Harvard Referencing Style - CQU

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An Abridged Guide to the

Harvard Referencing Style Academic Learning Centre School of Access Education Edition T3 2016

The Abridged Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style (author-date) is based on: Commonwealth of Australia 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons Australia, Milton, Qld. This document can be found on CQUniversity’s referencing Web site at http://www.cqu.edu.au/referencing (click on Harvard). Other information about academic writing is available via the Academic Learning Centre’s Moodle site. Maintained by School of Access Education Edition T3 2016 Published by CQUniversity Australia COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA WARNING This Material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of CQUniversity pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act). The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act. Do not remove this notice. CQUniversity CRICOS Codes: 00219C – Qld; 01315F – NSW; 01624D – Vic

Table of Contents How to use this guide.......................................................................................................... 1 Part 1: Terms and concepts vital for using Harvard ............................................................... 1 Why reference? ..................................................................................................................... 1 Key terms ............................................................................................................................... 2 What is plagiarism?................................................................................................................ 4 How to reference ................................................................................................................ 4 Getting started with the reference list .................................................................................. 5 In-text citations .................................................................................................................... 10 Paraphrasing and summarising ........................................................................................... 12 Quotations ........................................................................................................................13 Verbs that help with author prominent referencing ........................................................... 15 Copying or reproducing tables, figures or images ............................................................... 16 Capitalisation for in-text citations and reference lists ..........................................................19 Symbols .............................................................................................................................20 Acronyms and initialisms ...................................................................................................21 Abbreviations ....................................................................................................................23 Latin words and their abbreviations ...................................................................................27 Part 2: How to use citation examples to assist with your reference list ................................28 Hard copy books .................................................................................................................. 29 E-Books ................................................................................................................................ 36 Hard copy journal articles .................................................................................................... 37 Online or electronic journals ............................................................................................... 39 Hardcopy newspaper articles .............................................................................................. 40 Online newspaper articles ................................................................................................... 40 Reports................................................................................................................................. 41 Conference papers............................................................................................................... 42 Other documents on the World Wide Web (WWW) .......................................................... 43 Government documents ...................................................................................................... 45 Government or legal documents as hard copies ................................................................. 46 Law cases ............................................................................................................................. 47 University-provided study materials as hard copies ........................................................... 48 University-provided electronic and multimedia study materials ........................................ 49 Multimedia on the web ....................................................................................................... 52 Specialised sources .............................................................................................................. 53 Index .................................................................................................................................58

An Abridged Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style Academic Learning Centre SAE

Edition T3, 2016

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How to use this guide This guide provides an introduction to the intricacies of referencing using the CQUniversity Harvard style of referencing. Part 1 offers explanations of terms and concepts that are vital for the development of your knowledge so you can become proficient at referencing. Labelled and annotated examples are used to assist you. There are a number of variations on the Harvard style of referencing and it is important for you to use the style shown in this guide. Once you are familiar with some of the concepts and key words you will find it much easier to use Part 2 of this guide which contains further examples of in-text and reference-list references. Referencing requires attention to detail, so you will need to refer to these examples and explanations a number of times as you develop references for your assignments. There is much more information about these concepts available to students of CQUniversity in the form of on-campus workshops, online workshops, Info Sheets and videos. These can be found on the Academic Learning Centre (ALC) Moodle site. If you are enrolled in a degree at CQUniversity it is also possible to ask an ALC adviser for some assistance with referencing.

Part 1: Terms and concepts vital for using Harvard Why reference? In academic work, you are expected to research specific topics by reading about those topics using a range of different sources. Referencing is how you acknowledge the sources of information you have drawn on in your research. References must be provided whenever you use someone else’s opinions, theories or data. This enables you to:   

support your work with the authoritative work of other authors avoid plagiarism by giving credit to the original source of an idea or piece of information demonstrate your knowledge of a topic and show that you have researched, read, thought about and come to a point of view on it.

You need to reference information from books, articles, DVDs, the World Wide Web, other print or electronic sources and personal communications. A reference is required if you:    

use a direct quotation copy or reproduce (e.g. use figures, tables or structure) paraphrase (put another person’s ideas into your own words) summarise (give a brief account of another person’s ideas).

The terms above and many others are explained in the following section.

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Key terms Term

Explanation

Author

The person, group or organisation that created the source. There may be single or multiple authors; or single or multiple editors; or organisations may be credited as authors rather than specific individuals. If the source has no designated author you may use the title in place of the author.

Bibliography

A complete list of all sources consulted when preparing a piece of work, whether cited in-text or not. It records the full publication details of each source in the same way as for a reference list. Use a bibliography only if specifically requested to do so.

Copy or reproduce

Inserting an image, figure or table from a source in your own work without modifying it in any way. If you reproduce a table in your work, you should label it as a table and include a citation. Tables should be numbered sequentially with a title above and citation below. If you include data, or some columns of data, from a table in your work, you also need to include a citation. If you include an image, diagram or visual in your text it is referred to as a Figure or a Table which should be numbered sequentially, e.g. Figure 1 or Table 1. These are called labels. The source of the image, figure or table should be typed under the label.

E-book, e-book or eBook

An eBook is an electronic version of a print book that can be downloaded and read on a computer or other digital device. However, printed copies may not exist and the eBook may be the only version of the text. You may find a complete book or chapters of the eBook. Some of these are free and other must be bought from publishers or suppliers.

In text citation or intext reference

This is a reference to other people's work given in parantheses (round brackets) in your sentence (in-text). It is a record of the author, date and sometimes page number of any sources you use. Use surnames for in-text citations (no initials). The position of the in-text reference varies depending on where you use author prominent or information prominent citations. An essay with few or no citations will be a cause of concern for lecturers as this may indicate plagiarism or limited research.

Journal article

Journals are collections of articles that are published on a regular basis to report current research within a discipline. Journals are sometimes referred to as magazines, periodicals or serials.

Paraphrase

Paraphrasing is putting someone else’s ideas into your own words. When you paraphrase, you must provide an in-text reference to show that the material comes from another source.

Quotation

A direct quotation is the exact reproduction of someone's words which is marked with quotation marks or other special formatting. It requires a citation.

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An Abridged Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style Academic Learning Centre SAE

Term

Explanation

Reference list

The complete list of all sources cited or quoted in the text of your work. The reference list appears at the end of your work. It records the full publication details of each source and is arranged in alphabetical order. Every in-text reference should appear in the reference list, and every item in the reference list should be mentioned at least once in the assignment. Additionally, the references that appear in the text must have the same spellings and dates as the ones in the reference list.

Source

The place where the information was found. Source type refers to whether the source is a book, article, website etc. and whether it is print or electronic. Referencing rules differ for each source type.

Summary

A brief account of another person’s ideas or research in your own words. A summary of a work or section of a work, or a general reference to someone's work or ideas, requires a citation.

URL

This is the abbreviation for Uniform Resource Locator. It also known as the web address. When including a URL for a source found on the web it is not necessary to include a long URL if the website has a search engine. Leave the URL to break or fit the line in its own way; do not use enter or a space to push the URL to a new line. If it is pushed onto a new line, the extra enter will make it impossible for the automatic alphabetiser to be used to sort the reference list.

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What is plagiarism? One of the benefits of becoming proficient at referencing is that it will assist you to avoid plagiarism. CQUniversity’s Academic Misconduct Procedure defines plagiarism as ‘the presentation of work, ideas or data of others as one’s own, without appropriate acknowledgement and referencing’ (CQUniversity 2014, p. 1). This includes using an author’s work, another student’s work, or your own previously submitted work without acknowledging or citing it, all of which are considered forms of plagiarism. CQUniversity has an Academic Misconduct Procedure. You will need to search for it here http://policy.cqu.edu.au/Policy/policy_list.do# Plagiarism is one of the behaviours discussed in this document as it is considered serious misconduct and must be avoided at all times. Developing the following skills will help you to avoid unintentional plagiarism or poor referencing:      

note-taking techniques organising your sources summarising correctly and efficiently paraphrasing using direct quotations appropriately acknowledging the resources upon which you have based your ideas by referencing intext



referencing your sources correctly in the reference list.

For further help on avoiding plagiarism, see the Academic Learning Centre’s Academic Integrity and Plagiarism module, available on the ALC’s Moodle site http://moodle.cqu.edu.au/course/view.php?id=1497 Assistance with the skills listed above is provided by the Academic Learning Centre if you are enrolled in a degree at CQUniversity.

How to reference The Harvard (Author/Date) system is composed of two elements: in-text citation and a reference list. 1. An in-text citation is the acknowledgement of an author’s words or ideas in the body of your assignment. 2. The reference list is at the end of the document. It lists all of the sources referred to in your assignment in alphabetical order by author's surname. Information provided in this list includes: author, date, title, publisher and place of publication.

Remember to organise your reference list alphabetically using the author’s surname, the organisation or company names. An example of a reference list and a checklist follows in the next section.

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Getting started with the reference list Organising your resources is a useful skill, so as you decide what will be useful for your research and writing it is important to generate a reference list to avoid losing any relevant information about the source details. This process can be time consuming, but once done it provides a useful tool for developing in-text citations. Remember to check this initial list against those used in-text and remove any unused items because a reference list should only include citations that have been used within your assignment. The reference list does NOT include all your background reading. When including a source in the reference list you must provide the reader with enough information to locate that source. Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4 on the following pages demonstrate how specific sources are included in the reference list. This guide does not contain an exhaustive list of examples, so at times you will need to problem solve to decide how to reference the source you used.

Referencing journal articles and periodicals When including a journal article in the reference list, the following elements should be presented in this order: 1. author’s surname (family name) and initials. Even if the source gives the author’s names in full, use only the initials for their given names. When an author has two or more initials, the second initial stands for the middle name. In Western culture, given names are usually placed in front of the family name. If the family name has been placed first this will be indicated by a comma directly after it e.g. Brizee, HA. 2. year of publication 3. title of article in single quotation marks and minimal capitalisation 4. title of journal or periodical in italics and maximal capitalisation 5. volume number 6. issue number or other identifier (for example, Winter) 7. page numbers on which the article begins and ends. Use the following format to reference journal articles found both in print (hard copy) and in electronic form (soft copy) through the CQUniversity Library catalogue Discover it! or for those found on other databases, including ACQUIRE.

