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A comparative analysis of four Chanel advertisements   

Abstract 

Introduction to the thesis  This thesis concerns advertising and branding strategies and takes its starting point in analyses of four Chanel advertisements. It commences with a short and precise introduction of the paper, its different paragraphs and of course the overall problem statement, which is: “The thesis will be based on a comparative analysis of four Chanel ads and examine whether Chanel’s branding strategies have changed through the years and if so how? The survey will contain a discussion of possible changes in Chanel’s branding and account for which group of segmentation the Chanel customers belong to.”

Research approach, analysis tools and theories  After the introduction an explanation of the applied method can be found. The chosen analysis tool is the IMK model, which is one of the most thorough methods when it comes to market communication. Hereafter follows an introduction to the theories used in the thesis. Concerning advertising we have made use of the four phases of advertising from the authors behind the book Social communication in Advertising1. The most important branding theories applied in the thesis are Kotler’s theory of marketing mix concerning the fourth P, promotion2, the definition of luxury brands in the book Brand Culture3 and Svend Hollensen’s theory of celebrity branding4. After this a part about advertising history can be found, this paragraph is relevant so the reader can understand the context and the development from the 1930’s to present time. Furthermore this part also contains the previous mentioned phases of advertising, which are applied throughout the main parts of the thesis along with important milestones in the advertising history. Next there is a paragraph with facts about Chanel in order for the reader to understand the history and development of one of the world’s oldest and most acknowledged fashion houses.                                                             1

 See page 14 in the thesis   See page 11 in the thesis  3  See page 12 in the thesis  4  See page 13 in the thesis  2

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The following part is the overall analysis which is the core of the assignment. Here the four Chanel ads are analysed in depth individually, taking aspects such as rhetorical strategies, verbal as well as non verbal, colouring, paper quality, genre and historical context into consideration. In continuation of this a comparison of the four advertisements is found. In this part the ads are compared and discussed through a variety of issues like ethics, norms and historical development. Hereafter a paragraph about branding follows. In this part the branding strategies, the consumer segment and the changes and challenges for Chanel in the future are discussed. The paragraph finishes off with a discussion of future branding strategies.

Main findings of the thesis  The main findings and the results are placed in the conclusion, which serves to sum up the entire thesis and answer the problem statement. Via the analysis and the comparison we have found out that Chanel’s advertisements have changed through time just like the costumer segmentation. However, we have come to the conclusion that the 100 year old Chanel brand is strong, and it has therefore not been necessary for the company to make any vital adjustments in their branding strategy. Instead Chanel has merely followed the trends of time and has been keeping track with customer expectations. An evaluation of the applied method, theories and literature can also be found in the thesis. Here the relevance and accessibility of the above mentioned are discussed. Finally at the end of the thesis a list of references can be found covering books, articles, magazines and websites.

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List of contents 1

Introduction (Marlene & Britt) ..................................................................................................... 6 1.1

Motivation (Marlene & Britt) ................................................................................................ 6

1.2

Problem statement (Marlene & Britt).................................................................................... 6

1.3

The structure (Marlene & Britt) ............................................................................................ 7

1.4

Delimitation (Marlene & Britt) ............................................................................................. 7

2

Tool of analysis (Marlene)............................................................................................................ 9

3

Theories (Britt) ........................................................................................................................... 11 3.1

The marketing mix (Britt) ................................................................................................... 11

3.2

Advertising (Britt) ............................................................................................................... 11

3.3

Definition of luxury (Britt) .................................................................................................. 12

3.4

Branding (Britt) ................................................................................................................... 12

3.4.1 4

Celebrity branding (Britt)............................................................................................. 13

The history of advertisements (Marlene) .................................................................................... 14 4.1

Phases of advertising (Marlene) .......................................................................................... 14

4.2

Advertising today (Marlene) ............................................................................................... 15

5

The history of Chanel (Britt) ...................................................................................................... 16

6

Analysis of the Chanel advertisements (Marlene & Britt) ......................................................... 18 6.1

The communicative purpose (Marlene) .............................................................................. 18

6.2

Move structure (Britt).......................................................................................................... 19

6.3

Analysis of advertisement 1 (Marlene) ............................................................................... 20

6.3.1

Move structure (Marlene) ............................................................................................ 20

6.3.2

Rhetorical strategies (Marlene) .................................................................................... 20

6.4

Analysis of advertisement 2 (Britt) ..................................................................................... 22

6.4.1

Move structure (Britt) .................................................................................................. 22

6.4.2

Rhetorical strategies (Britt) .......................................................................................... 23

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6.5

6.5.1

Move structure (Marlene) ............................................................................................ 24

6.5.2

Rhetorical strategies (Marlene) .................................................................................... 24

6.6

7

Analyses of advertisement 3 (Marlene)............................................................................... 23

Analysis of advertisement 4 (Britt) ..................................................................................... 25

6.6.1

Move structure (Britt) .................................................................................................. 25

6.6.2

Rhetorical strategies (Britt) .......................................................................................... 25

Comparative analysis (Marlene & Britt) .................................................................................... 27 7.1

The development (Marlene) ................................................................................................ 27

7.2

Ethics in advertising (Britt) ................................................................................................. 28

7.3

Women’s role in society (Marlene) ..................................................................................... 30

7.4

The Chanel brand (Britt) ..................................................................................................... 30

8

Branding (Marlene & Britt) ........................................................................................................ 31 8.1

Present Chanel branding (Britt) ........................................................................................... 31

8.2

The consumer segment of Chanel (Britt) ............................................................................ 32

8.2.1

Development of segmentation (Britt) .......................................................................... 32

8.3

Chanel’s changes and challenges (Marlene) ....................................................................... 33

8.4

Suggestions for improvement (Marlene) ............................................................................. 34

9

Evaluation (Marlene & Britt)...................................................................................................... 36 9.1

Source criticism (Marlene) .................................................................................................. 36

9.2

Criticism of theories (Britt) ................................................................................................. 37

10

Conclusion (Marlene & Britt) ................................................................................................. 39

11

List of references ..................................................................................................................... 41

11.1

Books ................................................................................................................................... 41

11.2 Magazines............................................................................................................................ 41 11.3 12

Websites .............................................................................................................................. 41 Appendix 1 .............................................................................................................................. 43

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13

Appendix 2 .............................................................................................................................. 44

14

Appendix 3 .............................................................................................................................. 45

15

Appendix 4 .............................................................................................................................. 46

16

Appendix 5 .............................................................................................................................. 47

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1 Introduction (Marlene & Britt)  This thesis is a survey of four Chanel advertisements and a study of the company’s branding strategies. This subject is of great interest to us as Chanel is one of the oldest and most prominent fashion houses in the world. For that reason Chanel dictates the development within the fashion industry, and it is therefore fascinating to examine how this company has chosen to brand themselves through the years.

1.1 Motivation (Marlene & Britt)  Our motivation for choosing this topic for our thesis was first of all due to our general interest in branding, promotion and of course fashion. We found that this was an obvious opportunity for combining these interests in the thesis. Chanel has just celebrated its 100 years birthday as a fashion house, and due to the massive media coverage it enjoyed, the company was an easy choice. Furthermore we also find it fascinating that what started off as a small French clothing manufacturer has ended up being one of our times most famous and approved designer brands covering a broad range of products from clothes to perfumes. This obtained status is partly due to a very successful branding strategy which has attracted consumers worldwide and created the luxury image that Chanel is linked with today. For that reason Chanel’s advertisements through time have been of great interest to us.

1.2 Problem statement (Marlene & Britt)  The thesis will be based on a comparative analysis of four Chanel ads and examine whether Chanel’s branding strategies have changed through the years and if so how? The survey will contain a discussion of possible changes in Chanel’s branding and account for which group of segmentation the Chanel customers belong to. We wish to examine whether the segmentation has impact on the applied branding strategies and the use of rhetoric. In order to study this thoroughly a review of the history of advertisements since the 1930’s is relevant. As advertising is one of the most commonly used branding tools an outline of the development of this genre is of great importance.

