AN ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE NEEDS FOR THAI

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THESIS

AN ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE NEEDS FOR THAI AIRWAYS GROUND STAFF

THAWATCHAI TANGNIAM

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts (English for Specific Purposes) Graduate School, Kasetsart University 2006

ISBN 974-16-2571-5

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to many people whose contributions and supports have made this study possible.

I would like to express my deep appreciation and gratitude to Asst. Prof. Wani Yuttinat for her extremely useful and valuable advice and patience throughout this study. I would also like to thank Mr. Stephen Cannell who has devoted his invaluable time for proofreading. All comments he generously made are helpful for my thesis completion. Moreover, my heart-felt thanks go to Assoc. Prof. Tasanalai Burapacheep for her helpful suggestions about each chapter’s content in detail.

My personal appreciation goes to Mr. Woottisak Taengluang for his advice on overall structure of the thesis presentation and also goes to Mrs. Jessada Sri-ngam for being a patient consultant about statistic values used in this study.

I would like to

say “thanks” to my good friends from Chulalongkorn University who are always being with me even in good or bad time. Many thanks also go to my classmates in the ESP Program for information, assistance throughout the course, understanding, encouragement and eternal friendship. We always keep walking together. I would like to express my gratitude towards all ground staff who participated in this study, especially to my ex-colleagues who gave a helping hand.

Last but not least, I am very grateful to all faculties of the ESP Program including to those of the Applied Linguistics Department who have opened a new world of invaluable knowledge for my life time. Especially, my “special thanks” go to Dr. Bussaba Tonthong for her encouragement and valuable advice.

Thawatchai Tangniam June 2006

i TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

List of Tables

(iii)

List of Figures

(v)

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1

Rationale of the Study

1

Purposes of the Study

3

Significance of the Study

3

Limitation of the Study

3

Basic Assumption

4

Definitions of Terms

4

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW English for Specific Purposes (ESP)

7 7

Needs Analysis

14

Language of Services for Airline Ground Personnel

24

Related Studies

30

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY

34

Research Design

34

Population

39

Sampling

39

Data Collection

41

Data Analysis

41

CHAPTER IV RESULTS

44

Part I General Information

44

Part II General Opinions about Language Skills in Using English: Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing

49

Part III The Needs in Using English Language Skills: Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing

51

ii TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont’d)

Page

Part IV The Difficulties in Using English Language Skills: Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing

55

Part V Suggestions

62

CHAPTER V DISCUSSION

64

Discussion of the Study

64

Implications of the Study

74

Recommendation for Further Research

77

Conclusion

78

REFERENCES

82

APPENDICES

88

Appendices A The Questionnaire

89

Appendices B The Questionnaire (Thai version)

101

Appendices C The Inter-Office Communication Letter (IOC)

113

Appendices D The Alphabet Spellings

115

Appendices E Codes and Abbreviations

117

iii LIST OF TABLES

Table

1

Page

General Information about the Respondents Regarding Age, Gender, Educational Background, Functions, Positions and Duration of Work

2

45

The Opinions about the Importance of English Language and English Courses for the Present Job

47

3

Self-Assessment of English Language Skills

49

4

The Levels of English Language Skills Needs

50

5

The Levels of English Language Skills Needs Difficulties

50

6

The Ground Staff’s Needs of English Language Listening Skills in Their Jobs

7

The Ground Staff’s Needs of English Language Speaking Skills in Their Jobs

8

54

The Ground Staff’s Needs of English Language Writing Skills in Their Jobs

10

52

The Ground Staff’s Needs of English Language Reading Skills in Their Jobs

9

51

55

The Ground Staff’s Difficulties with English Language Listening Skills in Their Jobs

56

iv LIST OF TABLES (Cont’d)

Table

11

Page

The Ground Staff’s Difficulties with English Language Speaking Skills in Their Jobs

12

The Ground Staff’s Difficulties with English Language Reading Skills in Their Jobs

13

57

60

The Ground Staff’s Difficulties with English Language Writing Skills in Their Jobs

61

v LIST OF FIGURES

Figure

Page

1

Tree of English Language Teaching (ELT)