Figure 1: Referencing a journal article Source: Author An Abridged Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style Academic Learning Centre SAE

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Journal article from the Web If you find a journal article through a standard Web search (e.g. using Google or MSN, not through a CQUniversity Library database or Discover It!), give the full details of the article as shown in Figure 1 and add the date you viewed the Web page and the Web address of the article. For example: Kennedy, I 2004, ‘An assessment strategy to help forestall plagiarism problems’, Studies in Learning, Evaluation, Innovation and Development, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–8, viewed 7 October 2005, http://www.sleid.cqu.edu.au/viewissue.php?id=5

Referencing a book For a book, the following elements should be presented in this order: 1. author’s surname (family name) and initials. Even if the source gives the author’s names in full, use only initials for their given names. When an author has two or more initials the second initial stands for the middle name. In Western culture, given names are usually placed in front of the family name. If the family name has been placed first this will be indicated by a comma directly after it. 2. year of publication 3. title of book in italics and minimal capitalisation 4. the edition, if not the original publication; for example, 4th edn 5. publisher 6. place of publication. There should be commas between all elements except the initials of the author(s) and the date.

Figure 2: Referencing a book with one author Source: Author Place of publication refers to the city in which the publisher is located. If several cities are given on the source, use the first-listed city. If the place of publication is little-known or could be confused with another place of the same name, provide the state as well.

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An Abridged Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style Academic Learning Centre SAE

Law case For a case of law the following elements should be presented in the following order: 1. The case name 2. The year of case 3. The volume number 4. The law report series 5. The starting page of the source.

Figure 3: Referencing a law case Source: Author

Referencing a website For a website, the following elements should be presented in the following order:  name of the author/sponsor/owner of the site/ organisation/department  year of publication on the Web—if no date, use n.d.  title of page/site in italics and minimal capitalisation  date you viewed the site typed in full (day, month, year)  URL underlined, black font, no full stop.

Figure 4: Referencing a website Source: Author

Using URL references URLs are underlined and in black font; most word processing packages will automatically underline the Internet address. To deactivate live links right click on it and choose ‘remove hyperlink’, then underline. An Abridged Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style Academic Learning Centre SAE

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Long URLs To avoid very long URLs, it is acceptable to give the home page for a website rather than the exact URL of the page you are referencing as long as the website has a search facility. For example: Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2013, Australian social trends: pregnancy and work transitions, 2013, cat. no. 4102.0, viewed 18 November 2014, http://www.abs.gov.au/

The ‘Cite’ option in CQUniversity Library’s Discover It! service If you find an item in Discover It! you can use the ‘Cite’ button on the right-hand side of the screen to generate the citation for you. This time saving ‘cite’ button will display your item in a number of different referencing styles but be aware that the referencing style called Harvard in Discover It! is a USA version of Harvard, so it is NOT the same as the Australian version of Harvard used by CQUniversity. Be sure to use the referencing style shown in this Harvard guide to adapt the ‘Cite’ reference to suit CQUniversity’s style.

Unpublished sources Always try to use published materials for your assignments. Unpublished materials usually comprise theses or papers presented at a conference. You must also ask the lecturer for permission if you want to use material from one of your previous assessment tasks.

Sample reference list References Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2014, Where do migrants come from?, cat. no. 4102.0, viewed 20 October 2014, http://www.abs.gov.au Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities 2012, Salinity, fact sheet, viewed 18 November 2014, http://www.environment.gov.au/water/publications/quality/factsheet-salinity-and-water-quality Gottliebsen, R 2004, ‘1964–2004 and beyond’, Australian, 28 July, p. 12. ‘Multifacet menace’ 2007, Science, vol. 317, no. 5836, pp. 301–304. Robbins, SP, Millett, B, Cacioppe, R & Waters-Marsh, T 2001, Organisational behaviour, 3rd edn, Prentice Hall Australia, Frenchs Forest, NSW. Stevens, LP & Bean, TW 2007, Critical literacy: context, research, and practice in the K-12 classroom, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks. Sutton-Spence, R & Kaneko, M 2007, ‘Symmetry in sign language poetry’, Sign Language Studies, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 284–318. Watkins, D & Langford, J 2007, ‘A new phase in Australia’s double tax agreements’, Taxation in Australia, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 30–35. For more assistance and advice on referencing or formatting assignments (adding page numbers etc.) please refer to the ALC Moodle Academic Communication or Computing discipline area. The checklist on the following page is also a useful tool.

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An Abridged Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style Academic Learning Centre SAE

Check your reference list Checked

Key point The reference list begins on a new page. It should be the last page of your assignment; however, any appendices go after the reference list. Margins are set at least 2.54 cm top and bottom and left and right. Font style and size is same as for the rest of the assignment: usually Times new Roman 12 or Arial 11. Line spacing in the reference list is single even though the assignment is 1.5 or double line spacing. The title is References and it is bold, left aligned, and has the same font style and size as the document. The reference list is aligned with the left margin. A blank single-line space is left after each reference (or set 12 pt paragraph spacing). Numbers, letters and bullet points are not used to indicate new citations. The reference list is arranged in alphabetical order according to the author’s family name (surname). The family name must be written in full and initials used to represent given names. References by the same author in different years should be ordered by year. Place the oldest work first. References by the same author that have been published in the same year are listed alphabetically according to the title of the book/article and a lower-case letter is added to the date, in both the reference list and in-text citations; for example: Education Queensland 2007a, Education Queensland 2007b, Education Queensland 2007c. If there is no author or authoring body, the reference is listed alphabetically according to the title of the article itself. If a source is authored by an organisation rather than an individual, it is listed alphabetically according to the organisation’s name. For example: CSIRO or Education Queensland. All URLs should be underlined and black font. Most word processing packages will automatically underline an Internet address. URLs are left to break or fit the line in their own way; do not use an enter or a space to push the URL to a new line. Long URLs can be shortened to give the home page URL but only if there is a search function available on the website. Any reference that starts with a number precedes the alphabetical listing and is listed numerically; for example, 3D Networks 2007, Delivering on … will appear before Anderson, J 2013, … Every in-text reference appears in the reference list, and every item in the reference list is to be mentioned at least once in the assignment. Additionally, the references that appear in the assignment itself must have the same spelling and dates as the ones in the reference list.

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In-text citations In the text of an assignment, ideas taken from other people are indicated by placing the author's surname and the year of publication in parantheses, for example, (Cleary 2013). This element is referred to as the citation. Citations indicate where you have used such sources of information and must be used appropriately if you want to avoid being suspected of plagiarism. When you cite sources of information in the text of your assignment—regardless of whether you quote, paraphrase, reproduce or summarise—you should include:  the author’s surname (family name) 

the year of publication



correct punctuation and spacing.

In-text citations require page numbers when directly quoting or when using statistics graphs, tables or images from the source. Page numbers may also be required when paraphrasing an author’s words/material if referring to specific information on a particular page, paragraph or chapter.

Types of in-text citations There are two ways of referencing in-text: author prominent and information prominent. These can be applied to either quoting or paraphrasing. Where you place citations depends on the emphasis you wish to apply and can be important to the argument you present. If you wish to quote or paraphrase an author and want to emphasise the author, then your citation becomes author prominent and you will use the author’s name as part of your sentence. The citation will look something like this: Sherwood (2012) concludes that ... If you wish to emphasise the information you have paraphrased or quoted from an author, then your citation becomes information prominent and you will add a citation at the end of a sentence.

The citation will look something like this: … as evidenced from a recent Australian study (Jones 2012).

Examples of in-text citations The paragraph on the following page demonstrates the use of a range of in-text citations using both author prominent and information prominent citations and also shows examples of verbs (in bold) that help with author prominent referencing. More information is also provided about quoting and paraphrasing in the two different ways mentioned above, along with further examples. Some further notes for in-text citations ~ Some science lecturers may prefer fewer author prominent citations and more information prominent citations. ~ In-text citations are included in the word count of your document. ~ The full stop is placed after the parantheses when the citation is at the end of the sentence; for example … (Brown 2014).

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Example of referencing in context Retired Australians have been included as a campaign target for Volunteer Tourists for a number of reasons. The evolution of this group makes them attractive as they have commenced planning their retirements and are trying to do the most with their lives after their retirement, including travel. Research by Gibson (2002)1 on later life and retirement in the United States revealed that many of the participants experienced a feeling of more freedom to do what they want to do during retirement and later life. This is also evident in a report published by The Australian ('Get-up-and-go brigade are taking on the whole world’ 2007, p. 29)2 which shows that there are a growing number of retirees who are putting on their backpacks and travelling. This point is further supported by Upe (2013, p. 3)3 who states that Australia has 5.5 million baby boomers and many are able to travel as they are now retired. In addition, as Salomon, Russell-Bennet and Previte (2013)4 explain, Baby Boomers are also much more active and physically fit than the preceding generation. These authors5 point out that Baby Boomers who are facing retirement are experiencing a shift in their retirement approach from achievement orientation to quality of life. In Australia the 55- plus age group makes up 24 per cent of the population and they have 56 per cent of the country’s net wealth (Upe 2013, p. 3)6. They prefer to enjoy their retirement by spending their money rather than leaving it as an inheritance for their children (Salomon, Russell-Bennet & Previte 2013)7. Furthermore, intellectual curiosity and spirituality were identified as primary motivations for travel among older people (Achkoyan & Mallon 1997, cited in Gibson 2002, p. 12)8. It is evident that the over 55s have many traits that make them suitable candidates as Volunteer Tourists including their freedom, funds and a longing for education and new experiences. The small numbers in the paragraph above refer to the footnotes below. This is for demonstration purposes only—do not use footnotes in your essay!

1

Author-prominent summary

2

Newspaper article with no author so title is used instead of author in the in-text citation

3

Author-prominent paraphrase with specific data so page number is given

4

Author-prominent paraphrase of general idea so no page number is given

5

Reference to previous author is clear so no in-text citation is needed

6

Information prominent paraphrase with specific data so page number is given

7

Information prominent paraphrase from a source with multiple authors

8

Information prominent paraphrase from a secondary source so a page number is needed from the source the student read.

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Paraphrasing and summarising Paraphrasing or summarising is preferred to quoting when you want to use the idea expressed in the source and not the specific language used. Other advantages of paraphrasing and summarising include: expressing the key point of a source in fewer words and demonstrating your understanding of the source better than a quotation. When paraphrasing, providing a page number is optional. However, it is recommended you provide a page number when making reference to a specific statistic, sentence, paragraph or chapter. When summarising, a citation must be included but a page number is not required.

Refer to pages 10 and 11 for explanations and examples of author prominent and information prominent types of citations. Paraphrasing

Author-prominent

Information prominent

A paraphrase is made up of an author’s ideas but expresses them in other words. It does not need quotation marks because it is not a word-for-word quotation.

According to Unterhalter (2007, p. 5), equal treatment of the genders in education should be the goal of every just society.

Equal treatment of the genders in education should be the goal of every just society (Unterhalter 2007, p. 5).

Summarising

Author-prominent

Information prominent

A summary includes a condensed form of the information, keeping the main point of the article but omitting detailed examples, while maintaining the original idea or meaning. Technical words remain.

McMillan and Weyers (2011) outline a number of note making strategies that students should to understand that will make this task more manageable as it is an important skill to use in learning.