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The subjects of this thesis will be advertising and its development through time, analysis of four Chanel ads followed by a comparative analysis of the findings and finally a paragraph about branding strategies, consumer segmentation and suggestions for the future. The chosen method of the thesis is a comparative analysis of the Chanel advertisements, and they are analysed through the use of the IMK model. Furthermore theories on advertising and branding will be used as tools for answering the problem statement.

1.3 The structure (Marlene & Britt)  The structure of the thesis will begin with a presentation of the applied analysis tool and theories, then a part about the history of advertising in order to understand the development within this field. This is of great importance as the four ads are from very different periods of time. Following this is a part about the history of Chanel so the reader can gain a concise inside knowledge about the company in question. Next the analysis of the four advertisements can be found which is the focus of the thesis. Hereafter is a comparative analysis of the advertisements in order to compare the results of the previous analyses. After the analysing part we move on to a paragraph about branding to determine Chanel’s branding strategy now and in the future. This part will furthermore include a discussion of the Chanel consumer segment. Finally there is a part about source criticism and a conclusion including the answer to the problem statement.

1.4 Delimitation (Marlene & Britt)  Research within the field of branding and advertising has lately been focused on how companies sometimes forget to consider the incorporation of a branding strategy, internally. Therefore, internal communication within the company is highly relevant for how the company brands itself externally. However, the focus of this thesis lies on how companies can create a shared meaning with their external environment by undertaking an internal effort to promote the brand and products. In order to go thoroughly into depth with the external part of the market communication we have chosen not to go more into depth with the internal aspect. Instead we keep focus on the branding strategies of Chanel and how these exact ads have changed through the years. When it comes to branding, cultural consideration is also an important aspect. In order to fully investigate cultural meanings, norms and changes a thorough analysis of cultural history in America Page 7 of 47   

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as well as Europe is necessary. As our focus lies on changes of branding and advertising of a particular company, we have chosen to concentrate on general trends and tendencies in the western society from the 1930’s to present time. Even though Chanel makes use of standardised global market communication, we have chosen not to discuss or comment further on the international aspect, as this would remove focus from the general topic of the thesis. Finally concerning branding theories we have analysed Chanel’s existing branding strategies, type of advertisements and segmentation, keeping in mind that Chanel is a highly established fashion house. This means that we have omitted doing target segmentation or creating a new branding strategy, however we will end the thesis with a discussion of the Chanel branding in the future.  

   

 

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2 Tool of analysis (Marlene)  This thesis will be based on the IMK model5 which is one of the most thorough analysis models when it comes to discussing communication, culture and the overall context. The model will be our primary tool for analysing the advertisements later on in the thesis. Explanation of the IMK model: -

Context and Culture: This point is the overall framework of the text production. Here the model distinguishes between on the one hand the situational context (who, what, where and when) and on the other hand the culture which actually decides the situational context in many ways.

-

The media: The media is the physical transmission of the text. The media is divided into two groupswritten media such as newspapers, magazines and posters and electronic media such as TV, telephone and the Internet6.

-

The genre: Finally the model deals with genres. A genre is a group of texts with the same communicative purpose. The genre is considered as the connecting link between context, culture and media on the one side and the definite verbal and visual form on the other side7.

-

Code: The code is the grammar or set of rules that indicates how signs and words should be combined in a text when communicating. These codes are decided by culture, the media and genres applied in the market communication.

-

Text (Rhetorical strategies): The IMK model also focuses on rhetorical strategies which are defined as certain verbal or nonverbal effects. These effects realise the different text moves in the given market

                                                            5

 Frandsen, Finn. (2005). International Markedskommunikation i en postmoderne verden. Århus: Academica, p. 52   Ibid, p. 98  7  Ibid, p. 57  6

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communication. The model divides the nonverbal strategies into three points that are visual, touch and smell8.

-

Sender: The sender of a given text is the one who is responsible for the concerned market communication, this is typically a company. The model distinguishes between text extern sender and text intern sender. The extern sender is the definite sender of the market communication, this could be an employee at the hired advertising agency or a staff member of the given company’s marketing or communication department. The intern sender is on the other hand marked in the text by for example visual markers such as the company’s logo or name or linguistically via quotes etcetera from a representative of the company9.

-

Receiver: The receiver is the segment or target group of the text. When it comes to market communication, the receiver will typically be the private or industrial consumer, the buyer or the decision maker. In some cases it is necessary to distinguish between primary and secondary receivers. This approach is often applied in advertisements and commercials which address consumer and buyer at the same time. An example of this could be advertisements for toys, where the children are the consumers and the parents the buyers10.

-

Referent: The referent will typically be the product or service the company is trying to promote via the market communication. But the referent is also the brand that the company is trying to establish and not merely the product it wants to sell11.

 

 

                                                            8

 Ibid, p. 114   Ibid, p. 52  10  Ibid, p. 53  11  Ibid, p. 56  9

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3 Theories (Britt)  In order to use the theory correctly it is important to state what branding is, in what way it can be used, how branding and advertising work together, and in the case of this thesis, luxury advertising. Therefore the important definitions and theories will be explained in this part of the thesis.

3.1 The marketing mix (Britt)  The marketing mix is often classified as the 4Ps and consists of product, price, place and promotion. The focus of the thesis will be on the fourth P, promotion. This deals with different kinds of marketing communication which are advertising, sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing, and personal selling12. The influence of advertising on branding is undeniable, as it helps companies develop into well-known brands13. Advertising establishes brand knowledge which can be done with a rational or an emotional approach. The rational approach points out the functional aspects of the brand and the way it will benefit the consumer. On the other hand the emotional approach seeks to make positive brand associations, and the actual functions of the product are not relevant14.

3.2 Advertising (Britt)  As this thesis is a comparative analysis of four different advertisements it is important also to state what advertising actually is. Advertising is a part of the promotional mix and can be defined by its “explicitly promotional, mediated and paid-for character”15 and is different from other types of promotion as advertising focus on selling a specific product or brand. Advertising is regarded as a powerful and persuasive marketing tool and is furthermore one of the most visible forms of marketing communication16. The analyses of this thesis will be based on printed advertisements, and the media involved will therefore most likely be either magazines or outdoor advertising. Outdoor advertising includes billboards and posters, two kinds of places that are highly used in

                                                            12

 Kotler, Philip. (1999). Kotler Om Marketing. Danmark: Børsen, p. 112   Hackley, Chris (2005). Advertising and Promotion – communicating brands. London: Sage Publications, pp. 58‐59  14  Fill, Chris (2005). Marketing communication. England: Prentice Hall, p. 408  15  Hackley, Chris. Op.cit., p. 7  16  Hollensen, Svend (2007): Global Marketing. England: Pearson Education Limited, p. 545  13

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countries like France. Magazines have a narrower target group than newspapers, television, and outdoor advertising17 and are therefore addressing a more segmented group of people.

3.3 Definition of luxury (Britt)  The advertisements that will be analysed later on are for a luxury company, therefore it is relevant to look at the term “luxury” and in what way these brands are normally advertised. There is no standard definition of luxury, but most people in Europe and the United States associate luxury with being expensive, high quality and prestigious18. There are two models of luxury brands; the first one is brands which have a history behind them and are rooted in a famous designer, this type of brand is often seen in the European fashion houses. The second model is brands without the historical background, which instead create a story for themselves as well as establishing an image based on marketing. These brands are often American and “newcomers” in the fashion industry19.

3.4 Branding (Britt)  Throughout the years there have been several definitions of branding. It can be described as: “A badge of origin that entails a promise of quality and performance which reassures the consumer and may transform their experience.”20 Others would say that branding is simply telling a story, nevertheless it is a way of differentiating one brand or company from another. Branding is said to have two main types of attributes, intrinsic which is the functional characteristics such as shape, performance and physical capacity. Extrinsic attributes are the elements that do not change the functioning of the products, elements like the brand name, marketing communications, packaging and price21. But by changing the extrinsic attributes there is a risk of changing everything the consumer associates with the brand. There are two types of brand architecture, which both represent the overall marketing with stakeholders. The first one is called “branded house” and uses a single brand to cover the entire product portfolio, many of which have sub-brand names. A branded house attempts to dominate entire markets with its powerful corporate brand. The second type is called “house of brands” and                                                             17

 Hollensen, Svend. Op.cit., pp. 551‐552   Schroeder, Jonathan E. (2006). Brand Culture. New York: Routledge, p. 71  19  Schroeder, Jonathan E. Op.cit., p. 75  20  Hackley, Chris. Op.cit., p. 60  21  Fill, Chris. Op.cit., p. 394  18

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consist of a set of brands that work individually of each other and are therefore able to stand alone22. The product portfolio is made of several brands which all play different roles on the portfolio. The bastion brand is the most important and the most valuable with regard to profit and market shares. Then there may be flanker brands which exist to protect the bastion brand against competitors, this is mainly done with a lower price and a different set of attributes. In that way it is more difficult for competitors to enter the given market. The fighter brands ward off competitors who compete on discount prices, and the focus is on name awareness. Last but not least is the prestige brand that is most commonly aimed at niche markets with focus on high quality, luxury, and status23.