12

2

Communicative Needs Processor (CPN)

20

3

Air Transportation Service System

26

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Rationale of the Study

Thai Airways International Public Company Limited (THAI) has been one of the successful airlines in the world which brings revenue to the country and increases the rate of employment of Thais as it helps promote products produced domestically, by serving them onboard to passengers such as OTOP products (One Tambon One Product). However, fast growing competition among airline businesses has challenged THAI in many ways both in domestic and international routes. Since Thailand has adopted more open-sky policy, many airlines can fly to any destination as long as they have the aviation rights, and it is possible that there will be more new airlines emerging. Moreover, a new phenomenon of low cost airlines in domestic aviation greatly increases the degree of competition in marketing. The regional low cost airlines have extended their flying time from two to four hours for running the low cost business and have expanded their routes into India, Mainland China and Western Australia. For this reason, to join in this battle field, THAI has planned to purchase more aircrafts to enlarge THAI fleet from 80 to 102 aircrafts.

The company’s vision is “First Choice Carrier, Smooth as Silk, First time Every Time”, and this underlines the significance of the policy to make an impression on passengers and to encourage them to travel with THAI. Therefore, aircraft technologies and interiors have been upgraded from time to time. More importantly, the development of human resources must be addressed by the Board of Directors. The THAI slogan is “A good flight begins with Good Ground Services”, so it can be said that ground staff who work as front – line personnel to render services can influence passengers by creating a good first impression. This should result in the return of passengers to fly with THAI.

2 It is widely accepted that English is a vital medium in world business communication, notably in the airline businesses (Crystal, 1997). In consequence, to achieve the airline’s goal, English competence is the most important tool for those who work in the airline business, particularly those who need to contact customers face to face and communicate with passengers. Therefore, the competence of ground staff’s English communication is necessary in conjunction with job knowledge to complete the service. In other words, The ground staff need to use English for their careers.

Unfortunately, a conversation with some ground staff was undertaken which indicated that they are not always able to say what they want to say when using English. What is more, some claimed that they lack confidence when conversing in English because they feel awkward about their grammar and vocabulary. In consequence, they can not speak English comfortably with their customers. This can be linked to some complaint letters from the passengers showing that the staff’s English can confuse them. Moreover, at present, English courses provided for trainees mainly focus on pronunciation and recording their voices while reading conversation texts. Furthermore, the course for the staff is not properly designed and arranged to meet the staff’s needs.

For this reason, to observe the real English needs of the ground staff or to explore what they are lacking in English, a needs analysis must be conducted. This will enable a curriculum to be designed for trainees and staff and to construct a course to improve the English competence of ground staff on the basis of English for Occupational Purposes, a branch of English for Specific Purposes. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the English usage needs of staff and help to design the right course to suit their English needs. This will lead to satisfy the real English needs of ground staff and increase the staff’s English communicative competence when using it in real situations.

3 Purposes of the Study

The purpose of this study is to survey the English language needs of Thai Airways ground staff for use in their jobs through a constructed questionnaire.

Therefore, this study attempted to investigate the following items:

1. To observe to what extent ground staff need to use English in their job areas.

2. To examine the functional needs of English for ground staff.

3. To study the ground staff’s general difficulties in using English.

4. To investigate the ground staff’s needs to enhance their English skills by ranking the frequency of use.

Significance of the Study

It is anticipated that the results of the present study can be used as a guideline to improve or expand the existing English courses for ground staff of Thai Airways. The study may provide some useful suggestions for the planners and administrators to develop more effective English courses for the ground staff of Thai Airways.

Limitation of the Study

This study observes the needs in English of ground staff of Thai Airways at Bangkok home base (Bangkok International Airport). The study is limited to the opinions of the respondents by using a constructed questionnaire. Since this study focuses only on the group of respondents at Bangkok International Airport, the findings from the study may not be applicable to other groups of ground staff at different line stations or other English courses for employees of the company (such as the English course for flight attendants).

4 Basic Assumption

It was assumed that all respondents participating in this study sincerely and honestly responded to all items in the questionnaire. Also, it is assumed that the respondents clearly understand the objectives of the questionnaire.