Students should understand that note making is an important skill and that there are several strategies available that will make this task more manageable (McMillan & Weyers 2011).

To paraphrase: 



change the structure of the original sentence and change the words.

It is not enough to do just one of these.

Quotations When quoting, you must give the author’s exact words. You can use short quotations (fewer than 30 words) or long quotations (30 words or more). A general rule in academic work is that no more than 10% of an assignment should be in the form of direct quotations.

Short quotations

Examples of short quotations

Short quotations (fewer than 30 words) should:

Author prominent

Information prominent

Unterhalter (2007, p. 5) argues that ‘gender equality in schooling is an aspiration of global social justice’.

It has been argued that ‘gender equality in schooling is an aspiration of global social justice’ (Unterhalter 2007, p. 5).

In Wilson’s (2013, p. 32) report ‘the building inspector estimated that there [sic] house was a fire hazard’.

In his report ‘the building inspector estimated that there [sic] house was a fire hazard’ (Wilson 2013, p. 32).



be incorporated into your sentence smoothly without disrupting the flow of your paragraph



be enclosed in single quotation marks



include the page number in the citation



have the full stop after the citation if the quotation is information prominent



have the full stop after the quotation if the citation is author prominent



be in the same font size as the rest of the assignment.

When an upper-case letter starts a quotation which comes in the middle of a sentence, it is acceptable to change the upper-case letter to a lower-case letter so that it fits with the grammar of your sentence unless the word is a proper noun (i.e. Australia or Robert). Direct quotations must be accurate. If there is any incorrect spelling, punctuation or grammar in the original quotation insert the word sic, italicised and in square brackets, directly after the error in the quotation.

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Long quotations

Example of a long quotation

Long quotations (more than 30 words) should:

Information prominent

Author prominent

Though many may recoil from making their private lives public in digital spaces, there are obvious benefits for young people:

Rowan (2001, p. 39) summarises the effects of a limited world view when she states that:

        

be introduced in your own words with the lead-in statement ending with a colon (:) be used infrequently not be enclosed in quotation marks begin on a new line be indented by 1.27 cm from the left margin (Ctrl + M) be in single line spacing be in a smaller font. For example, use Times New Roman 10 or Arial 9 have an in-text citation including author, date and page number be separated from the lead-in statement and from the text that follows with one blank line.

For a long information prominent quotation, the full stop goes after the quotation and before the in-text reference. Other elements to consider:

If you need to omit a word or words from a quotation, indicate this with an ellipsis (three dots). If you need to add a word or words to a quotation, put them in square brackets [ ].

The public life is fun. It’s creative. It’s where their friends are. It’s theatre, but it’s also community: in this linked, logged world, you have a place to think out loud and be listened to, to meet strangers and go deeper with friends. (Nussbaum 2007, p. 27)

The use of emotive language can be effective in influencing audiences to believe in a certain way: This passage attacks everyone who opposes the introduction of identity cards on personal terms. It …makes unsubstantiated assumptions about the backgrounds and economic circumstances of opponents … to undermine their credibility. (Cottrell 2011, p. 117)

This poses a real challenge for educators. In many cases, we are drawing on educational resources, or curriculum documents which are in themselves fairly narrow in the view of the world they represent. This helps to make this view seem natural and normal.

Cottrell (2011, p. 117) explains how emotive language can be used to persuade audiences: By abusing opponents, the author encourages a division between in-groups, or ‘people like them’, or ‘people like us’. [In addition] the passage draws on emotive subjects, referring to crime and security to win over the audience.

Quotation within a quotation When a quotation appears within a quotation, use double quotation marks for the second quotation. For example: ‘The first words of Melville’s Moby Dick are “Call me Ishmael” and these words are full of significance’ was the first statement in Smith’s memorable speech (Johns 1995, p. 43).

Verbs that help with author prominent referencing To assist with making citations part of your own writing and providing more information about the status of the information you are citing, you need to use signal words and phrases. Your choice of words can indicate whether the authors you are citing are presenting established findings, putting forward a case, making a suggestion or drawing conclusions. In addition, your work may become tedious to read if every quotation or paraphrase is introduced in the same manner. The signal word often becomes a place in writing where repetitiveness occurs. Table 1 provides examples of signal words useful for integrating other authors’ ideas and words into academic writing. Table 1: Signal words for use in-text referencing

Say or Mean

Argue

Explain

Other

state

assert

dispute

describe

agree

remark

add

disagree

clarify

question

maintain

confirm

contest the view

justify

offer

hold the view

find

question

reason

predict

point out

affirm

debate

show

identify

highlight

claim

demonstrate

emphasise

theorise imply contend suggest

Note: You would normally use present-tense to refer to research (though there are important exceptions).

An Abridged Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style Academic Learning Centre SAE

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Copying or reproducing tables, figures or images Sometimes it is useful to include reproductions or copies (.jpg or .png) of items such as photos, graphs, tables, diagrams and drawings in your work. All of these forms of information need to be referenced. Always give the page number when reproducing them from a print source. If you reproduce part of a table or use an author’s data to make your own table or graph, this must still be referenced both in the text (under the item) and in the reference list. Note that although tables and figures are often used in reports, they rarely appear in essays. Do not include the original citation, heading or caption when you copy these items. The number you give your table or figure must fit within the numbering of figures and tables in your own work. Items labelled as tables include excel data and other statistics contained within rows and columns.

Tables Tables

Example

If you use figures from an author and make a table then the source should show ‘adapted from’ and the author of the work.

It is evident from the data in table 1 below, that the number of asylum claims is dropping in Australia and the US but increasing in other countries. Table 1: New asylum claims lodged in selected regions by semester 2013-2014

Sometimes you may need to indicate the author of a specific column of items in the source. The font size in a table can be one size smaller than the rest of the assignment. For example; inside the table to the right, the font is Calibri 10, while the labels—the caption and source—are Calibri 11.

Change

1st 2013 – 1st 2014

2nd 2013 – 1st 2014

270,600 264,000

24.4%

-2.4%

220,300 216,300

22.8%

-1.8%

Regions

1st 2013

2nd 2013

Europe

202,200

EU – 28

176,200

US/Canada

1st 2014

46,100

48,700

58,600

27.1%

20.3%

Japan/Rep of Korea

2,100

2,700

3,300

57.1%

22.2%

Australia/NZ

5,900

6,100

4,700

20.3%

23.0%

328,100 330,600

24.1%

0.8%

Total

266,300

Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2014, p. 8)

Figures Figures

Example

When you reproduce a figure in your work, correct labelling is required. All labelling for figures appear below the item. First write the numbered caption and then the source. The source must include the author, date and page number. The figure number is the correct number for your work, not the one used by the author. Figures 1 to 4 would precede this example on the previous pages in your work.

Figure 5: New asylum claims lodged in 44 industrialised countries 2011–2014 source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2014, p. 8)

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Photos or images Photos or images

Example

If you copy or reproduce an image in your report, place a figure caption below and type its source below the caption. The author, year and page number (if available) are required for this citation. The figure number is the correct number for your work, not the one used by the author.

Figure 5: Dame Edna Source: Telegraph (2012)

Capitalisation for in-text citations and reference lists Harvard style uses minimal capitalisation for the titles of books, book chapters, journal articles, reports and websites, but maximal capitalisation for the titles of journals and other periodicals, regardless of how the titles are presented in the original sources. Incorrectly used punctuation and capitalisation can affect meaning.

Minimal capitalisation

Jones, B 1999, The history of rock: John Lennon, Zen Publishing, London.

Only the first word in the titles of books, chapters, journal articles and websites is capitalised regardless of how the titles are capitalised in the original. The exception is names or proper nouns.

Lieb, K 2013, Gender, branding and the modern music industry: the social construction of female popular music stars, e-book, Routledge, New York, NY.

Authors’ names and initials, journal titles and the names of publishing firms and businesses or organisations are always capitalised. If the title of the article, book or chapter contains a colon, the first word after the colon should not be capitalised unless it is a proper noun.

Italics is a type face that makes letters slant to the right. It is used to distinguish words from others within your text.

Minimal capitalisation can be combined with italics to show titles, names of ships and other vehicles, scientific names, and technical terms. Italics now replace the underlined text that was used when assignments were handwritten.

Maximal capitalisation

The Journal of Sociology

For the titles of periodicals (journals, magazines and newspapers), capitalise the first word and also any other word which is not ‘the’, ‘a’, ‘an’, a preposition (such as ‘for’, ‘on’, ‘under’, ‘about’) or a conjunction (such as ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘or’).

Watkins, D & Langford, J 2007, ‘A new phase in Australia’s double tax agreements’, Taxation in Australia, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 30–35.

Italics

Source: adapted from Style Manual for authors, editors and printers (Commonwealth of Australia 2002, p. 134 and pp. 145-148).

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Symbols Symbol

Use in citations

&

The ampersand is used to abbreviate ‘and’ and is used between authors’ names in information prominent citations in text (in the parantheses) and in the reference list. However, when providing an in-text reference with two authors as an author prominent citation (i.e. as part of the sentence) the word ‘and’ is used.

Ampersand The ampersand symbol represents the word ‘and’.

( ) Round brackets (parentheses) Round brackets, or parentheses, come in pairs and contain material that help clarify a point, but often indicate the information within is less important than what surrounds it.

Parentheses are used to enclose a citation within the text of an essay. The use of parantheses (a word or phrase inserted) for other purposes should be avoided in academic writing. Use wording to show the value of a piece of text rather than using parantheses. If something is not important enough to include in the main text, consider leaving it out completely.

Square brackets

If it is an information prominent citation, square brackets are used within a parantheses when adding an acronym or initialisms to your writing for the first time. For example:

Square brackets are used to add explanatory material to quotations, or to distinguish between multiple sets of brackets.

The impact of this program has been dramatic (World Health Organization [WHO] 2011).

Square brackets are also used to enclose insertions in quotations made by someone other than the original author, such as sic (explained in the section about Latin words and their abbreviations). They are also used when adding extra words to quotations that help the reader to understand the meaning when you need to fit a quotation into your own sentence correctly.

In fact, Rumelhart (1981, pp. 33-34) asserts that schemata ‘are the fundamental elements upon which all information processing depends ... [and play a large role] in guiding the flow of processing in the system’.

[ ]

When editing quotations, avoid changing the quotation’s meaning.

Acronyms and initialisms Acronyms and initialisms are both forms of abbreviations made up of the initial letters of a series of words. They are often used in citations when there is an authoring body with a long name.

Acronyms Term

Examples

Acronyms are words formed from the initial letters of each word in a long name that can be said as a word. You must not create an acronym of your own. Use the existing ones that are recognised, for example, Technical and Further Education (TAFE), or Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Ltd (QANTAS).