3.4.1 Celebrity branding (Britt)  Due to the fact that the focus of this thesis will be on branding and advertisements of a luxury product, it is relevant to look at the phenomenon named celebrity branding. This kind of branding can be done in several ways such as celebrities appearing in advertisements, showing up at PR events, or using their name as a part of the brand itself. Celebrities are most commonly used in relations with clothing and perfumes, like in the case of this thesis24.

 

 

                                                            22

 Fill, Chris. Op.cit., p. 399   Fill, Chris. Op.cit., pp. 400‐403  24  Hollensen, Svend. Op.cit., pp. 450‐451  23

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4 The history of advertisements (Marlene)  The history of western advertising dates back to at least the 1630’s when Frenchman Théophraste Renaudot placed the first advertising notes in La Gazette de France. In 1786 William Tayler offered his services as "Agent to the Country’s Printers, Booksellers, etcetera," but the term "advertising agency" originated in 1842 when Volney B. Palmer opened for business in Philadelphia. He proclaimed himself as an advertising agent in Philadelphia and then created similar offices in Boston and New York. People who wanted to put their ads in the newspaper paid him a commission. Such activities became very popular during the second part of the 19th century in America and in most European countries.25 This type of business is nowadays widely accepted as the birth of modern advertising, which marks the beginning of a creative industry that has radically transformed our culture and language26. However throughout history commerce has been considered as a necessary evil and was not an occupation worthy of the well educated upper class until the late 19th century27.

4.1 Phases of advertising (Marlene)  Moving on to more recent history the three authors Will Leiss, Stephen Kline and Sut Jhally have in their book Communication in Advertising (1986)28 divided the history of advertisements into four phases. 1890-1925 was according to the three authors the product oriented phase where the advertisement has focus on the product and its technical capacity. There is quite a lot of verbal text, and the communication takes place through the printed press. 1925-1945 was the symbol oriented phase where focus is on symbolic values such as status, glamour, and family. The message of the ad is more emotional and is communicated via a new type of media, the radio. Thereafter came the person oriented phase from 1945-1965. After World War 2 focus had again changed and was now about the person using the product, the consumer. Movie stars, experts and other authorities promoted the products via “testimonials”. The advertisements became more sexual and erotic, and the TV was introduced as a new type of media. Finally we have the group oriented phase from

                                                            25

 The Internet: http://www.rzuser.uni‐heidelberg.de/~el6/presentations/pres_c2_hoa/19thand20thadvertising.htm 

26

 The Internet:http://www.taschen.com/pages/en/catalogue/design/all/05040/facts.a_history_of_advertising.htm   Hackley, Chris. Op.cit., pp. 198‐199  28  Frandsen, Finn. Op.cit., p. 8  27

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1965-1985. It is now no longer the individual who is in focus but rather the group and lifestyle that the individual person belongs to. The three authors do not have a phase for today’s advertising. However experts and surveys suggest that from the late 1980’s and to present time advertisements have become more global market orientated29. This is of course very much due to the fact that international online shopping had its breakthrough in the late 1990’s30. Today ads have a tendency to make use of anti-fashion symbols and neo-traditionalism values, and focus is on standing out from the crowd and being unique and innovative. Nudity, racial and sexual elements are generally no longer regarded as being “politically incorrect”. Important milestones worth mentioning concerning advertising are among others the year 1929 where American Tobacco Co. spent $12.3 million to advertise Lucky Strike, the most any company has ever spent on single-product advertising. In 1954 CBS became the largest advertising medium in the world, and 1981 was the year when MTV debuted with frenetic video images that changed the nature of commercials. And finally in 1993 the Internet became a reality as 5 million users worldwide went online31.

  4.2 Advertising today (Marlene)  Trends in branding and advertisement show a tendency towards values such as time, convenience, control and independence are the new currencies for the consumers. In these uncertain times, taking the economy as well as the climate into consideration, consumers are looking for companies and brands that truly “care”32. The meaning and image of the brand is also becoming increasingly important, the consumers want value and status for their money. This creates stronger demands for the advertisement campaigns to differentiate, as the brands that understand where the strongest expectations exist will be the brands that survive.33

                                                            29

The Internet: http://adage.com/century/timeline/index.html   Vidø, Marie. Hvordan var det lige, vi begyndte? Costume (May 2010), pp. 80‐85  31  The Internet: http://adage.com/century/timeline/index.html  32  The Internet: http://trendwatching.com/briefing/  33  The Internet: http://www.brandingstrategyinsider.com/2009/10/10‐branding‐and‐marketing‐trends‐for‐2010.html  30

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5 The history of Chanel (Britt)  The first glimpse of fashion history can be dated back to the 19th century, but the first fashion designer, also known today, was Coco Chanel who emerged during the 1910’s in France. However born to poverty and strict convent education, she had the ability to create social connections, and when she opened her first store selling hats in 1910, it was with financial help from one of her many male friends. Coco Chanel quickly expanded to clothing, and her designs were recognised as being simple, practical, and inspired by men’s wear. The immense success of the perfume Chanel No. 5, which was launched in 1923, made the Chanel brand well known, and Coco Chanel’s idea of “simple elegance “ became more widespread. Her interest and belief in fashion was undeniable, as she was once quoted: “Fashion is not something that exists in dresses only. Fashion is in the sky, in the street, fashion has to do with ideas, the way we live, what is happening”34. Despite success the fashion house closed during World War 2 as Coco Chanel did not believe that it was the time for fashion. But the emerge of Christian Dior and his feminine designs made Chanel reopen and update her classic designs. Both the haute couture line and the ready-to-wear line were kept alive after Coco Chanel’s death in 1971, and when Karl Lagerfeld took over in 1983-1984 as the creative designer incorporating many signature Chanel details and reintroduced the two-assembled-C’s logo, the fashion house was relaunched, and more popular than ever35. The House of Chanel took fashion into the 20th century. Coco Chanel was genius in establishing connections, and her marketing skills were beyond her time36. Coco Chanel was said to know what women wanted, even before they knew it themselves, and that might very well be the reason why Chanel has always managed to be modern. Karl Lagerfeld has been able to carry on the Chanel vision about modernity, and he has adjusted the classics to the present37. Chanel in the 21th century is still high fashion, and following the 100 years anniversary two movies about the house and its founder have been made. Furthermore Karl Lagerfeld is inspired by his young muses, often present time it-girls, such as Keira Knightley. These girls illustrate the imagination of Chanel38. To finish the short history of Chanel, which is really important to have in mind when analysing the advertisements in this thesis, the most significant classics should be mentioned. That is the little                                                             34

 Schou, Carina Nørgaard. C for Chanel. Costume no. 86 (June 2009), p. 48   The Internet: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/chnl/hd_chnl.htm   36  Tungate, Mark (2008). Fashion Brands: Branding style from Armani to Zara. Kogan Page, pp. 13‐14  37  Schou, Carina Nørgaard. Op.cit., p. 48  38  Schou, Carina Nørgaard. Op.cit., p. 51  35

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black dress, the camellia flower, the pearls, the two coloured shoes, the quilted bag, the tweed jacket, and Chanel No. 5 which is today the best-selling and most iconic perfume in the world39.

                                                            39

 Schou, Carina Nørgaard. Op.cit., p. 49 

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6 Analysis of the Chanel advertisements (Marlene & Britt)  In this part of the thesis we will analyse our four advertisements via the IMK model. When analysing ads it is also important to consider if it is a launch of a new product or a relaunch of an old classic40. First of all will the communicative purpose of the Chanel ads be defined and thereafter followed by the actual analyses.