Definitions of Terms

To clarify particular items that will appear in this study, the following definitions are provided:

1. ‘Thai Airways International Public Company Limited (THAI)’ refers to Thailand’s national flag carrier which was founded in 1960. THAI has become one of leading airlines joining in airline industry. THAI now flies to more than 72 destinations (12 domestic destinations and 60 international destinations) in 37 countries on four continents and also plans to expand to more destinations.

2. ‘Ground staff’ refers to Passenger service agents of THAI who render all kinds of services for passengers’ comfort at the airport upon departures and arrivals. They usually perform their shift duties of services regarding all aspects of THAI’s policies, procedures and operations. They also have to coordinate with other employees in various functions for passenger service. There are three main functions and their job duties vary as follows:

2.1 Special Services Function (LP) is responsible for

1) making reservations as passengers request.

2) providing special passenger services for infants or physically handicapped passengers including request for special services – wheelchair, unaccompanied minor, elderly, celebrities or other important people (VIP), sick passenger, passenger with language problems, etc.

5 3) handling passengers covering the failures in services (flight irregularity): overbooking, delays, missed connections, and so on.

4) issuing airline documents which are needed to facilitate services.

5) meeting and assisting first and business class passengers in the airline lounges at the airport for various matters such as check-in, reservations, business centre facilities, etc.

2.2 Airport Customer Service Function (KP) is responsible for

1) checking passengers’ ticket and reservations status.

2) checking passengers’ travel documents to see that they are in order (valid for travel) and taking care of the passengers’ checked baggage.

3) assigning seats to passengers by issuing boarding passes and baggage tag.

4) boarding passengers to the aircraft smoothly and controlling boarding procedures upon departures.

5) standing by to assist the arriving passengers upon arrivals at the gate.

2.3 Baggage Services Function (LL) is responsible for

1) handling cases of lost or damaged baggage.

2) delivering the delayed baggage to passengers’ residence.

3) stationing in the baggage claim area to help passengers with any problems they may have.

6 3. ‘English for Specific Purposes’ refers to the role of English in a language course or program of instruction in which the content and aims of the course are fixed by specific of particular group of learners.

4. ‘English language needs’ refers to English language requirements of ground staff in improving the four main language skills and other areas of English.

5. ‘Needs analysis’ refers to a method of gathering data on learner needs or what learners want to study in a subject.

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

This study investigates the needs of Thai Airways’ ground staff at Bangkok International Airport in terms of English usage. To clarify any academic aspects and any related information, this chapter provides a review of related literature and research which serves as a basis for conducting this study and which focuses on:

1. English for Specific Purposes (ESP) 2. Needs Analysis 3. Language of Services for Airline Ground Personnel 4. Related Studies

English for Specific Purposes (ESP)

Judd (1981) states that English as a Language of Wider Communication (ELWC) refers to an environment in which English serves no intra-country uses and instead is used for international communicative purposes. Therefore, many people need to use English for scientific, technical and commercial purposes, which is popularly called “English for Specific Purposes” (ESP).

Notably, there are three reasons contributing to the emergence of all ESP which are 1) the expansion of demand for English to suit particular needs, 2) development in the field of linguistics, and 3) educational psychology (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987).

1. The expansion of demand for English to suit particular needs: Hutchinson and Waters (1987) note that there are two key historical periods of ESP. First, the end of the Second World war brought with it an “...age of enormous and unprecedented expansion in scientific, technical and economic activity on an international scale for various reasons, most notably the economic power of the United States in the postwar world, the role (of international language) fell to English...” (p.6). Second, the Oil

8 Crisis of the early 1970s resulted in Western money and knowledge flowing into the oil-rich countries. The language of this knowledge was English.

The general effect of all this development is to exert pressure on the language teaching profession to deliver the required goods. Whereas English had previously decided its own destiny, it now becomes subject to the wishes, needs and demands of people other than language teachers (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987: 7-8).

2. Developments in the field of linguistics: the new studies shift attention away from defining the formal features of language usage to discovering the ways in which language is actually used in real communication (Widdowson, 1978). Since language varies considerably, and in number of different ways, from one context to another, English language teaching moves to the view that there are important differences between the English of commerce and that of engineering, for example. The idea occurs naturally with the development of English courses for specific groups of learners.