An author prominent in-text citation

The first time an acronym is used you must give the full name followed by the acronym in parantheses. After that the acronym may be used in place of the full name or phrase. Always use the full name or phrase in the abstract section of your document.

The first time you use a name that you want to shorten to an acronym or initialism type the name in full and then type the acronym or initialism in parantheses after it: According to the World Health Organization (WHO 2011), this program has had a dramatic impact. This is demonstrated by the data emerging from this study (WHO 2011). An information prominent in-text citation The first time you use a name that you want to shorten to an acronym or initialism use the name in full and then type the acronym or initialism in square brackets after it: The impact of this program has been dramatic (World Health Organization [WHO] 2011). This is demonstrated by the data emerging from this study (WHO 2011). The reference list World Health Organization (WHO) 2011, Health impact assessment—glossary of terms used, viewed 2 September 2014, http://www.who.int/hia/about/glos/en/index1.html

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Initialisms Term

Examples

Initialisms are a series of capital letters made up of the initial letters of a series of words. Initialisms cannot be said as a word; for example: USA (initialism for United States of America) or NLA (initialism for National Library of Australia)

In academic writing, initialisms are introduced in the same way as acronyms.

The first time an initialism is used, give the full name or phrase followed by the initialism in parentheses. After that, the initialism may be used in place of the full name or phrase. Always use the full name or phrase in the abstract in your assignment.

An author prominent in-text citation A draft study of course choices by Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR 2008) revealed that ‘there were no significant gender differences in the reasons respondents chose to study engineering.’ An information prominent in-text citation A recent government study (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS] 2013) reported that …

The reference list Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2013, Australian social trends: pregnancy and work transitions, 2013, cat. no. 4102.0, viewed 18 November 2014, http://www.abs.gov.au/

Abbreviations An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word. Words can be shortened in a number of ways, including omitting parts of the interior of the word, or cutting off the end of a word. If the end of the word is removed to create an abbreviation then a full stop is added. If the interior of the word is removed, leaving the last letter, no full stop is needed. Here are examples.

Abbreviations and explanations of their use in references

Examples

cat. no.

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2013, Australian social trends: pregnancy and work transitions, 2013, cat. no. 4102.0, viewed 18 November 2014, http://www.abs.gov.au/

catalogue number A catalogue number is used to identify an item in a record. It is used for tracking purposes.

ch. chapter

In text you will write: ch. 8, para. 14

In an online book or a Kindle book without page numbers, look for the chapter heading and use its number if it has one, or give its title. Also give the paragraph number. If there are no chapters, use the nearest heading.

c. circa

Queensland Education Department c. 1995, Draft policy on school discipline, Queensland Education Department, Gladstone.

From Latin meaning ‘around’ or ‘about’. Used when we can only approximate the publishing date. This approximation may be made by looking at the latest entry in the reference list of the source.

Comp. Compiler

Use the same format as for an edited book (following) but use (comp.) instead of (ed.).

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Abbreviations and explanations of their use in references

Examples

ed. or eds

You do not use ‘ed.’ in in-text references.

editor or editors

Crisp, J & Taylor, C (eds) 2005, Potter and Perry’s fundamentals of nursing, 2nd edn, Mosby Elsevier, Sydney.

An editor is a person, or a number of people, who assist an author to publish. They may select and prepare material, or organise and manage contributions to a multi-author book. Note: when the plural, editions, is abbreviated, the interior of the word is removed, leaving the last letter, so no full stop is needed.

edn edition

Wilson, J 2006, Infection control in clinical practice, 3rd edn, Bailliere Tindall, Edinburgh.

When books are revised and issued a second or third time (or more) publishers show the difference between versions by indicating the edition. This is necessary as the editions differ from one another as each version has different information. Note: the interior of the word is removed, leaving the last letter, so no full stop is needed.

Journal titles

BMJ or Br Med J

These may be abbreviated in catalogues when they are very long and sometimes an initialism is used. It is recommended that you locate and use the full name of the journal in your reference list. See also information about initialisms above.

The British Medical Journal

n.d. no date

Lansdown (n.d., p. 13) found that ‘…’.

Used when no publication year is found. Look carefully for publication dates as they can be hard to find on websites. You may find the date by checking for a copyright link.

Lansdown, M n.d., Bridging courses, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton.

Abbreviations and explanations of their use in references

Examples

no. or iss.

Sutton-Spence, R & Kaneko, M 2007, ‘Symmetry in sign language poetry’, Sign Language Studies, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 284–318.

issue number  A journal is made up of a number of volumes  Each volume is made up of individual issues  Each issue of a journal is made up of articles Journal page numbers may be continuous and may not begin at Page 1 in each new issue, but follow on from the previous issue. The issue number helps to identify the exact location of the article.

p. page One page referred to in a citation

… (Priest 2006, p. 4). According to Unterhalter (2007, p. 5) …

In-text citations require page numbers when directly quoting or when using statistics graphs, tables or images from the source. Page numbers may also be required when paraphrasing an author’s words/material if referring to specific information on a particular page, paragraph or chapter.

pp.

Pages that are in sequence (Warnock 2012, pp. 25–26) …

multiple pages

Watkins, D & Langford, J 2007, ‘A new phase in Australia’s double tax agreements’, Taxation in Australia, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 30–35.

Used in the reference list to indicate the page range for the entire article, not just the pages you cited.

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Abbreviations and explanations of their use in references

Examples

para.

A BP spokesman reported that ‘The new construction includes a containment cap with a built-in “blow-out preventer”, the device that failed to cut off the oil flow’ (Mann 2010, para. 4).

paragraph For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers use the paragraph number instead of the page number in-text, if paragraphs are numbered. If neither a page number nor a paragraph number is given it is acceptable to leave it out, even for a direct quotation, as most electronic material is searchable, so readers are able to find the quoted material themselves.

r. and rr.

In the text of your work, you should write:

regulation or regulations

… the Copyright Regulations, rr. 18–19

To aid your reader to locate the specific information you cited you should give the unit of division.

If it is at the beginning of the sentence, you should write:

s. or ss.

In the text of your work, you should write:

sections in legal documents

Civil Proceedings Act 2011 (Qld) s. 7

To help your reader locate the specific section or subsection that your information comes from you should give a pinpoint reference to the relevant section or subsection.

Unless it is at the beginning of the sentence, for example:

Regulation 18 of the Copyright Regulations (Cwlth) …

Section 4 of the Casino Control Ordinance 1988 …

Abbreviations and explanations of their use in references

Examples

vol. or vols

Corsini, RJ (ed.) 1994, Encyclopedia of psychology, 4 vols, J. Wiley & Sons, New York.

volume or volumes

David, A & Simpson, J 2006, The Norton anthology of English literature, vol. 1, The Middle Ages, WW Norton, New York.

Sometimes books are one part of a set or series with each book in the set or series being labelled a volume. Journals publish a set number of volumes each year, so volume numbers are used to identify in which volume an article appears.

Latin words and their abbreviations Universities are steeped in history and some of the remnants of the past include Latin words and their abbreviations. Popular abbreviations such as etc., e.g. or i.e. should be kept to a minimum in academic writing. Below are examples of Latin words (or their abbreviations), used inside parantheses when citing in text or in the reference list.

Latin words

Example in citation or reference list

et al.

In-text, list only the first author’s name followed by ‘et al.’

abbreviation for ‘et alia’ meaning ‘and others’

… (Robbins et al. 2001).

Used for in-text references when there are more than three authors. There should always be a full stop after ‘al.’ as it is an abbreviation.

The entry in the reference list must show all the authors. Robbins, SP, Millett, B, Cacioppe, R & Waters-Marsh, T 2001, Organisational behaviour, 3rd edn, Prentice Hall Australia, Frenchs Forest, NSW.

Do not apply italics to et al.

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Latin words

Example in citation or reference list

sic

In his report, ‘the building inspector estimated that there [sic] house was a fire hazard’ (Wilson 2013, p. 32).

means ‘thus’ or ‘so’ Used in a quotation, in italics and in square brackets. It indicates that the word directly before it is an error that appeared in the original text that has not been corrected. This is to preserve the authenticity of the quotation. This error may be incorrect spelling, punctuation or grammar. Note: the square brackets are not italicised.

circa means ‘around’ or ‘about’ It is abbreviated to c. Used when an approximate publishing date is available. This approximation may be made by looking at the latest entry in the reference list of the source you are using.

Queensland Education Department c. 1995, Draft policy on school discipline, Queensland Education Department, Gladstone.

Part 2: How to use citation examples to assist with your reference list This Abridged Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style provides a number of examples showing how to reference specific sources in the text of your assignment (in-text) and in the reference list. However, this guide does not contain an exhaustive list of examples so it may be necessary to refer back to the general principles of referencing and examine more than one example, or a combination of examples, to identify the best way to reference a specific item. Sometimes you need to problem solve to decide how to reference the item you have used. When adding a reference to the reference list, you must provide the reader with enough information to enable them to locate the source. The following series of specific examples of referencing, and the examples provided in figures 1, 2 and 3 (at the beginning of this guide), will help you to work out what kind of information you need to collect about your source. Find one of the examples in this guide similar to your source and gather similar information for your citation. Then if you are still unsure, you can ask the Academic Learning Centre to assist you.

Hard copy books

One author Include the author’s family name and the year of publication.

Two authors In-text Only use an ampersand (&) when the authors’ names are given within parantheses. Use ‘and’ when the authors’ names are incorporated in the text. Reference list

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

A recent study (Hinchy 2007) found that gender … or Hinchy (2007, p. 10) claims that ‘…’.

Hinchy, RD 2007, The Australian legal system: history, institutions and method, Pearson Education Australia, Frenchs Forest, NSW.

Gender equity and indigenous youth are two points of discussion covered in detail (White & Wyn 2013, p. 4).

White, R & Wyn, J 2013, Youth and society, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, Vic.

White and Wyn (2013, p. 4) stated that ‘gender equity and indigenous youth are two points of discussion covered in detail.

Use & between author’s names.

Three authors Use an ampersand (&) between the second and third name when the authors’ names are given within parantheses. Use ‘and’ when the authors’ names are incorporated in the text.

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Following the process outlined will ensure that you have all the tools and assets you need to create amazing work across desktop and mobile devices (Smith, Smith & Gerantabee 2010).

Smith, J, Smith, C & Gerantabee, F 2010, Adobe Creative Suite 5 Design Premium all-in-one for dummies, Wiley Publication, Hoboken, New Jersey.

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Four or more authors In text Give only the first author’s family name as listed on the source, followed by ‘et al.’ (meaning ‘and others’) and the year. Reference list Include the family names and initials of ALL the authors. Separate the authors with commas and use an ampersand (&) before the last author.

Multiple works—same author, published in different years In-text When including two works by the same author in the same parantheses, place them in chronological order according to the date of publication (i.e. oldest to newest).