6.1 The communicative purpose (Marlene)  The communicative purpose can be understood by the sender and receiver of the given genre and is therefore concurrent for the verbal and non-verbal strategies of the promotional product. These are the actions or conditions which are intended by the sender and expected by the receiver41. The main purpose of an advertisement is to create attention about a certain product or company. Furthermore there can also be a variety of sub-purposes such as to launch a new product, to differentiate a product from others or to create a certain brand image, and to give information about features, quality, or price42. The preparation of advertisements can be attached to the competitive situation of the product. Strong competition demands promotion which positions the product as being different, better, and more luxurious than the competing products43. In order to clarify the IMK model in relation to Chanel and its advertisements, the different communicative points in the model will be examined. •

The context and culture: the Western world and its traditions and cultural distinctiveness, however the focus of this thesis will be mostly on trends and tendencies.



Media: In three out of four of the advertisements it is most likely women’s magazines. In the oldest it is however a Christmas catalogue.



Genre: All of the materials are advertisements. Some of them are product oriented, others are image oriented.

                                                            40

 Frandsen, Finn. Op.cit., p. 133   Ibid, pp.111‐112  42  Ibid, p. 137  43  Ibid, p. 133  41

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Code: The way in which the advertisement tries to express the message. In all of the Chanel ads the code is visual, and the use of celebrities is the way the company is trying to sell the perfumes.



Text: This is the actual product of the promotion. In this case it is the four Chanel advertisements.



Rhetorical strategies: The advertisements exist of verbal as well as non-verbal visual rhetorical strategies.



Sender: Obviously the extern sender is the company, Chanel. The intern sender is probably Chanel’s own marketing department, or otherwise a chosen advertising agency.



Receiver: Chanel perfumes have a broader audience than other products of the company. Therefore the receivers are to be found in most classes of society. The receiver is therefore everyone who is consuming the perfume.



Referent: It is the luxury brand and image which Chanel indicates.

6.2 Move structure (Britt)  Considering that we will be analysing Chanel campaigns which all belong to the genre of advertisements, it is important to define the move structure for this type of genre. Advertising is usually said to be one of the most differentiated genres in market communication. For that reason it can be difficult to define what exactly an advertisement should or should not entail. However a number of common moves can be mentioned. 1) Attract attention: A verbal or non verbal element for example a slogan or a logo, which signals that the sender wants to communicate with the receiver. 2) Indication of product, brand or company: It is necessary for the receiver in order to identify the message of the advertisement. 3) The price of the product: It is most commonly used in sales ads and never in image advertisements. 4) The advantage of the product: The status or advantage the consumer will obtain by buying this product. It can also be said to be the USP elements44. 5) Legitimacy of the advantage of the product: Arguments in favour of

                                                            44

 USP: “Unique Selling proposition is the decisive sales argument for customers to buy the product…” Hollensen,  Svend. Op.cit., p. 547 

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the product. 6) This last move is an explanation of how to purchase the product45. However it should be mentioned that only move 1 and 2 are obligatory in an advertisement.

6.3 Analysis of advertisement 1 (Marlene)  The first advertisement is from 193046 and can therefore be placed in between the product oriented phase (1890-1925) and the symbol oriented phase (1925-1945)47. And as the following analysis will show, the ad contains elements from both phases. As Chanel No. 5 initiated in 1923, this ad is not a new launch, but rather an informative advertisement about the different products and their price.

6.3.1 Move structure (Marlene)  Starting off with the move structure of the advertisement, we see how the sender has created attention by placing “Chanel for Christmas” at the top of a very glamorous advert displaying the company’s perfume product line. The Chanel logo is very visible to the receiver at the top and at the bottom of the advertisement, and there are also several pictures of the products as well as descriptions. In this ad the product’s price is also visible though this is not a typical sales ad but rather a Christmas campaign for a luxury brand. The advantages of the Chanel perfumes are not directly written in the ad, but are expressed implicit by indicating that the use of Chanel products will make you as beautiful as the woman portrayed in the advertisement.

6.3.2 Rhetorical strategies (Marlene)  In order to achieve the purpose of the moves the rhetorical strategies are necessary, and they can be defined as the use of certain verbal or non-verbal means in order to realise the different moves48. 6.3.2.1 Verbal rhetorical strategies (Marlene)  In advertisements verbal rhetorical strategies are expressed in a variety of ways such as slogans and sayings as well as through connotation and denotation. Connotation is the use of neutral or objective words with a straightforward meaning whereas denotation demands a more analysing decoding                                                             45

 Frandsen, Finn. Op.cit., pp.138‐140   Appendix 1, p. 43   47  Frandsen, Finn. Op.cit., p. 8  48  Ibid, p. 114  46

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method, as the words have more than one meaning. The tendency of using denotation is most visible in high involvement ads49. Slogans and sayings are ways to catch possible consumer’s attention, due to that they are almost always to be found in advertisements. “Les Parfumes Chanel” which is printed at the bottom of the advertisement is a way of keeping focus on the French origin that the Chanel brand has, while at the same time stating that these products are produced in the name of a fine European luxury brand. A signal which in the 1930’s in America would express wealth and a taste for cultural diversity. Furthermore a mix of two languages in an advertisement is called a code shift, and by using a foreign language the company underlines its status as a global brand50. Usually English language is used in foreign advertising, however this advertisement does the opposite and uses French instead. Advertisements from this period of time often make use of a lot of text explaining the products, which is also the case in this Chanel ad. The five product texts are giving a short presentation of the various perfumes, and in the end of each text the price is written. 6.3.2.2 Non­verbal rhetorical strategies (Marlene)  Non-verbal rhetorical strategies are generally divided into three points, visual, tactile and smell, and are frequently used in advertisements. The visual non-verbal rhetorical strategy is the composition of colours, lay-out, pictures and photos51.Tactile strategies are normally the type of material that is used to produce the advertisement, for example paper quality. The third strategy is most common in perfume advertising, and is for example scent samples. In this advertisement we see how the sender has chosen to place a beautiful woman in the middle of the ad, dressed in a white dress bathed in light and is in a way portrayed as an angle lighted up by glory. She holds her head high, and she is sending out a sign of being confident and in control. She is surrounded by gift boxes with Chanel perfumes which via the satin paper and silk fabric are signalling luxury. All of the gift boxes are placed so that they are pointing towards the middle of the ad where respectively the woman and under her a Chanel perfume bottle is placed. Considering the phases mentioned earlier in this part, it is clear that this advertisement can be placed somewhere between the product oriented and the symbol oriented phase. On the one hand                                                             49

 Ibid, p. 140   Ibid, p. 144  51  Ibid, p. 163  50

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the product itself is in focus, as a great part of the product line is presented with both pictures and quite a lot of textual information. On the other hand there is a sub harmonic expression of status and luxury by showing the perfume gift boxes in an exclusive way. As we found the advertisement online, we are not able to tell what sort of tactile effects have been used. However the most obvious place for the publication of this ad would be in a Christmas edition of a women’s magazine. The sort of material usually used in these sorts of magazines would be shiny, flattering paper to make the product look as exclusive as possible.

6.4 Analysis of advertisement 2 (Britt)  The second Chanel ad is from 196052 and can be placed in the person oriented phase (1945-1965). In this phase it has become normal to make use of movie stars and other celebrities to brand the product via the so-called testimonials. That is also the case in this advertisement where one of the world’s most legendary movie stars is promoting Chanel. Once again it is not a launch, instead the purpose of the ad is to differentiate Chanel No. 5 from other perfumes by using a famous actress as a model.   6.4.1

Move structure (Britt)

The most obvious move of attention is the use of Marilyn Monroe in the ad. She was one of the most famous faces of that time and was regarded as a sex object worldwide. She was chosen by Chanel after stating the famous quote when asked what she wore to bed: “Two drops of Chanel No. 5”53. After that quote she became the Chanel muse of the 1950’s and 1960’s. In the advertisement Marilyn Monroe is holding a bottle of Chanel No. 5 which is known throughout the world as being a classic Chanel perfume. The advantage of the product is making the consumer feel as privileged and adored as a popular movie star by using the perfume. For the same reason there is no product description or price in the ad, as the effect of Marilyn Monroe is promotion in itself and does not require any further sales arguments.