3. Educational psychology: emphasis is put on the central importance of the learners and their attitude in learning (Roger, 1969). Learners are seen to have different needs and interests, which have an important influence in their motivation to learn and therefore on the effectiveness of their learning.

Nowadays, there are a lot of definitions of ESP from experts in this field. Robinson (1991) states that ESP is an enterprise involving education, training and practice, and drawing upon three major realms of knowledge: language, pedagogy and students’ or participants’ specialist area of interest. While Swales (1984 cited in Sinha and Sadorra, 1991: 6) offers the idea that ESP is a relatively recent development in the major worldwide industry of Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language.

According to Strevens (1988), ESP is a popular case of the general category of special-purpose language teaching, Strevens further observes that a definition of ESP needs to distinguish between four absolute and two variable characteristics:

9 (a) Absolute Characteristics of ESP: ESP consists of English language teaching which is:

1) designed to meet specific needs of the learner;

2) related in content (i.e., in its themes and topics) to particular disciplines, occupations, and activities;

3) centred on the language appropriate to those activities, in syntax, lexis, discourse, semantics, etc.;

4) in contrast with ‘general English’.

(b) Variable Characteristics of ESP: ESP may be, but is not necessarily:

1) restricted as to the language skills to be learned (e.g., reading only, speech recognition only, etc.)

2) taught according to any pre-ordained methodology (i.e., ESP is not restricted to any particular methodology – although communicative methodology is very often to be the most appropriate).

In addition, there has been considerable recent debate about what ESP means despite the fact that it is an approach which has been widely used over the last three decades (Anthony, 1997). At the 1997 Japan Conference on ESP, Dudley-Evans offered a modified definition. The revised definition he and St. John postulate is as follows:

(a) Absolute Characteristics

1) ESP is defined to meet specific needs of the learner;

10 2) ESP makes use of the underlying methodology and activities of the discipline it serves;

3) ESP is centred on the language (grammar, lexis, register), skills, discourse and genre appropriate to theses activities.

(b) Variable Characteristics

1) ESP may be related to or designed for specific disciplines;

2) ESP may use, in specific teaching situations, a different methodology from that of general English;

3) ESP is likely to be designed for adult learners, either at a tertiary level institution or in a professional work situation. It could, however, be for learners at secondary school level;

4) ESP is generally designed for intermediate or advanced students;

5) Most ESP courses assume some basic knowledge of the language system, but it can be used with beginners (1998: 5-8).

Dudley-Evans and St. John have removed the absolute characteristic that ‘ESP is in contrast with General English’ and add more variable characteristics. They assert that ESP is not necessarily related to a specific discipline. Furthermore, ESP is likely to be used with adult learners although it could be used with young adults in a secondary school setting.

In conclusion, it can be said that ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learner’s particular reason for learning. On the other hand, ESP is a generic term used to indicate an approach practiced in the teaching of content-oriented English for any very specific purpose.

11 Types of ESP

The following are some examples interestingly defined by various scholars. To begin with, Carver (1983) identifies three types of ESP:

1. English as a restricted language: The language used by air traffic controllers or by waiters are examples of English as a restricted language. Mackay and Mountford (1978) clearly illustrate the difference between restricted language and language that the language of international air-traffic control could be regarded as ‘special’, in the sense that the reptoire required by the controller is strictly limited and can be accurately determined situationally, as might be the linguistic needs of a dining-room waiter or air-hostess. However, such restricted reptoires are not languages, just as a tourist phrase book is not grammar. Knowing a restricted ‘language’ would not allow the speaker to communicate effectively in a novel situation, or in contexts outside the vocational environment.

2. English for Academic and Occupational purposes: In the Tree of English Language Teaching (ELT) (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987), ESP is broken down into three branches: a) English for Science and Technology (EST), b) English for Business and Economics (EBE), and c) English for Social Studies (ESS). Each of these subject areas is further divided into two branches: English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Occupational Purposes (EOP). An example of EAP for the EST branch is ‘English for Medical Studies’ (see Figure 1).