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Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

Social issues including social class and gender differences and their impact on schooling are important concepts for new educators to consider (Connell et al. 2013).

Connell, R, Welch, T, Vickers, M, Foley, D, Bagnall, N, Hayes, D, Proctor, H, Sriprakash, A & Campbell, G 2013, Education, change and society, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Vic.

Connell et al. (2013) explains that the relationship between adolescents, parents and school communities is paramount and closely linked to social issues and ideals

Recent research (Brown 2014, 2015) has indicated that …

Brown, M 2014, Wipeout water world: an accounting practice set using MYOB AccountRight version 19, Pearson Education, Frenchs Forest, NSW. Brown, M 2015, Pedro’s Pizzas: an accounting practice set using MYOB AccountRight version 19, Pearson Education, Frenchs Forest, NSW.

Multiple works—same author/s, same year In-text When including multiple works by the same author published in the same year, add a lower-case letter (a, b, c, etc.) to the year. The letters relate to the alphabetical order of the titles. Reference list

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

Marzano and Pickering (2006a) set out methods of teaching students how to build up their academic vocabulary.

Marzano, RJ & Pickering, DJ 2006a, Building academic vocabulary: teacher’s manual, Hawker Brownlow Education, Heatherton, Vic.

According to Marzano and Pickering (2006b), there should be emphasis placed on identifying declarative and procedural knowledge in the planning process of a unit.

Marzano, RJ & Pickering, DJ 2006b, Dimensions of learning: teacher’s manual, 2nd edn, Hawker Brownlow Education, Heatherton, Vic.

It was found that ‘…’ (Jones 2012, pp. 47– 48) OR A recent report (Jones 2011) shows that …

Jones, A 2012, Human geography: the basics, Routledge, New York.

Letters should also be included next to the year.

Works by different authors with the same family name In-text The year of publication will differentiate between the two authors. Reference list

Jones, K 2011, Neurological assessment: a clinician’s guide, Churchill Livingstone, London.

Be sure to place these sources in alphabetical order according to their family name, and then according to their first initial.

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Works by different authors with the same family name, same year In-text Include the authors’ initials in the reference to distinguish between them. As a general rule, it is advisable to paraphrase in this instance.

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Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

G Jones (2012) pointed out the importance of sustainability in the management of certain environments. The role that humankind plays in shaping … (Jones, A 2012).

Jones, A 2012, Human geography: the basics, Routledge, New York.

Food safety is paramount when preparing meals for human consumption (Make it safe: a guide to food safety 2010).

Make it safe: a guide to food safety 2010, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic.

It has been suggested that ‘’ (Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development [OECD] 2014, p. 23).

Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development 2014, Leadership for 21st century learning, Brookings Institution Press, Washington.

Jones, G 2012, Current research in sustainability, Tilde Publishing, Prahran, Vic.

Reference list Be sure to place these sources in alphabetical order according to their family name, and then according to their first initial.

No author If no author is given, cite the work by title. If the title is long, use a shortened version in the in-text reference.

No author but an authoring body (institution, corporation or other organisation)

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

‘… the language of recovery is now widely used in mental health policy …’ (Ramon et al. 2007, cited in Elder, Evans & Nizette 2012, p. 124).

Elder, R, Evans, K & Nizette, D 2012, Psychiatric and mental health nursing, Elsevier Australia, Chatswood, NSW.

Referring to two primary sources within the one secondary source

‘The ANGLO-Celtic communication style is described as direct, dyadic and contained’ (Purdie et al. 2010, Dudgeon et al. 2000, cited in Elder, Evans & Nizette 2012, p. 124).

Elder, R, Evans, K & Nizette, D 2012, Psychiatric and mental health nursing, Elsevier Australia, Chatswood, NSW.

No date can be established

Lansdown (n.d., p. 13) found that ‘…’.

Lansdown, M n.d., Bridging courses, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton.

Source within a source: referring to an author (primary source) read about in another publication (secondary source) In text First, cite the original source of the idea (primary reference) and follow this with the source in which you found it (secondary source). In such references always include a page reference, even if the information provided is a paraphrase. Try to use the primary source if possible. Reference list Include only the author/s of the secondary source (i.e. the source you actually read)

Use this infrequently

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Approximate date only can be established

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Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

Information security is deemed critical and Mjølsnes (c. 2012) suggests …

Mjølsnes, SF (ed.) c. 2012, A multidisciplinary introduction to information security, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

See also Part 1: Latin words and their meanings

Several sources are cited at once Do not overdo this! Alphabetise according to the name of the first author in each source. Use semicolons to separate sources. List each author as a separate entry in the reference list. Paraphrasing is essential in order to cite the essence of what the authors all agree upon.

Second or later edition Reference list

Recent studies (Christopher 2012; Haghiran Christopher, EM (ed.) 2012, Communication across cultures, 2012; Patil et al. 2012) agree that … Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, New York. Haghirian, P 2012, Successful cross-cultural management: a guide for international managers, Business Expert Press, New York. Patil, A, Eijkman, H, Bhattacharya, E & Hershey, PA (eds) 2012, New media communication skills for engineers and IT professionals: trans-national and trans cultural demands, Information Science Reference, Hershey, Pennsylvania. ‘It is generally understood in Higher Education that …’ (Cottrell 2013, p. 5)

Cottrell, S 2013, The study skills handbook, 4th edn, Palgrave, Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK.

This style manual was prepared for the Commonwealth Department of Finance and Administration (Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002).

Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, 2002, rev. Snooks & Co., John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.

If it is not the original work or first edition, include the number and the abbreviation ‘edn’ after the title.

Second or later edition and no author Note that rev. used in this way is an abbreviation for review or revised.

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

Edited work

One well-respected university (Nelson & Wei 2012) declares that …

Nelson, AR & Wei, IP (eds) 2012, The global university: past, present, and future perspectives, Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

Chapter in an edited work

Snyder et al. (2013) believe in the importance of emotion coaching ...

Snyder, J, Low, S, Bullard, L, Schrepferman, L, Wachlarowicz, M, Marvin, C & Reed, A 2013, ‘Effective parenting practices: social interaction learning theory and the role of emotion coaching and mindfulness’, in RE Larzelere, AS Morris, & AW Harrist, (eds), Authoritative parenting: synthesizing nuturance and discipline for optimal child development, pp. 189-210, American Psychological Association, Washington DC, US.

One volume of multi-volume work

Developments in understanding the principle requirements of humanitarian assistance in several incidents are covered … (Couig 2012).

Couig, MP 2012, Annual review of nursing research, vol. 30, Disasters and Humanitarian Assistance, Springer Publishing, New York.

One issue or volume in an edited series

In Australia, there is a growing gap between rich and poor (Healey 2014).

Healey, J (ed.) 2014, Gender discrimination and inequality, vol. 374, Issues in society, Spinney Press, Thirroul, NSW.

Book chapter available in CQUniversity The health care system in Australia is financed … (Willis 2009). Course Resources Online (CRO)

Published learning package containing various sources

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It is important to use sources effectively (CQUniversity 2010).

Willis, E 2009, ‘Chapter 1: the Australian health care system’, in E Willis, L Reynolds & H Keleher (eds), Understanding the Australian health care system, pp. 3–60, Churchill Livingston Elsevier, Sydney. CQUniversity (comp.) 2010, ESSC11004 Study and research skills for Health Science, McGraw Hill Australia, Sydney.

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E-Books Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

This book outlines the basic concepts of contemporary supply chain management (Lu 2012).

Lu, D 2012, Fundamentals of supply chain management, e-book, Idea Group Publishing, London, available at http://www.freeebooks.net/ebook/fundamentals-of-supply-chain-management

e-Book chapter available on the Web

Richards (2010) argues that ...

Richards, S 2010, ‘Everyday creativity in the classroom: a trip through time with seven suggestions’ in RA Beghetto, & JC Kaufman (eds), Nurturing creativity in the classroom, e-book, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, available at http://www.cabridge.org/

e-Book available via ACQUIRE or Discover It!

According to Chen (2013) the two main categories of statistical information are ...

Chen, B 2013, System parameter identification: information criteria and algorithms, e-book, Elsevier Science, Burlington.

e-Book available on the Web URLs should be active or live. They should be underlined and in black font.

Reference list Include the word ‘e-book’ after the title.

Reference list Include the word ‘e-book’ after the title. No retrieval information is needed for ebooks from ACQUIRE, a CQU Library database or CQU Library’s Discover It! service.

e-Book chapter available via ACQUIRE or Discover It!

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

According to Taylor and Tindimugaya (2012), …

Taylor, R & Tindimugaya, C 2012, ‘The impacts of climate change and rapid development on weathered crystalline rock aquifer systems in the humid tropic of sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from south-western Uganda’ in JJ Gurdak, JL MartinBordes & H Treidel (eds), Climate change on groundwater resources: a global synthesis of findings and recommendations, e-book, pp. 17─30, CRC Press/Balkema, Leiden.

Myers and Gulanick (2011) propose that …

Fry, S 2014, More fool me: a memoir, Epub—Adobe Digital Edition, available at Bookworld.

Reference list No retrieval information is needed for ebooks from ACQUIRE, a CQU Library database or CQU Library’s Discover It! service.

Kindle and Adobe Digital Edition If there are no page numbers, look for the chapter heading or if there are no chapters, look for the nearest heading and its format and put in the paragraph number, e.g. Ch. 8, para. 14; or ‘Our growth plan’, para. 2.

Myers, JL & Gulanick, M 2011, Nursing care plans: diagnosis, interventions and outcomes, Kindle version, available at Amazon.com

Hard copy journal articles In the reference list, include the following details in this order: author’s family name, author’s initial(s), year, ‘article title’, name of journal (in italics), volume number, issue number, page range. The volume, issue number and page range are usually printed at the top of the article, above the abstract but they can appear elsewhere, for example on the bottom right or left hand side of the first page. Notice in the examples that follow, that journal references omit information on place of publication and publisher. Journal titles use maximal capitalisation as explained on page 40.

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

One or more journal authors

Thomson (2014, p. 8) maintains that ‘…’

Thomson, H 2014, ‘Suspended between life and death’, New Scientist, vol. 221, no. 2962, pp. 8-9.

No journal author

Studies of mosquitoes have … (‘Multifaceted menace’ 2007).

‘Multifaceted menace’ 2007, Science, vol. 317, no. 5836, pp. 301–304.

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Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

It has been suggested that ‘months of political …’ (Cheng 2001, p. 1).

Cheng, AT 2001, ‘Dateline: Taiwan: Taiwan (in) dependence’, Asiaweek, 30 November, p. 1.

The role of the midwife is ... (Brown 2005). OR It is often believed ‘...’ (Brown 2005, p. 24).