                                                            52

 Appendix 2, p. 44   The Internet: http://www.chaneln5.com/en‐us/#/world/the‐story 

53

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6.4.2 Rhetorical strategies (Britt)  6.4.2.1 Verbal rhetorical strategies (Britt)   The advertisement does not contain any text at all, which fits well with the person oriented phase where individuality and sexuality is in focus and not so much giving practical information. 6.4.2.2 Non verbal rhetorical strategies (Britt)   As mentioned earlier Marilyn Monroe is the overall centre of attention in the advertisement. By the look of the surroundings in the ad she is located in a bedroom, which is in accordance with her famous quote from 1953. As the person oriented phase suggests, sexuality and eroticism are important features. This is also visible in this advertisement as Marilyn Monroe is wearing a tight, low-cut dress with one strap down and a blissful expression on her face with a half-open mouth and closed eyes. Furthermore she is holding the Chanel No. 5 bottle close to her heart as if it is something of great importance to her. Like the first advertisement the Marilyn Monroe campaign is also black and white, but it is during this phase that TV is introduced as a commercial media. However, this ad has probably been shown in women’s magazines, as women who read these would be most likely to be the ones buying the Chanel No. 5 and would want to be associated with Monroe.

6.5 Analyses of advertisement 3 (Marlene)  This third advertisement is from 198654 and is therefore a mix of the group oriented phase and the present global market phase. Carole Bouquet, who was the face of Chanel in the late 1980’s, is a famous French actress and model. The link to the group oriented phase is expressed via the clothes and jewellery she is wearing which shows that she lives a life in luxury and belongs to the upper social class. In addition to being French Carole Bouquet is also an international movie star with roles in epic movies such as James Bond films55. Her international background fits well with the global market phase, as Chanel has chosen a compatriot who is also a Hollywood celebrity to promote the perfume. This ad is an example of a relaunch of an old product, as the bottle and the name of the perfume are oversized and more in focus than in the previous ads.

                                                            54

 Appendix 3, p. 45   The Internet: http://www.carolebouquet.net/ 

55

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6.5.1 Move structure (Marlene)  This ad makes use of several attention drawing moves. First of all the advertisement is filled with bright and striking colours. Secondly the model in the ad is famous for her role in “For Your Eyes Only” where she co-starred with Roger Moore who is one of our time’s most legendary Bond figures. The product being the Chanel No. 5 perfume is very much in focus in the advertisement. Carole is carrying a giant bottle of perfume in her arms with the product name right in the centre of the picture.

6.5.2 Rhetorical strategies (Marlene)  6.5.2.1 Verbal rhetorical strategies (Marlene)  Once again Chanel has chosen to use no text in its advertisement. Therefore the focus of this part of the analysis will be on non-verbal strategies. 6.5.2.2 Non­verbal rhetorical strategies (Marlene)  In true 1980’s style the advertisement makes use of bright and striking colours. Carole is wearing a jacket in the colour of red which in western cultures commonly symbolises power, wealth and attention. This choice of colour has a clear connection to the before mentioned group oriented phase which denotes that she belongs to a group of strong successful women. Traditionally the colour of blue represents confidence and divinity while at the same time being the colour of the sky. Carole appears strong and self-assured with a very determined expression upon her face and generally seems to be in control of the situation. The way in which she holds on to the Chanel bottle signals both protection and tenderness as it is held close to her heart. Her left hand carries the bottle like a mother would hold her child in her arms, this is also a signal of guarding and affection. In contrast to the two earlier mentioned advertisements this one is in colour, which also states the transition from the person oriented phase to the group oriented phase. This version of a Chanel ad could be found in a broad selection of magazines as it is a lot more mainstream than the above mentioned ads. It does not focus as much on feminism as for example the Marilyn Monroe ad and is therefore more likely to appear in catalogues and family magazines. However, the tactile strategies are probably the same as earlier, namely high quality paper that suits the Chanel luxury image.

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6.6 Analysis of advertisement 4 (Britt)  The fourth ad is from 200756 and belongs to the global market phase, which is also the phase of today. Marketing today is becoming more and more marked by niche companies and products, and in recent years focus has become more anti-fashion than earlier on, as rather than being a slave to fashion, it is all about standing out from the crowd. In this advertisement it is done mainly by the use of nudity. The product of the ad is the perfume Coco Mademoiselle which was launched in 2001. Considering that this advertisement is from 2007, it is a relaunch, and the image of the perfume has been almost the same since the beginning. In 2003 the Coco Mademoiselle perfume was promoted by the famous model and party girl Kate Moss and that one makes use of the same moves as this one, such as nudity and minimalism57.

6.6.1 Move structure (Britt)  Moves of attention is the use of Hollywood star Keira Knightley and the fact that she is almost naked in the ad. Keira is known for several blockbuster movies and can therefore be said to be a role model for girls worldwide. The company logo as well as the product itself is highly visible in the ad, and the perfume bottle is placed in the foreground along with Keira. The advantage of the product is implicit as the advertisement alludes that the consumers will become free, young, and unique by wearing the perfume Coco Mademoiselle. Contrary to the three other advertisements this one promotes Coco Mademoiselle and not Chanel No. 5. As the name indicates Mademoiselle is for younger women and girls whereas Chanel No. 5 usually addresses more mature women. What also makes this ad different from the previous ones is the fact that it gives information on where to purchase the product. In this way the perfume seems more accessible to the consumers.

6.6.2 Rhetorical strategies (Britt)  6.6.2.1 Verbal rhetorical strategies (Britt)  This advertisement makes use of numerous verbal strategies all of which mention the name of the brand. First of all the company name CHANEL is placed in the upper right corner, and the name of the product is on the left side right next to Keira’s head. Another important verbal strategy is the                                                             56

 Appendix 4, p. 46    Appendix 5, p. 47 

57

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text “Shop Chanel.com” in the lower left corner which corresponds well to the global market phase, as the Internet and global sales are very much in focus. 6.6.2.2 Non­verbal rhetorical strategies (Britt)  From using the very bright colours in the 1980’s ad, this one is kept in very neutral colours. The white cloth in her lap symbolises innocence in an otherwise provocative advertisement. The values of the ad are a mixture of both femininity and masculinity, as she is holding a man’s hat as a cover for her breasts. However she is feminine because she is wearing make-up and a necklace, in other ways her look is masculine as her hair is fairly short, and the look on her face is very stern. Keira is known for her skinny body and boyish body type, which has caused great debate in the mass media. Keira has been accused of being too skinny which can be a problem as she is a role model for girls all over the world. Chanel has chosen nudity as a visual attraction, and it can also be debated whether it is ethically correct to portrait a famous actress this way in order to sell perfumes. The Coco Mademoiselle bottle is, as mentioned, placed in the foreground of the advertisement in the spotlight, whereas Keira Knightley is covered with various shades and shadows. This indicates that the most important figure in the ad is the perfume. This advertisement is most likely to be found in fashion magazines, and the tactile strategy is the same as the earlier mentioned ads, that is high quality paper and clear colours. The advertisement was for example portrayed in Vogue, the April 2009 edition.

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7 Comparative analysis (Marlene & Britt)  In the following part of the thesis we will compare the results of the analyses of the four advertisements. The purpose of this comparison is to examine whether Chanel’s branding strategy has changed through the years or if the brand is so strong that it has not been necessary to change the promotional strategy and adapt to the trends of time. This section will contain the development from 1930 to the present, ethical concerns in relations to sexuality and nudity, changes in society with focus on women, and the establishing of Chanel as a luxury brand.