Hutchinson and Waters (1987) also note that there is not a clear distinction between EAP and EOP. They claim that people can work and study simultaneously; it is also likely that in many cases the language learnt for immediate use in a study environment will be used later when the student takes up, or returns to, a job (p.16). Perhaps this explains Carter’s rationale for categorising EAP and EOP under the same type of ESP. It appears that Cater is implying that the purpose of both EAP and EOP are one and the same which is “employment”.

12

Figure 1 Tree of English Language Teaching (ELT) Source: Hutchinson and Waters (1987)

13 3. English with Specific Topics: Carver (1983) notes that it is only here where emphasis shifts from purpose to topics. This type of ESP is uniquely concerned with anticipated future English needs of, for example, scientists requiring English for postgraduate reading studies, attending conferences or working in foreign institutions. However, this is not a separate type of ESP. Rather it is an integral component of ESP courses or programs which focus on situational language. This situational language has been determined based on the interpretation of results from needs analyses of authentic language used in target workplace settings.

In addition, Robinson (1991) cites that there are many types of ESP and many acronyms. A major distinction is often drawn between EOP (English for occupational purposes), involving work-related needs and training, and EAP (English for academic purposes), involving academic study needs. Cutting across these is EST (English for science and technology), mainly used for ESP work in the USA, which can refer to both work and study-related needs. She also stated that a further distinction must be made between those students who are newcomers to their field of work or study and those who are already expert (or on the way to becoming so), perhaps via the medium of their own language. This distinction, as Strevens (1980 cited in Robinson, 1991) notes, “is between English which is instructional and English which is operational”. Students who are newcomers to their field may need some instruction in the concepts and practices of that field. Experienced students ‘require operational ESP materials, where the knowledge, the concepts, the instruction and the training are taken for granted, and where it is the ability to function in English which is being imparted’. Each situation has implications for the kind of content knowledge which the ESP teacher may need to deploy, and for the degree of generality or specificity of the ESP course.

Robinson (1991) also mentions that ESP is normally goal directed. That is, students study English not because they are interested in the English language (or English-language culture) but because they need English for study or work purposes.

14 It can be concluded that ESP is a revolution in linguistics. Whereas traditional linguists set out to describe the features of language, revolutionary pioneers in linguistics have begun to focus on the ways in which language is used in real communication. Therefore, the English used will vary according to the particular context. In this study, English will involve work-related needs and training for ground staff who work for the airline business. In short, English courses will be designed to meet the specific needs of the staff related to their occupations.

Needs Analysis

It has been widely accepted as a principle of program design that needs analysis is a vital prerequisite to the specification of language learning objectives. Many practitioners defined ‘needs analysis’ in various ways and from different viewpoints, the following are some examples:

Strevens (1980) defines ‘needs analysis’ as “a procedure starting from the standpoint that is not ‘general English’ and that the learner (or his sponsor) can apply comprehensive information about the aims, purposes, needs, wants, roles, and functions for which English is required in his or her circumstances”. Moreover, Richards (1985) cites that needs analysis is the requirement of fact-finding or the collection of data from various sources, for example, the data about the learners, the materials, and so on. The goals of the needs analysis phase of curriculum planning are to determine for what a particular group of learners expect to use English and what their present level of competence is. Furthermore, Nunan (1988) defines needs analysis as a set of procedures for specifying the parameters of a course of study. Such parameters include the criteria and rationale for grouping learners, the selection and sequencing of course content, methodology, and course length, intensity and duration. Brindley (1989) states that needs analysis is a process of finding out as much as possible before learning begins about the learners’ current and future language use. Ellis and Johnson (1994) view that needs analysis is a method of obtaining a description of learner’s needs (or group of learner’s needs). It will take into account the specific purposes for which the learner will use the language, the kind of language to be used, the starting level, and the target level, which is to be

15 achieved. The information is obtained from a range of different people: company staff, trainers, and the learners themselves. It will have implications for the approach to training that will be taken. According to Robinson, 1991, it can be considered what the students themselves would like to gain from the language course. This view of needs implies that students may have personal aims in addition to (or even in opposition to) the requirements of their studies or jobs. Berwick (1989, as cited in Robinson, 1991) also notes that such personal needs ‘may be (and often are) devalued’ by being viewed as ‘wants or desires’. We may interpret needs as lacks, that is, what the students do not know or cannot do in English (Robinson, 1991).