Brown, J 2005, ‘Midwives: true believers’, Australian Midwifery News, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 22–26, in CQUniversity 2009, MDWF20001 Professional midwifery studies: resource materials, CQUniversity, Rockhampton.

Real estate marketing advisors are promoting the benefits of using social media to market and sell properties (Thistleton 2012).

Thistleton, R 2012, ‘Home tweet home’, Business Review Weekly, 22–28 March, p. 47.

If no author is given, cite the title of the article in your reference. If the title is very long, use a shortened form of the title in-text.

No volume or issue number Reference list If there is no volume or issue number, include the month or the season (e.g. Spring, Summer).

Article reproduced in a university module or readings Use the name of the university as it appears on the copyright page.

Magazine Always evaluate information found in magazines for ‘scholarliness’—including bias, validity, trustworthiness of the authors etc. Magazines are not generally considered scholarly sources for research.

Online or electronic journals Include the following details in this order: author’s family name, author’s initial(s), year ‘article title’, name of journal (in italics), volume number, issue number, page range. Volume, issue number and the page range are usually printed at the top of the article, above the abstract. This information can also be found in the footers of the pages. For journal articles found on the Web (but not through CQU Library), include the date you visited the Web page and the Web address.

Journal article from a database or from Discover It! Do not include a URL.

Journal article available on the Web This applies to journal articles found through a Web search (e.g. Google) rather than through a Library database or Discover It!

Journal article available through CQUniversity’s Course Resources Online (CRO)

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Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

Triggle (2013, p. 6) recommends that ‘…’. OR Oumlil and Williams (2011) argue that …

Triggle, N 2013, ‘Specialist nurses reach out to young people with disabilities’, Nursing Children and Young People, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 6-7. Oumlil, AB & Williams, AJ 2011, ‘Financial services and the elderly poor: development and implementation of sustainable intervention strategies’, Journal of Financial Services Marketing, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 274–286.

Gilmore and Cuskelly (2012) suggest that stress over a period of time demands parents adapt to the needs of their child with a disability.

Gilmore, L & Cuskelly, M 2012, ‘Parenting satisfaction and selfefficacy: a longitudinal study of mothers of children with down syndrome’, Journal of Family Studies, June, p. 1, viewed 1 December 2014, http://www.questia.com/read/1G1304941770/parenting-satisfaction-and-self-efficacy-alongitudinal

Watkins and Langford (2007, p. 30) indicate that ‘…’.

Watkins, D & Langford, J 2007, ‘A new phase in Australia’s double tax agreements’, Taxation in Australia, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 30–35.

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Hardcopy newspaper articles In the reference list omit ‘The’ from any newspaper title.

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

Newspaper article with an author

Higgins (2014, p. 3) reported that ‘Australian diplomats played a key role in …’.

Higgins, E 2014, ‘Consul key in China ice escape’, Australian, 10 December, p. 3.

Newspaper article without an author

According to the Australian the political situation in Greece is contentious, with parties vying for power in a turbulent situation (‘Greek PM calls risky election’ 2014, p. 9).

‘Greek PM calls risky election’ 2014, Australian, 10 December, p. 9.

Book review—newspaper

‘This book unfolds seamlessly and remains engaging’ (Loosley 2014, p. 20).

Loosley, S 2014, ‘Into the cauldron of war’, review of Gallipoli by Peter FitzSimons, Weekend Australian Review, pp. 13–14 December, p. 20.

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

Towell (2014, para. 1) reported that ‘15,000 public servants … will launch a campaign of civil disobedience … over pay and conditions disputes’.

Towell, N 2014, ‘Human services public servants begin industrial campaign over pay offer’, Canberra Times, 10 December, viewed 11 December 2014, http://www.canberratimes.com.au/national/public-service/

The Investor’s Business Daily (‘A veiled attack on free speech’ 2014) discusses US government plans to place further surveillance on the press …

‘A veiled attack on free speech’ 2014, Investor’s Business Daily, 14 February.

Online newspaper articles

Newspaper article with an author available via the Web URLs should be active (underlined, etc.)

Newspaper article with no author available via a database Note: Always check the validity of a site that has no author or sponsor. The use of such sites is discouraged.

Reports Use minimal capitalisation for the title of a report, but always capitalise proper nouns.

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

According to Kitson et al. (2013), …

Kitson, A, Conroy, T, Kuluski, K, Locock, L & Lyons, R 2013, Reclaiming and redefining the fundamentals of care: nursing’s response to meeting patients’ basic human needs, Research Report No. 2, University of Adelaide, Adelaide.

Non-formal learning can occur in a variety of settings (Trewin 2003, p. 16).

Trewin, D 2003, Measuring learning in Australia: a framework for education and training statistics, Information Paper 4213.0, Australian Bureau of Statistics, viewed 12 October 2013, http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/DetailsPage/421 3.02003?OpenDocument

Report (online) (corporate author)

Recent data shows that an eighth of the world’s population suffers from hunger (United Nations 2013).

United Nations 2013, The Millennium Development Goals report 2013, viewed 13 September 2013, http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/report-2013/mdgreport-2013-english.pdf

Government report, corporate author (online)

Recruitment of nursing staff is the main … (Queensland Health 2013).

Queensland Health 2013, Annual report 2012-2013, viewed 5 November 2013, http://www.health.qld.gov.au/about_qhealth/annualreport/12-13/default.asp

Government report, individual authors (print)

… in Queensland waterways (Mortimer & Cox 1999).

Mortimer, M & Cox, M 1999, Contaminants in mud crabs and sediments from the Maroochy River, Environment Technical Report, no. 25, Queensland Department of the Environment, Brisbane.

Report (print) When there are more than three authors, use only the first author’s name followed by et al. in all your in-text references.

Report (online) (individual author) If the author of the report is not the publisher, identify the publisher after the title (following any descriptive information about the report).

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Conference papers If the year the paper was presented differs from the year it was published, give the year of publication.

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

Conference paper in published proceedings (print)

Ballesteros (2011) outlines the benefits of online gaming …

Ballesteros, J 2011, ‘More than just a game: perceptions of self in online play’, Conference Papers—American Sociological Association, pp. 194–219.

Conference paper in published proceedings (online)

The role of off-shore tutors … (Sanderson 2013).

Sanderson, G 2013, ‘Hidden spaces in faraway places: the “lonely work” of partner institution transnational tutors’, Research and development in higher education: the place of learning and teaching: Refereed papers from the 36th HERDSA Annual International Conference, AUT University, Auckland, pp. 424–432, viewed 12 November 2013, http://www.herdsa.org.au/wpcontent/uploads/conference/2013/HERDSA_2013_SANDERSO N.pdf

Conference paper online

Ford (2013) argues that retro reflectivity …

Ford, G 2013, 22,500 traffic signs, 550 miles, 5 months, 1 system, paper presented at Esri International User Conference, 6–8 July, viewed 5 November 2013, http://proceedings.esri.com/library/userconf/proc13/index.ht ml

Other documents on the World Wide Web (WWW) Include the following details in this order: author’s family name, author’s initial(s), year, title of document or website, viewed date, and Web address. Remember, for online sources, the author is not always a person. Instead, it could be an organisation, a company, a government department etc. Also see note about long URLs in Part 1 of this document.

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text Document on the WWW URLs should be active (correct, underlined and black)

Stand-alone documents found within the following library databases: JBI COnNECT+, MIMS Online, and ERIC

Model to follow in the reference list

The paramedic method can be used to Brizee, HA 2010, Paramedic method: a lesson in writing ‘achieve user-centered, persuasive, and clear concisely, viewed 11 December 2014, prose’ (Brizee 2010, p. 1). http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/635/01/ Anamorph is a form of morphine, a narcotic used for pain relief (MIMS Australia 2014).

MIMS Australia 2014, Anamorph, viewed 4 September 2014, http://www.mimsonline.com.au/Search/Search.aspx

Florence Nightingale wrote to Sir Benjamin Brodie to ask him to advise Elizabeth Blackwell on her future career (Nightingale 2001).

Nightingale, F 2001 (1859), Letter to Sir Benjamin Brodie, February 13, viewed 12 October 2014, http://clendening.kumc.edu/dc/fn/brodie1.html

Greenpeace (n.d., p. 1) urges us to transform the methods we use to produce energy.

Greenpeace n.d., Climate, viewed 8 December 2014, http://www.greenpeace.org/australia/en/what-we-do/climate/

Use the home page URL of the publisher’s website.

Primary source on the WWW Reference list Include two dates: use the year it was published on the Web, and put the original year in parantheses.

Document on the WWW with no date Use this infrequently

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Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

Use the article title in place of the author, followed by the year of publication.

Use the article title in place of the author, followed by the year of publication, the date you viewed the site and the Web address.

Standards on the Web

According to Standards Australia (2007), …

Standards Australia 2007, Australian standard: steel tubes for mechanical purposes (AS 1450–2007), viewed 22 September 2014, http://www.standards.org.au/

Radio transcript from a website

Malcolm and Dean (2014) explain that …

Malcolm, L & Dean, D 2014, ‘Mind body connection’, All in the mind, ABC Radio National, radio transcript, viewed 18 November 2014, http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/allinthemind/ mind-body-connection/5882006

The importance of the National Economic Summit conference was explained in ‘Just call me Bob: part two’ (2014).

‘Just call me Bob: part two’ 2014, Australian story, ABC TV, television transcript, 17 November, viewed 18 November 2014, http://www.abc.net.au/austory/content/2014/s4130411.htm

Document on the WWW with no author or authoring body Always check the validity of a site that has no named author or sponsor. The use of such sites is discouraged.

Producer and presenter are in author place

Television transcript No author. Presenter or narrator name not used

Government documents Give the organisation’s name in full the first time you refer to it, followed by the abbreviation in parantheses. Use only the abbreviation in subsequent references. If the site has a search facility, include only the main page URL address. See also section titled Reports.

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

Document from a government Website

The Department of the Environment (2013) provides a ratings scheme …

Department of the Environment 2013, Repeal of the carbon tax: treatment of synthetic greenhouse gases, viewed 18 November 2014, http://www.environment.gov.au

Government report (print)

Department of Communities, Child Safety and Disability Services (2014, p. 12) states, its challenges include ‘…’.

Department of Communities, Child Safety and Disability Services 2014, Annual report 2013–2014, Queensland Government, Brisbane.