  7.1 The development (Marlene)  The Chanel ads have changed quite a lot through time. The first ad (1930) and the last (2007) have so few similarities that it can be hard to recognize that it is the same brand that is being promoted. The advertisement from 1930 is very product oriented and characterised by a lot of textual information and focuses more on purchase and sale whereas the ad from 2007 is completely image oriented with very little focus on the product. The first one would fit perfectly on the pages of a Christmas catalogue where the last one on the other hand belongs on the cover of a high fashion magazine. In the 1960’s sexuality and eroticism became a marketing tool, feminine values such as curvy bodies, low cut dresses and red lips were now found in advertisements. The Marilyn Monroe ad is a brilliant example of this trend, as she even now after her death is known to be one the world’s sexiest women. Chanel’s choice of using Marilyn as a model was quite a gamble as she in both mentality and appearance was fairly controversial for her time. On the other hand the ad created attention as sex sells. This fits well with the time period it belongs to, which is a phase of celebrity branding and erotic means. Moving on to the 1980’s focus has again changed. The feminine and sexual values have been replaced by the image of a strong, independent career woman. Instead of showing cleavage as Marilyn Monroe, Carole Bouquet is wearing a buttoned up suit jacket in the colour of red in order to symbolise power and strength. Even though Carole is a former Bond babe who normally is combined with sexuality, the role of a gun carrying action woman also implies masculine values and gender equality. The before mentioned 2007 advertisement differentiates from not only the 1930’s ad but also from the two others. Instead of paying tribute to curvy female bodies like the Marilyn Monroe ad does, the trend is now to be skinny and boyish. It is also different from the 1980’s ad as Keira Knightly looks vulnerable while still having a seductive look in her eyes. However, a few similarities can also be mentioned as she is

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covering her breasts with a man’s bowler hat and her crotch with a male shirt giving the ad a masculine touch. Unlike the other ads Keira’s appearance is more girlish than ladylike, which could be an intentional branding strategy as she is promoting Coco Mademoiselle, a fairly new perfume, whereas the others are promoting an old classic, Chanel No. 5. As a result of the technological development, the two oldest advertisements are printed in black and white colours. This limits the possibilities for the sender to express certain symbol values via the visual elements. An example could be that Carole Bouquet is wearing a bright red jacket in the 1980’s ad, and if the sender had had the required technological resources Marilyn Monroe would without a doubt be wearing red lipstick in the 1960’s advertisement.

  7.2 Ethics in advertising (Britt)  The definition of ethics is the study of morality, those practices and activities that are importantly right and wrong58. Unlike a company like Benetton, Chanel is not known for its controversial advertisements, however, it could be discussed whether some of Chanel’s ads are provocative in the field of for example sexuality. In order for advertising to be regarded as either immoral or ethical inappropriate ads often contain racist elements, vulgar language or simply the product being of unhealthy character such as alcohol and cigarettes59. Generally speaking the four Chanel ads do not contain any of the mentioned characteristics. However, there are elements in the advertisements that can be discussed on the basis of ethics. Concerning racial matters it is remarkable that only white women are used as the face of Chanel, and never Afro-American, Asians or Latinos. This does not mean that Chanel ever has been racial in either their statements or branding strategies. The choice is most likely based on the fact that Chanel is French, and the use of white women reinforces this image. Another important aspect regarding all Chanel ads is sexuality. In that context the two most striking advertisements are the Marilyn ad from 1960 and the Keira ad from 2007. Both advertisements are using sexual undertones as a marketing tool. Though both ads in their appearance are sexual, they are also very different. While Marilyn is seductive in the way she is dressed and the way she carries herself, Keira leaves little to the imagination as she besides from a few revealing pieces of clothes is                                                             58

 Fill, Chris: Op.cit., p. 90   Hackley, Chris. Op.cit., chapter 8 

59

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naked. This is of course also a result of the historical context. However, it is interesting to see how the prototype of a sexy female body has changed. In the 1960’s the ideal female was curvy with large breasts, full lips and a tendency of chubbiness and a provocative appearance. Marilyn is a perfect example of this as she was known for her sexual looks. Contrary the Keira advertisement is using sexuality in a completely different way. In this ad the “size zero” trend of the millennium comes into its own as Keira looks skinny and almost boyish. She is the complete opposite of Marilyn due to her emaciated face and her thin body. This previous mentioned size zero phenomenon gives rise to moral and ethical consideration. In the field of fashion models and celebrities in general are expected to be slim, therefore Kiera’s skinny body could not be anticipated to evoke harm in the fashion industry. The impact of such an ad in the real life is an entire different matter, as it is an increasing problem that especially young girls are trying to follow this unhealthy trend which the fashion industry has created. Nevertheless it should be mentioned that leading fashion capitals such as Milan and Madrid have shown initiatives to prevent this dangerous trend by eliminating models with a BMI60 under 18 in order to protect both the models and the teenage girls who idealise these models61. Another ethical discussion this ad could create is the question of how much nudity is acceptable in advertisements. Regular readers of fashion magazines would most likely not find such an ad offensive as nudity is the rule rather than the exception in this industry. However if such an ad was placed on billboards in the public sphere, it could be expected that some people might find it inappropriate. This was the case in France with Sloggi underwear ads where the advertising association asked the company to remove the billboard ads as the public felt that the underwear commercial appeared as a striptease-show stage62. Furthermore Armani underwear billboard campaigns have been accused for several traffic accidents as they distract women while driving. However it should be mentioned that no such incidents have ever occurred in relation to the Chanel brand. Though the knowledge of the reactions on the Marilyn advertisement is limited, it is likely that the response towards the ad is similar to the Keira ad. Compared to the 1930’s and 1980’s ad the Marilyn advertisement is controversial and provocative for its time.

                                                            60

 BMI: Body Mass Index   The Internet: http://politiken.dk/erhverv/article173135.ece  62  Hackley, Chris. Op.cit., p. 199  61

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7.3 Women’s role in society (Marlene)  The changes in society from the 1930’s to the present are also manifested in the advertisements, as it is fairly obvious how the role of women affects the focus of the ads. In the 1930’s women mainly stayed at home taking care of the kids, the house and doing all the shopping. Therefore the ad from this period of time is framed as a sales catalogue to attract housewives. The early 1960’s was characterised by women becoming sex objects and marketing material, something the Marilyn Monroe ad is a brilliant example of. In this period the ideal body type was a curvy figure, a trend that changed in the late 1960’s were skinny girls like fashion icon Twiggy had their primetime63. In the 1980’s women were once and for all established as independent individuals, and focus was now on career and equal pay, a tendency that Carole Bouquet presents well in the ad. The idol of the 1980’s was Madonna, another brilliant example of an independent woman, who along with famous fitness instructor Jane Fonda created the well trained and trimmed look64. Finally we have the 2000’s, a decade that has been called “back to basics” where trends such as detoxing, raw food, no carbs and blood type diets have gained footing65. Since 2000 a healthy lifestyle, fashion and diversity have been of great importance. For that reason Keira Knigthley has been chosen as a marketing strategy as she is a famous it-girl and fashionista with her own unique style.  

7.4 The Chanel brand (Britt)  Chanel is a highly well known and established brand and is today known for its luxury status. The increasing meaning and symbol value of the brand is obvious in the analyses of the four advertisements. In the first ad we see how focus is on the product, as there is much textual information compared to the later ads. In the other advertisements we see a change from product orientation to image orientation as a result of Chanel becoming more established in the fashion industry66. This shift in genre is made clear via the increasing use of the Chanel logo and celebrity branding and very few verbal strategies as the brand speaks for itself. Generally the Chanel ads go from being all about the product and its qualities to being all about the person who is promoting it, and the status that follows the use of Chanel.

                                                            63

 The Internet: http://costume.dk/article/37775/gallery/219355   The Internet: http://costume.dk/article/37775/gallery/219355  65  The Internet: http://costume.dk/article/37775/gallery/219355  66  Frandsen, Finn. Op.cit., p. 132  64

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8 Branding (Marlene & Britt)  This final part of the thesis will treat the topic of branding strategies, the customer segment of Chanel and the changes through time. In order to be able to discuss this we will apply the theories mentioned in the previous paragraph. Last we will make suggestions for improvement of the Chanel branding in the future, taking the economical situation, the hip green consumerism, and the impact of fashion bloggers and fashionistas into consideration.