Mackay (1978) divides the needs of students into: 1. Academic needs, where English is required for further academic study e.g. medical students requiring English in order to understand lectures and read medical textbooks in English. 2. Job needs, where English is required to perform a particular practical job e.g. technicians requiring English in order to work on a project in which English is used.

According to Bloor (1984, as cited in Robinson, 1991), a needs analysis has been divided into:

1. Target-centred, which is to say that it looks at the learners’ future role(s) and attempts to specify what language skills or linguistic knowledge the learner needs to perform the role(s) adequately.

2. Learner-centred, which is to say that it examines what the learner can do at the commencement of the course, what problems he or she may have or what skills he or she may process that will enable him or her to learn well in certain directions. In order to specify an adequate teaching syllabus, it is almost certainly desirable to operate both target-centred and learner-centred needs analyses.

Types of needs analysis

Needs analysis has been with ESP practitioners for many years. It is a tool for planning industrial training and also enters into language curriculum design through

16 the work of the Council of Europe Modern Language Project (Richterich,1983). Although there are various types of needs analysis defined by various practitioners, the researcher is interested in using some frameworks which are relevant to this study. Consequently, the researcher may adopt the following types which are cited by several experts as a framework for conducting this research.

Robinson (1991) categorises needs analysis into two areas; target situation analysis and present situation analysis.

Target Situation Analysis

A needs analysis which focuses on students’ needs at the end of a language course can be called a Target Situation Analysis (TSA). The best known framework for a TSA type of needs analysis is formulated by Munby (1978), who presents a communicative needs processor (see Figure 2), comprising a set of parameters within which information on the students’ target situation can be plotted. The Munby model has been widely studied and discussed. Among its useful features are comprehensive data banks, for example of micro-skills and attitudes, which can be used as checklists for the resultant syllabus. A helpful insight which Munby codifies relates to targetlevel performance: for certain jobs students may require only a low level of accuracy, of native-speaker-like ability etc. The TSA may thus pinpoint the stage at which ‘good enough’ competence for the job is reached.

The information sought for a TSA may relate to two different stages in the students’ lives. Thus the English course may be preparing the students for a further training course, which will be conducted through the medium of English, after which the students will then take jobs. The English language requirements of the training course and of the later job may well be different, but both need to be considered. For example, note-taking from books and answering examination questions may be needed for the training course, but the job may involve much discussion and negotiation in English and little reading and writing. Students will understandably want to practise examination-answering on the language course, but may also want to rehearse for their later jobs by doing a lot of oral work.

17 Next, the researcher will illustrate for more clarification the well-known model presented by Munby (1978) the Munby’s best known framework for a TSA type is called “Communicative Needs Processor” (CPN) in which Munby identifies nine points to inquire about and proposes an instrument, which is supposed to enable the needs analyst to draw up an accurate profile of an individual language learner (see Figure 2).

1. Participant; the relevant base-line data on the person

1.1 Identity: learner’s age, sex, nationality and place of residence

1.2 Language: mother tongue (L1), target language (TL), present level/ command of the TL i.e. zero, false beginner, elementary, lower intermediate, upper intermediate, advanced, other language (s) known L2, extent of command in broad terms of L2

2. Purposive domain; what one wants to specify is the occupational or educational purpose for which the target language is required.

2.1 if occupational, will it be pre-experience or post- experience ESP?

2.2 if educational, will it be discipline-based or school subject ESP?

2.2.1 if discipline-based, will it be pre- study or in-study ESP?

2.2.2 if school subject, will it be independent or integrated ESP?

3. Setting; the situation variable that refers to the time and place of the communication

3.1 Physical setting: spatial

18 3.1.1 Location e.g. country, town, en-route

3.1.2 Place of work (occupational) e.g. hotel, factory, airport

3.1.3 Place of study and study setting e.g. university, classroom

3.1.4 Other places

3.2 Physical setting: temporal

3.2.1 Point of time i.e. when is English required most?

3.2.2 Duration i.e. how many hours per day/week is English required?

3.2.3 Frequency

i.e.

is

English

required

regularly/often/

occasionally/seldom?

