lecture/presentation) Title of lecture/presentation (this should be in italics) [Lecture/Presentation] Title of module/degree course (if appropriate) Name of institution or location Date of lecture/presentation (day month) Wagner, G. (2006) Structural and functional studies of protein interactions in gene expression. [Lecture] Imperial College London, 12th December.

Layouts for your reference list and bibliography

23

11. SOURCES OF FURTHER HELP For more referencing examples:

www.imperial.ac.uk/admin-services/library/learning-support/reference-management

Want to use reference management software?

The Library recommends RefWorks for undergraduate and Master’s students, and EndNote for postgraduate research students and staff. For information and training workshops: www.imperial.ac.uk/admin-services/library/learning-support/reference-management

To contact your librarian for more advice:

www.imperial.ac.uk/admin-services/library/subject-support

Sources of further What help is referencing?

24

What is referencing?

25

CONTACT US www.imperial.ac.uk/library [email protected] @imperiallibrary www.facebook.com/imperiallibrary

September 2017

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Harvard Style - Imperial College London

Citing & Referencing: Harvard Style Contents 1. What is referencing? 1 2. Why should I reference? 1 5.9 Citing from works with no obvious aut...

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