Australian Bureau of Statistics online

The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS 2013) reported that the fertility rate …

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2013, Australian social trends: pregnancy and work transitions, 2013, cat. no. 4102.0, viewed 22 October 2015, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/Lookup/4102.0Main +Features10Nov+2013

Government media releases

According to CSIRO (2014, p. 1), ‘insects originated at the same time as the earliest land-based plants …’

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) 2014, Scientists reveal secrets of insect evolution, media release, 6 November, viewed 22 October 2015, http://www.csiro.au/en/News/News-releases/2014/Scientistsreveal-secrets-of-insect-evolution

Government debates recorded in Hansard

Senator Scullion (Australia, Senate 2014, p. 354) moved that ‘the sixth anniversary of the …’

Australia, Senate 2014, Debates, vol. S1, p. 354, viewed 18 November 2014, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Hansard/Hanss en261110

Fact sheet

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (2012) claims that guidance on salinity …

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities 2012, Salinity, fact sheet, viewed 18 November 2014, http://www.environment.gov.au/

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Government or legal documents as hard copies Many abbreviations are used when citing legal documents. These abbreviations are explained in Part 1 of this document. The first time you refer to a legal document, type the title of legislation in italics and include the date. In subsequent references, there is no need to use italics and the date can be omitted. If it is not clear from the context, then the jurisdiction (Commonwealth or state) should be given in parantheses after the title. Use (Cwlth) as the abbreviation for Commonwealth. There is no need to include legislation in your reference list unless it is important to an understanding of the work (for example, in law units). In this case, use the subheading ‘Legislation’ and list all Acts cited in alphabetical order. Include the date and the jurisdiction.

Examples of how to refer to the resource Model to follow in the reference list in-text Legislation

The custody of a child … (Child Safety Legislation Amendment Act 2005 (Qld), s. 12).

Child Safety Legislation Amendment Act 2005 (Qld).

Legislation and regulations

When citing government legal or standards documents, use the abbreviation s. or ss. for citing sections. For example: 1. in ss. 4–7 of the Copyright Act 1968 2. the Copyright Act 1968, ss. 4–7 3. in s. 4 of the Casino Control Ordinance. When citing regulations, use the abbreviations r. and rr. For example: 1. the Copyright Regulations, rr. 18–19 2. the Commonwealth’s Copyright Regulations, r. 18

Examples of how to refer to the resource Model to follow in the reference list in-text Standards Australia

According to Standards Australia (2007), …

Standards Australia 2007, Australian standard: steel tubes for mechanical purposes (AS 1450–2007), Standards Australia, North Sydney.

Patents

CSIRO (2005) formalised and protected the method …

CSIRO 2005, Method for microfluidic mixing and mixing device, Australian provisional patent 2005901760, filed 8 April 2005.

Law cases When citing legal authorities, the following details are necessary:    

name of case year and/or volume number abbreviated name of the report series the page on which the report of the case begins.

There is no need to include legal cases in your reference list unless it is important to an understanding of the work. In this case, list all cases alphabetically under the subheading: Legal authorities.

Law cases To cite specific page numbers, do not use the abbreviation p. or pp.

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

The case of The State of New South Wales v. The Commonwealth (1915) 20 CLR 54 is considered an important precedent in this area of law.

The State of New South Wales v. The Commonwealth (1915) 20 CLR 54.

This was the opinion of the judge in The State of New South Wales v. The Commonwealth (1915) 20 CLR 54 at 57–59.

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Coroner’s report

The document provided indicates that the victim died from strangulation (Office of the State Coroner 2009).

Office of the State Coroner 2009, Findings of inquest: Inquest into the deaths of Liam John Wright and Charles Michael Powell, File No(s): COR 2048/06 & 2179/06, viewed 27 August 2015, http://www.courts.qld.gov.au/data/assets/pdf_file/0010/8677 9/cif-wright-lj-Powell-cm-20090320.pdf

Work cover Code of Practice (COP)

The best practice is to place the monitor on your desk so that your eyes are in line with the bevel (edge) at the top of the monitor (SafeWork Australia [SWA] 2011).

SafeWork Australia (SWA) 2011, Code of Practice: Work Health and Safety Consultation, SWA, Canberra.

COP are not statutes but are published by regulators as guides of good safety practice. As such, they are also considered by the regulators and courts in determining what is ‘reasonably practicable’ under the WHS statutes. Publishers of COP include the relevant state and territory WHS regulators and also SafeWork Australia.

Queensland Government 2011, Code of Practice: Confined Spaces, Workplace Health and Safety, Queensland

Accordingly, our project adheres to the latest Code of Practice (Queensland Government 2011).

University-provided study materials as hard copies The sources below should not be used too frequently. Other sources that you have located while researching are more suitable.

Examples of how to refer to the resource Model to follow in the reference list in-text Study Guide (author known) Use the authors’ names that appear the copyright page of the resource.

Study Guide (author unknown) Use the university’s name as the author

… to promote mental wellness, prevent illness … (Fisher 2009).

Fisher, J 2009, HLTH12029 Mental health promotion: study guide, CQUniversity, Rockhampton.

It has been claimed that ‘learning to write is actually about learning to think’ (CQUniversity 2014, p. 20).

CQUniversity 2014, LNGE40049 Essay writing for university: study guide, CQUniversity, Rockhampton.

Text reproduced in a university module or readings

In a review of the materials required, ASHRAE (1950, p. 15) indicates that ‘…’.

ASHRAE 1950, Thermal comfort, pp. 12–20, in CQUniversity 2014, BLAR11043 Building systems and services 1: resource materials, CQUniversity, Rockhampton.

Thompson (2011) found that the first teaching day may result in mixed emotions for many first year teachers.

Thompson, R 2011, The first day experience, lecture notes distributed in the unit, EDED48314 Professional practice III, CQUniversity, Bundaberg, 21 April.

This refers to chapters or large sections of text within the university’s reading material.

Lecture notes (unpublished) Do not use italics or quotation marks for class handouts as they are unpublished sources.

Lecture material—non-print (e.g. whiteboard notes) This should not be included in the reference list. Treat it the same as personal communication and indicate author and date in your assignment.

In a lecture, SCIE11022 Introductory science, presented at CQUniversity, Rockhampton, on 17 December 2014, Voss suggested that …

University-provided electronic and multimedia study materials The sources below should not be used too frequently. Other sources that you have located while researching are more suitable.

Examples of how to refer to the resource Model to follow in the reference list in-text Unit notes available on CQUniversity e-Units (Moodle) The author of your unit notes is normally your unit lecturer.

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‘Operational Analysis and Effectiveness is all about the way in which organisations go about their business’ (Waight 2014, p. 2). Waight (2014) states that …

Waight, P 2014, Module 1: Developing customer value through 'operations', unit notes, MGMT20085: Operational Analysis and Effectiveness, CQUniversity e-Units, http://moodle.cqu.edu.au

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Examples of how to refer to the resource Model to follow in the reference list in-text PowerPoint presentation on Moodle

According to Busch (2014) …

Busch, G 2014, A brief history of early childhood: How has history shaped the current context?, PowerPoint presentation, EDEC11025: Advocacy, Leadership and Change in Early Childhood, CQUniversity e-Units, http://moodle.cqu.edu.au/

Study Guide (author unknown)

The function of maintenance must be understood (CQUniversity 2014, mod. 2, p. 4) but this must be done …

CQUniversity 2014, ENMM20025: Maintenance Strategies Module 2: study guide, CQUniversity e-Units, http://moodle.cqu.edu.au/

Use the university name as the author

Discussion board message posted to According to Brown (2014,) … Moodle

Brown, T 2014, ‘Re: Classroom management’, electronic discussion group message, 6 September, EDED11406 Teaching Reading, CQUniversity e-Units, http://moodle.cqu.edu.au/

Echo360 presentation

According to Bell (2010), leadership by numbers is not the answer.

Bell, S 2010, Academic leadership, Echo360 presentation, viewed 7 July 2010, http://dmai.cqu.edu.au/FCWViewer/view.do?page=12664

Video on a Moodle site

Tyler (2014) showed the processes of accounting as a train of linking carriage …

Tyler, M 2014, The adjusting process, ISL lecture video, ACCT11057: Principles of Accounting, CQUniversity e-Units, http://moodle.cqu.edu.au/

Examples of how to refer to the resource Model to follow in the reference list in-text Source referred to in a study guide In text, first reference the original source of the idea (primary reference) and follow this with the source from which you read it (secondary source). In such references you must always include a page reference, even if it is a paraphrase. Try to locate and use the primary source if possible.

Etzioni (1964 cited in CQUniversity 2014, mod. 1, p. 3) defined organisations as groupings of human beings …

CQUniversity 2014, ENMM20025: Maintenance Strategies Module 1: study guide, CQUniversity, e-Units, http://moodle.cqu.edu.au/

In the reference list include only the author/s of the secondary source (i.e. the source you actually read).

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Multimedia on the web Always evaluate information found in these sources for ‘scholarliness’—including bias, validity, trustworthiness of the authors etc.

Examples of how to refer to the resource Model to follow in the reference list in-text Podcast or vodcast A podcast is a digital medium made up of a series of audio, digital radio, or PDFs that reader/viewer can download from the web. Similarly, a vodcast is a video podcast.

Accessible design benefits many students … (Wood 2007).

Wood, D 2007, ‘Accessible design in technology enhanced learning environments’, Take 5, digital video podcast, viewed 16 December 2014, http://my.cqu.edu.au/group/learning-andteaching/take-5

Give the name of the author or presenter as well as the name of the episode (quotation marks) and the name of the program (italics). You must also identify what format it takes (e.g. audio or digital video etc.)

iTunes or other eStore downloads

Williams, R 2014, ‘Stabilising the climate’, The science show, audio podcast, accessed 13 December 2014, 11:05:18 am, http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/feed/2885480/podcast.x ml

The lyrics of the Pixies’ song, Gigantic (1988) is an early example of the alternative rock boom of the 1990s.

Pixies (1988) ‘Gigantic’, iTunes, audio download, accessed 29 August 2012, www.apple.com/uk/itunes/

Specialised sources Examples of how to refer to the resource Model to follow in the reference list in-text Brochure or Pamphlet

Skills for Tertiary Education Preparatory Studies (STEPS) is an enabling program that provides a pathway for people wishing to gain entry to and excel in higher education (STEPS 2014, p. 1).

STEPS 2014, Skills for tertiary education preparatory studies, brochure, CQUniversity, Rockhampton.

DVD

Jersey Boys (2014) tells the story of four young men who get into trouble together before forming a band.

Jersey Boys 2014, DVD recording, Warner Bros. Pictures, New York.

Film/Movie

Eastwood allows his characters to break the fourth wall to engage with the audience (Jersey Boys 2014).

Jersey Boys 2014, motion picture, Warner Bros. Pictures, New York.

Television broadcast

In the episode ‘Labor of Love’ shown on Australian Story (2010) …

Australian Story 2010, television program, ABC, Sydney, 23 August.

Television advertisement

‘I bought a Jeep’ (Jeep Australia 2014), even becomes the slogan for Santa …

Jeep Australia 2014, I bought a Jeep-Santa Clause, television advertisement, Cummins & Partners, Melbourne.