8.1 Present Chanel branding (Britt)  As mentioned throughout this thesis Chanel is probably the most famous fashion house in the world, and it is known by most people regardless of their interest or lack thereof in fashion. This clearly indicates Chanel’s position as a global luxury brand. The products of the house are both expensive, high quality and prestigious to possess. There is no doubt that Chanel belongs to that category of luxury brands that are rooted in history and based on the fame of its founder67. When thinking Chanel one automatically thinks French modernism and Coco Chanel as well, this partly due to the fact that the fashion house has been excellent at branding itself on that basis. Branding is differentiating from others alike, and Chanel has done well in that aspect, and, some would argue, better than many other fashion houses that have not managed to be known to the broader public. The applied branding strategy of Chanel focuses on the extrinsic attributes which are brand name recognition, marketing communication, packaging and price68. It is obvious that the name itself is of much importance to the branding, as well as the packaging is significant whether you are buying an expensive bag wrapped in tissue paper or in a logo dust bag, or you are purchasing a perfume in a beautiful Chanel flacon. As the analysed advertisements show the marketing communication is also of great importance, and the fashion house spends much money and time on this aspect of the promotional mix. Advertising is a powerful and persuasive marketing communication tool, and Chanel has chosen to employ actresses like Keira Knightley in their advertisements. However, presumably expensive to hire, the use of celebrities is a common way of branding oneself. Celebrity branding69 in relation to advertising has been used by Chanel for decades, the first one being Marilyn Monroe in the 1960’s advertisement followed by a range of                                                             67

 See page 12 of the thesis   See page 12 of the thesis  69  See page 13 of the thesis  68

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actresses and models. Other areas of Chanel’s marketing communication have been using celebrity branding as well, for example by appointing Chanel muses among actresses, models and it-girls and having them to show up at Chanel events and being dressed in the Chanel haute couture at shows like the Oscars or Golden Globe. The brand architecture70 is also important as it states the position of the company and is commonly divided into “branded house” and “house of brands”. We would argue that Chanel is a branded house which is a single brand with a variety of product lines. Chanel is Chanel, and the name does not change in relation to the different lines whether it is the haute couture line, the ready-to-wear line, bags, or perfumes. Everything is Chanel. Quite opposite is a company like Prada which is a house of brands as it consist of several individual brands such as Prada and Miu Miu with distinctive images, values and consumer segments.

8.2 The consumer segment of Chanel (Britt)  As this thesis has showed, the advertising of Chanel has changed, and in the wake of that the consumer segment has changed likewise. It is possible to discuss whether the changes have been for better or for worse, it is however undeniable that Chanel has been and most likely will continue to be one of the top fashion houses in the world. 8.2.1 Development of segmentation (Britt)  Segmentation is dividing the market or consumers into identifiable and distinct segments with common characteristics71, and that is necessary for any company in order to identify ones customers. Segmentation is most frequently done via democratic, geographic, geodemocratic, psychographic and behaviouristic bases, the focus of this branding paragraph will however be mostly on the psychographic base which includes consumers’ interests and lifestyles as well as the behaviouristic base that is the usage and needs of the consumers72. The comparative analysis indicates that the advertisements through the years have addressed different groups of people, this is mainly due to the development in the consumer segment of Chanel. In the beginning of our thesis’ time line the Chanel consumer was upper class housewives                                                             70

 See pages 12‐13 of the thesis   Fill, Chris. Op.cit., p. 328  72  Ibid, p. 329  71

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with a posh attitude and a wish to be seen as being modern with a French twist. Following the development of women’s role in society and the emerge of some of the fashion industry’s first itgirls such as Marilyn Monroe and models like Twiggy the consumer segment shifted towards more fashion minded women. From addressing only, or at least most commonly, housewives and settled women, the tendency shifted to also containing younger women, and the impact of models in the advertisements is clear in Chanel’s onwards use of celebrities. The establishment of the Coco Mademoiselle perfume extended the customer segmentation to also containing fashionable girls, so the Chanel perfumes now both addressed girls and mature women with the two fragrances. However changed through time the customer segment of Chanel has always been women with a certain understanding of the meaning of Chanel brand and a need for a little bit of luxury.

8.3 Chanel’s changes and challenges (Marlene)  Finally a list of possible challenges for Chanel in the future can be mentioned. Since the fashion house was established a hundred years ago, a whole lot have changed in society. For that reason a range of new aspects are necessary to take into consideration concerning branding and initiatives now and in the future. First and probably also most important of all we have the present economical situation. The global financial crisis has since 2007 affected almost all sectors causing collapse of large financial institutions, bankruptcy and failure of giant enterprises and need for rescue packages in even the wealthiest nations of the world73. This means that well established brands have had to devaluate the expectations for the accounts and maybe also shut down productions areas. On the other hand however it should also be noted that the price elasticity on luxury articles is usually lower than on common everyday articles such as groceries. This means that a luxury brand like Chanel is less likely to be affected by the crisis compared to for example high street stores like TopShop and H&M. Another issue is the so called green view trend. Sustainability, ecology and fair-trade are initiatives of great importance in the present decade. Green consumerism is now more than ever debated and discussed in all parts of the western world. High street stores like H&M have produced lines made of organic cotton and so have more luxurious brands such as Armani, just like car factories that                                                             73

 The Internet: http://www.globalissues.org/article/768/global‐financial‐crisis 

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have produced eco friendly cars, and the supermarkets having rows and rows with organic food74. The former prototype of a green consumer being hippie-like with an anti governmental and anti capitalism attitude has been replaced by a green consumer who is career minded, modern and wish to behave politically correct by caring about the environment. This means that even prominent upper class people also take part in this trend, a trend that especially has been hyped by celebrities75. Even more important is the fact that many well known companies have been caught in scandals and accusations of using child labour in factories in third world countries76. Such accusations can cause great damage to any given company even to a brand like Chanel. A final aspect worth considering is the increasing use of blogs on the Internet. Designers and fashion houses are no longer only judged by fashion critics, today anyone, whether it is a high school girl or a famous journalist, can express their opinion about fashion to the world via the Internet. These opinions are usually expressed in a so called blog that anyone can create and anybody can read77. This means that the popularity of designs and brands does not only depend on the media in the shape of fashion magazines but also on the opinion of bloggers online. And with communication websites such as “Facebook” and “Twitter” becoming more and more widespread, people are exposed to opinions about everything and nothing on a daily basis.

8.4 Suggestions for improvement (Marlene)  To sum up on the above, suggestions for the future branding strategy of Chanel can be discussed. On one hand a strategy could be to take the previous mentioned factors into consideration. Concerning the current economical situation this could be done by creating a less expensive underline, like many other designers have already done, in order to attract a wider range of costumers. On the other hand this does not fit well with Chanel’s image of being Chanel and nothing but Chanel and could maybe end up causing loss of regular clients who enjoy the luxury status of Chanel. Another aspect is the green consumer trend, sustainability and fair-trade in general. Again it can be discussed if Chanel should try to keep track with this trend and show some green initiatives for example in the shape of organic fabrics or recycled materials. A counter argument could be that this conflicts with Chanel’s reputation of using only the finest fabrics and                                                             74

 The Internet: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/01/fashion/01green.html?pagewanted=all   The Internet: http://www.grist.org/article/little‐hollywood/  76  The Internet: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article601109.ece  77  The Internet: http://codex.wordpress.org/Introduction_to_Blogging  75

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materials in their clothes and bags. Finally the Internet blogging element should be considered, should Chanel curb their exclusive image, so that the brand seems more available for everyone and not only the elite and maybe hereby become more popular on the private blogs? Or should they maintain their high class image as a status symbol? This is a hard question to answer and deserves a thorough market analysis in order to give a fulfilling answer. One way of looking at it could be that the fashion house would renew itself by showing some initiative in one or more of these fields and hereby become popular in a wider public. And finally another view could be that Chanel should maintain the same image and branding strategy as they are already making use of in order to retain their regular clients. Nevertheless the luxury image of Chanel has worked for a hundred years and will most likely continue to function exceptionally well in the future.

 

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9 Evaluation (Marlene & Britt)  In order to sum up the thesis we will discuss the relevance of the applied analysis tool and theories to see whether they have been adequate in relation to the analyses. Furthermore the use of sources will be evaluated in terms of topical relevance, validity and accessibility.