3.3 Psychological setting in which the participant will use English e.g. culturally similar or different, age/ sex discriminating or not, public private, formal or informal.

4. Interaction; the situational variable that identifies the other participants with whom the input communicates in the target language and the relationship that may be predicted between them i.e. social relationship e.g. instructor -learner.

5. Instrumentality; how information is obtained i.e. the medium and channel of communication that the particular participant required.

5.1 Medium of communication. Is it spoken or written?

5.2 Mode of communication. Is it written to be read or written to be spoken?

19 5.3 Channel of communication. Is it face- to- face (bilateral)? Is it a public address system?

6. Dialect; is it necessary to identify the dialects of the target language which he will have to command receptively and productively?

6.1 Temporal dialect e.g. old, middle, modern English.

6.2 Regional dialect e.g. English English, American English, Australian English

6.3 Social- class dialect e.g. upper class, middle class, working class English

7. Target level; is it to act as reference points in the development of the learning programs for specific categories of learners? It should be stated in terms that will guide the further processing through the model.

8. Communicative event; it is the main and other events that the participant is required to handle English and then specify for each event its activities and subject matter.

9. Communicative key; how (in the sense of manner) one does the activities comprising an event (what he does). This is based on input information from relevant derivational sources, namely the participant’s identity, role-set identity, social relationships, and psychosocial setting.

20

Figure 2 Communicative Needs Processor(CPN) Source: Munby (1978)

It can be said that Munby (1978)’s needs analysis model has clearly established the place of learner needs as central to an ESP course and is a necessary starting point for a design of materials and a particular course. Moreover, the work of Munby has been applied to later research studies. Some researchers have also developed a model based on it.

Present Situation Analysis

Present situation analysis (PSA) may be assumed as a complement to TSA. A PSA seeks to establish the students’ ability at the start of their language course, investigating their strengths and weaknesses. Richterich and Chancerel (1980) give the most extensive range of devices for establishing the PSA. They suggest that there are three basic sources of information: the students themselves, the language-teaching establishment, and the ‘user-institution’, for example the students’ place of work. For each of these we shall seek information regarding their respective levels of ability;

21 their resources, for example financial and technical resources; and their views on language teaching and learning. We might also study the surrounding society and culture: the attitudes held towards English and towards the learning and use of a foreign language. This approach places the learner at the centre of the system and includes the surrounding society and culture. It is also called ‘the learner-centred approach’. The methods of collecting data for Present Situation Analysis are surveys, questionnaires and interviews.

An important issue is the relationship between the PSA and the TSA. For some people, including Munby (82), the PSA represents constraints of the TSA, which will have been conducted first.

Munby (83) modifies this stand a little,

allowing that political factors should be considered at the initial phase of needs analysis, but suggesting that factors relating to time, resources, and styles and traditions of learning should not be considered until the syllabus specification stage. For McDonough (1988), the PSA involves ‘fundamental variables’, which must clearly be considered before the TSA. In practice, one is likely to seek and find information relating to both TSA and PSA simultaneously. Thus needs analysis may be seen as a combination of TSA and PSA.

Furthermore, Deficiency Analysis is another crucial approach that the researcher can not disregard. The approaches to needs analysis that have been developed to take account of learners’ present needs/wants as well as the requirements of the target situation, may be called analyses of learners’ deficiencies or lacks (Allwright, 1982: 24, Robinson, 1991: 9 refer to this process as combined targetsituation analysis and present-situation analysis): “start from the target situation and design the curriculum around the gap between the present abilities of the target trainees and the needs of the situation in which they will find themselves at the end of the training programme” (Smith and Arun, 1980: 210). Most systems taking this approach include two central components: (a) an inventory of potential target needs expressed in terms of activities, and (b) a scale that is used to establish (and subsequently re-establish) the priority that should be given to each activity. For example, the English Language Teaching Development Unit system (ELTDU) (Yates, 1997) has 27 activities, all described on an eight-point attainment scale. In a less complex

22 system, Allwright and Allwright (1977) list 12 activities that, on past experience, were judged to be potential needs for a doctor visiting Britain – reading medical textbooks, writing medical papers, giving papers/lectures at medical conferences, etc. Learners are first asked to establish whether or not each potential need is an actual need, and then to establish their present level of difficulty (= deficiency) in each activity on a none/some/ a iot scale. Richards (1990: 29) provides an extract from a questionnaire where learners are asked to indicate how frequently each task should be taught, ranging from not at all to 7 or more times per semester.