Creative work in multimedia format (e.g. multiple types on the one CD or program)

‘Source to Sea tells the story of a changed and changing river’ (Bundaberg Media Research Group 2007, p. 1).

Bundaberg Media Research Group 2007, Source to sea: stories of Burnett River country, creative work, viewed 6 October 2009, http://bmrg.cqu.edu.au/FCWViewer/view.do?page=8610

An artistic work (e.g. a painting)

The Queensland Art Gallery has great pleasure in showing Evicted by Fletcher (1887).

Fletcher, B 1887, Evicted, oil on canvas, Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane.

For a video, replace DVD recording with video recording.

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Examples of how to refer to the resource Model to follow in the reference list in-text Photographer Miller (2008) captures the grace of Marilyn.

Miller, R 2008 (1951), Marilyn Monroe arrives at Greenacres, digital image, Photographers Gallery, viewed 12 July 2008, http://www.photographersgallery.com/by_artist.asp?id=266&p er=40&i=1

No creator of the image given

The falling man (2006) illustrates capture of motion.

The falling man 2006, digital image, Ananyah, viewed 12 July 2010, http://ananyah.com/blog/2006/03/16/the-falling-man/

Song lyric

The words to Beautiful (Mauboy et al. 2013) fit the up-tempo track …

Mauboy, J, Hinshaw, C, Mishan, C & Delazyn, D 2013, Beautiful, song lyric, Genius Media Group, Brooklyn.

Musical score for a stage show

The score by Bock (1964) …

Bock, J 1964, Fiddler on the roof, musical score, Warner Chappell, New York.

Software packages

(Thomson Reuters 2014)

Thomson Reuters 2014, EndNote X7.2.1, software update, Thomson Reuters, New York.

Facebook

Cain and others (2014, 15 December) provide a number of negative views about the suspected Muslim’s involvement in the siege …

Cain, D 2014, on ABC News Facebook, 15 December, 3.55 pm, viewed 15 December, http://www.facebook.com/abcnews.au

Ken Robinson believes that the current education system hinders creativity because … (TED Talks 2013).

TED Talks 2013, Ken Robinson: how to escape education’s death valley, video, 10 May, viewed 14 January 2015, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wX78iKhInsc

Photographs on the web with name of creator In the reference list include two dates: use the year it was published on the Web, and the year in parantheses.

Social networking postings are not permanent so make sure you copy and paste the information you are citing and add to your assignment as an appendix.

YouTube: with creator’s name Take care as sometimes the creator of the resource is not the same as the uploader. In this case TED Talks is the creator

Examples of how to refer to the resource Model to follow in the reference list in-text This type of video posted by Darkinsidious, 2009) shares stunts that may be copied by others.

Darkinsidious (poster) 2007, Slingshot fun, video, 10 May, viewed 14 January 2015, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCmZYce0J2E

Gillard (2014) mourns the passing of Stella Young, describing her as a ‘shining light’.

Gillard, J [JuliaGillard] 2014, ‘Stella Young was a shining light for care and action on disabilities. We mourn her passing and rededicate ourselves to her spirit. JG’, Tweet, 7 December, viewed 12 December 2014, http://twitter.com/JuliaGillard

Blog

Tony Abbott expressed opinions about climate change (Greenpeace Australia Pacific Blog 2014).

Greenpeace Australia Pacific Blog 2014, ‘Who brought him? Abbott’s G20 blunders’, blog post, 21 November, viewed 8 December 2014, http://www.greenpeace.org.au/blog/

Wiki

The term philosophy means ‘a love of wisdom’ (The Psychology Wiki 2009, p. 1).

The Psychology Wiki 2009, Introduction to philosophy, wiki, viewed 8 December 2014, http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Introduction_to_philosophy

YouTube: without creator’s name If the creator of the video is unknown put the poster’s name in the author position and indicate that this is the poster.

Twitter Give the Tweeter’s name, if known, followed by their screen name in square brackets. If the Tweeter’s name is not known, use their screen name instead. In this case, it should not go in square brackets. Provide the web address for the archived version of the message or page if possible (usually available by clicking on the time/date stamp at the end of the tweet).

An Abridged Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style Academic Learning Centre SAE

P a g e | 55 Edition T3, 2016

An Abridged Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style Academic Learning Centre SAE

P a g e | 56 Edition T3, 2016

Examples of how to refer to the resource Model to follow in the reference list in-text Interview on radio

Tony Abbott defended the government's approach to key budget measures (Woodley 2014).

Personal communication

In an email communication on 10 January 2014, the Director of Meticulous Communications, Mary Wren, indicated that …

Conversations, letters and personal email messages, are not included in a reference list.

Woodley, N 2014, The world today, radio broadcast, ABC News, 8 December.

Atlas (with an editor)

The position of the new city is to be in southeast Queensland (Eales 2003, Map 34).

Eales, S (ed) 2003, The Jacaranda atlas, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Brisbane.

Atlas (with no editor)

The monsoon trough moves south over the landmass of north Western Australia (Jacaranda atlas 2010, p. 40).

Jacaranda atlas 2010, 7th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Brisbane.

… reading from this map (Department of Mines and Energy Queensland 1996).

Department of Mines and Energy, Queensland 1996, Dotswood, Australia 1:100 000 geological series, sheet 8158, Department of Mines and Energy, Queensland, Brisbane.

‘Human prehistory has a timescale …’ (Stearns 2001, p. 2)

Stearns, P (ed) 2001, Encyclopaedia of World History, Houghton Mifflin, New York.

As there is no editor the title of the atlas takes that place and is written with capital.

Map In-text citation should contain: Map maker, year of issue in parantheses. Reference List should contain: Map publisher (origin), year of publication, created map title, scale, source.

Encyclopaedia (with author/editor)

Examples of how to refer to the resource Model to follow in the reference list in-text Encyclopaedia (no author/editor) If there is no author for an encyclopaedia, there is no need to include it in your reference list.

According to the New Encyclopaedia Britannica (2002), lemurs are found in …

Encyclopaedia article available on the Web or via a database

The renowned rebellion occurred at the Eureka goldfield (Encyclopaedia Britannica 2014) …

Encyclopaedia Britannica 2014, Australia, viewed 8 December 2014, http://www.britannica.com/

Dictionary entry available on the Web

The definition of magnetism (Oxford Dictionaries 2014) …

Oxford Dictionaries 2014, Magnetism, viewed 8 December 2014, http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/

Dictionary (author/s)

‘The Gibson walking splint enables a patient to be ambulatory’ (Harris, Nagy & Vardaxis 2014, p. 739).

Harris, P, Nagy, S & Vardaxis, N (eds) 2014, Mosby’s dictionary of medicine, nursing & health professions (3rd ANZ edn), Elsevier, Sydney.

Dictionary (no author)

The Australian Concise Oxford Dictionary (2011, p. 84) defines attention deficit disorder as ‘any range of behavioural disorders occurring primarily in children’.

If there is no author for a dictionary, there is no need to include it in your reference list.

Tables and figures Full source details should be shown in the reference list.

How to reference an App Sometimes there will be no author in which case you can substitute the title.

An Abridged Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style Academic Learning Centre SAE

See Part 1 for examples of these in the text of your report.

(Skyscape 2012)

Skyscape, A. 2012, Skyscape Medical Resource, version 1.8.33, mobile app, viewed 18 Jun 2013 http://play.google.com/store

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An Abridged Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style Academic Learning Centre SAE

P a g e | 58 Edition T3, 2016

Index Abbreviations

23

Acronyms and initialisms

21

Capitalisation for in-text citations and reference lists

19

Conference papers

42

Online Published proceedings in print Published proceedings online

42 42 42

Copying or reproducing tables, figures or images 16 E-Books Chapter on Discover It! Chapter on the WWW Kindle and Adobe Digital Edition On Discover It! On the WWW Government documents Australian Bureau of Statistics Fact sheet Hansard Media releases Report Website Government or legal documents as hard copies Legislation Legislation and regulations Patents Standards Australia

36 37 36 37 36 36 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 46 46 46 47 47

Hard copy

Multiple works same author, published in different years 30 Multiple works same author, same year 31 No author but an authoring body 32 No date can be established 33 One issue or volume in an edited series 35 One volume of multi-volume work 35 Published learning package with various sources 35 Second or later edition and no author 34 Several sources 34 Source within a source 33 Three authors 29 Two authors 29 Works by different authors with the same family name 31 Works by different authors with the same family name and same year 32 Hard copy journal articles

37

Article reproduced in a university module or readings 38 Magazine 38 No author 37 No volume or issue number 38 One or more authors 37 Hardcopy newspaper articles Book review With an author Without an author How to reference In-text citations Key terms

40 40 40 40 4 10 2

One author

29

Latin words

27

Hard copy books

29

Law cases

47

Approximate date Book chapter in CQUniversity CRO Chapter in an edited work Edited work Editions Four or more authors

34 35 35 35 34 30

Coroner’s report Law cases Work cover Code of Practice (COP)

48 47 48

Multimedia on the web

52

eStores Podcast or vodcast

52 52

Online newspaper articles With an author via WWW Without an author via a database Online or electronic journals From a database or from Discover It! From CQUniversity’s CRO From WWW

40 40 40 39 39 39 39

Other documents on the World Wide Web (WWW) 43 Document Document with no author Document with no date Primary source Radio transcript Stand-alone documents Standards Television transcript

43 44 43 43 44 43 44 44

Paraphrasing and summarising

12

Quotations

13

Referring to two primary sources within the one secondary source 33 Reports

41

Government, with author 41 Online Government, with corporate author 41 Online with author 41 Online with corporate author 41 Printed copy 41 Specialised sources Artistic work – painting etc. Atlas with editor Atlas without editor Blog Brochure or pamphlet Creative work - mulitmedia Dictionary online Dictionary with author Dictionary without author DVD

53 53 56 56 55 53 53 57 57 57 53

Encyclopaedia with author or editor Encyclopaedia without author or editor Encyclopaedia—on WWW or database Facebook Film or movie How to reference an App Map Musical score Personal communication Photograph with creator’s name Photograph without creator’s name Radio interview Software packages Song lyric Tables and figures Television Television advertisement Twitter Wiki YouTube—with creator’s name YouTube—without creator’s name

56 57 57 54 53 57 56 54 56 54 54 56 54 54 57 53 53 55 55 54 55

Symbols

20

University-provided electronic and multimedia study materials

49

Discussion board post on Moodle Echo360 presentation Source in study guide Study Guide author unknown Unit notes in PowerPoint on Moodle Unit notes on Moodle Video on Moodle

50 50 51 50 50 49 50

University-provided study materials as hard copies 48 Lecture material—non-print 49 Lecture notes unpublished 49 Study Guide—author known 48 Study Guide—author unknown 48 Text reproduced in a university module or readings 49 What is plagiarism?

4

Why reference?

1

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