9.1 Source criticism (Marlene)  Throughout the entire thesis we have made use of literature with a certain degree of scientific professionalism. The books which have been the foundation of the thesis are all accessible at the library of Aarhus School of Business, and must therefore be of a certain standard within the field of communication. However some of the books are not of recent date, but we have chosen to apply them anyway since the publications have been relevant sources for our thesis. A possible problem concerning outdated books is the “International Markedskommunikation”78 as we have applied its phases of advertising, which only contains phases up to 1987. For that reason it has been necessary for us to seek alternative material for the present phase, this can be problematic as our fourth phase “global market” is not invented by the same authors as the others. However we do not consider the problem to be of such gravity that the theory is not reliable. Another aspect in relation to outdated literature is the massive effect of the Internet and globalisation, which not all books take into consideration, even though it is of great importance in the field of branding and advertising. The chosen Internet websites have also been scientific, as we have avoided user-based websites such as Wikipedia and others alike. Instead we have tried to make use of acknowledged homepages or sites written by experts within the certain area of expertise, for example branding, advertising, fashion and history. As the thesis has to do with fashion it has been an obvious choice to use certain women’s magazines as sources. Predominantly we have used the Danish high fashion magazine Costume in the paragraphs about the advertising history as well as the Chanel history. Though Costume is a Danish magazine it has an international knowledge and touch via participation in various fashion weeks and connections with exclusive designer, fashion houses and chief editors of international magazines.

                                                            78

 See list of references , p. 41 

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It is difficult to compare publications based on scientific proofs with a monthly fashion magazine, however it could be argued that though the book is more theoretically strong the magazine is more of current interest. Finally when it comes to validity it is a fact that in fashion magazines a great part of the expenses are paid by the many ads printed in the magazines. This means that in order to obtain a good relationship with the fashion brands the magazines have to present the companies in a positive way. Therefore it could be argued that for example the article about Chanel is presented more flattering than truth is due to the fact that Costume might be coloured by the corporate relationship with Chanel. On the other hand a book is an individual piece of academic writing and has no obligations towards a brand or other investors.

9.2 Criticism of theories (Britt)  The applied tool of analysis of the thesis is the IMK-model from the book “International Markedskommunikation”. We found it to be the most adequate model of communication available as it takes genre, sender – receiver relationship and most importantly context and culture into consideration. It has been a great help in analysing the purpose, meaning and messages of the Chanel advertisements. Moreover it has been very practicable and easy to apply in the thesis. Nevertheless the model must be said to be a bit outdated, as it is from 1997. This is slightly problematic as it does not consider the use of online marketing and the fact that English is becoming the conventional B2B and B2C language79. However this problem is not of much relevance in this particular thesis as it deals with printed advertisements. Furthermore the model lacks a historical perspective and that is why we have chosen to complement it with the previous mentioned phases of advertising. In this way we find the model to be satisfactory for the analyses. Concerning the theories about branding and advertising we find that the applied theories have given us a solid background for analysing the ads and a broad understanding of the topic. Kotler’s theory of the fourth P, has been helpful in elaborating on promotion and marketing in general. Concerning the definition of luxury and establishing if Chanel is a luxury brand, we found the book Brand Culture80 to be of great help. Finally a great part of the ads make use of the so called celebrity

                                                            79

 B2B: Business to business      B2C: Business to consumer  80  See list of references, p. 41 

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branding, a topic we found a relevant part about in Svend Hollensen’s book Global Marketing81. Last but not least we chose to make use of some of the most acknowledge international newspapers such as New York times and The Times UK, in order to gain an insight in to present societal tendencies about the economical situation and consumerism.

 

   

 

                                                            81

 See list of references, p. 41 

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10 Conclusion (Marlene & Britt)  The statement that “Chanel knows what women want even before they know it themselves” could indicate just how strong the Chanel brand is and always has been. However this does not mean that Chanel has been promoting itself in the same way for the past century. Facts are that the branding strategies of Chanel have changed in a variety of ways in order to follow the development of advertising and the changes in society. As the four analyses show, the rhetorical strategies go from being much more verbal oriented towards entirely non-verbal with focus on the visual elements of the advertisements. This also means a shift from product orientation to image orientation, as the Chanel brand is not so much the actual product and the basic needs of it, but more the luxury and status that follows. The change in orientation also affects the choice in models which is especially apparent when comparing the 1930’s ad featuring a posh housewife with the 1960’s ad starring the provocative actress Marilyn Monroe. Furthermore a comparison of the Marilyn ad and the 2007 advertisement also shows a remarkable change concerning ideal body types. While Marilyn is curvy and seductive, Keira is skinny, boyish and at the same time much more vulnerable. The brands that understand where the strongest expectations exist will be the brands that survive. Chanel has managed to meet the requirements of their customers by fulfilling the expectations of using only the finest materials in their products and maintaining a luxury quality. However, like in any other company obstacles occur according to changes in the surrounding society. Issues like the financial crisis, green consumerism and the impact of bloggers are important aspects to consider in relation to present and future branding strategies. However, as the discussion indicates Chanel is not likely to adapt much to the mentioned aspects due to the fact that the Chanel brand is expensive and not based on a cheaper underline, Chanel is exclusive fabrics and not organic or recycled materials, and most importantly of all Chanel is luxurious and prestigious. For that reason we do not find it necessary for Chanel to make any drastic changes except the ones following the development of time. The change in adverting and branding strategies is naturally due to the development of the Chanel customer segment. The typical Chanel customer has with the launch of Coco Mademoiselle undergone a shift from upper class housewives towards a broader target group including young women and fashionable girls.

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As a final note it is of great importance to keep in mind that this thesis is based on perfume advertisements, and for that reason the results of our analysis and the discussed consumer segment are primarily focused on the perfumes and not other product lines of Chanel. Analyses of such might have resulted in different findings than the ones of the Chanel perfumes.

 

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11 List of references  11.1 Books  Fill, Chris. (2005). Marketing Communication. England: Prentice Hall Frandsen, Finn. (2005). International Markedskommunikation i en postmoderne verden. Århus: Academica Hackley, Chris. (2005). Advertising and Promotion – Communicating Brands. London: Sage Publications Hollensen, Svend. (2007). Global Marketing. England: Pearson Education Limited Kotler, Philip. (1999). Kotler om Marketing. Danmark: Børsen Schroeder, Jonathan E. (2006). Brand Culture. New York: Routledge. Tungate, Mark. (2008). Fashion Brands: Branding style from Armani to Zara. Kogan Page

11.2 Magazines  Schou, Carina Nørgaard. C for Chanel. Costume 86 (June 2009) Vidø, Marie. Hvordan var det lige, vi begyndte? Costume 96 (May 2010) Vogue April 2009

11.3 Websites  Chanel No. 5: http://www.chaneln5.com/en-us/#/world/the-story (24 March 2010) The Metropolitan Museum of Art: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/chnl/hd_chnl.htm (15 March 2010) Universität Heidelberg: http://www.rzuser.uniheidelberg.de/~el6/presentations/pres_c2_hoa/19thand20thadvertising.htm (11 April 2010)

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Pincas, Stéphane & Loiseau, (2006). Marc. A History of Advertising. Paris: Arctic Paper: http://www.taschen.com/pages/en/catalogue/design/all/05040/facts.a_history_of_advertising.htm (11 April 2010) Advertising Age: http://adage.com/century/timeline/index.html (11 April 2010) Trendwatching: http://trendwatching.com/briefing/ (11 April 2010) Branding Strategy Insider: http://www.brandingstrategyinsider.com/2009/10/10-branding-andmarketing-trends-for-2010.html (11 April 2010) Carole Bouquet: http://www.carolebouquet.net/ (30 March 2010) Politiken: http://politiken.dk/erhverv/article173135.ece (13 April 2010) Costume: http://costume.dk/article/37775/gallery/219355 (20 April 2010) New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/01/fashion/01green.html?pagewanted=all (26 April 2010) Grist: http://www.grist.org/article/little-hollywood/ (26 April 2010) The Times: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article601109.ece (26 April 2010) Word Press: http://codex.wordpress.org/Introduction_to_Blogging (26 April 2010)

 

 

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12 Appendix 1     

 

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13 Appendix 2     

 

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14 Appendix 3     

 

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15 Appendix 4     

 

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16 Appendix 5     

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A comparative analysis of four Chanel advertisements    Abstract  Introduction to the thesis  This thesis concerns advertising and branding strategi...

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