A refinement of the Allwright system of combined present-situation analysis and target-situation analysis is illustrated by Bheiss (1988, as cited in West, 1994) who adopts a more formal procedure for establishing syllabus priorities. This system has three components: (a) a list of potential target-situation skills supplied by a specialist informant, in Bheiss’s case a university nursing tutor; (b) a needs questionnaire using a “0 = unnecessary to 4 = essential” scale to establish targetsituation need for each of the sub-skills; (c) a lacks questionnaire using “0 = no difficulty to 4 = very difficult” scale to establish the present-situation deficiency of each of the sub-skills. Each questionnaire is given to either specialist tutors or students and the overall needs and lacks of the groups are calculated. Learning priorities are then established by multiplying the two scores together, which has the effect of accentuating the scores at either end of the scale.

Other aspects of deficiency analysis may include discovering whether students are required to do something in the target language which they cannot do in their mother tongue: “Teaching a student to do something in English which he or she can already do in Spanish is a very different problem from teaching him or her something in English which he or she cannot do in Spanish” (Alderson, 1980: 135).

As for this study, all the above needs analysis frameworks will be applied as a guideline for conducting all works on it as well as developing the instrument to survey the staff’s needs and problems in English communication. In other words, it seems that the combined system of target-situation analysis and present-situation analysis or defined as deficiency analysis becomes the most appropriate approach which will be

23 employed for assisting the researcher to discover and establish the place of the staff’s English needs.

Method of collecting data of needs analysis

To collect data for needs analysis, the researcher may employ various methods. The following are some examples of those methods. Hutchinson and Waters (1987) stated that there are a number of ways to gather information about needs, the most frequently used methods are questionnaires, interviews, observations, data collection e.g. gathering texts, and informal consultations with sponsors, learners and others.

Schutz and Derwing (1981: 35) has devised an eight-step process for conducting a needs evaluation. These steps are as follows:

1. Define the purpose 2. Delimit the target population 3. Delimit the parameters of investigation 4. Select the information-gathering instrument(s). 5. Collect the data. 6. Analyse the results (manual or computer compilation of data). 7. Interpret the results. 8. Carry out a critique of the whole project.

In order to analyse target needs, Hutchinson and Waters (1987) consider the kind of information that it is necessary for the course designer to obtain from an analysis of target needs by posing these questions:

1. Why is the language needed? 2. How will the language be used? 3. What will the content areas be? 4. Who will the learner use the language with? 5. Where will the language be used? 6. When will the language be used?

24 Similarly, to analyse learning needs, they pose these questions:

1. Why are the learners taking the course? 2. How do the learners learn? 3. What resources are available? 4. Who are the learners? 5. Where will the ESP course take place? 6. When will the ESP course take place?

According to Scrivener (1994), a typical needs analysis might be a questionnaire that the client(s) and the teacher talk through and fill in together. This might include an analysis of what the client uses English for, what their expectations are, what they need, what they want and what they don’t have.

It can be concluded that learners are seen to employ different learning strategies, use different skills, enter with different learning schemata and be motivated by different needs and interests. Consequently, focus on the learners’ needs becomes the important method to observe their real needs. In this study, English is viewed to be required to perform a particular practical job which is the job area of the ground staff. In addition, designing specific courses to meet these individual needs serves real purposes of the ESP course derived from real needs of ground staff, in other words, from learner-centred methods.

Language of Services for Airline Ground Personnel

As a segment of the hospitality and tourism industry, defining the key terms of “service” and “hospitality is necessary. This is because all airline job activities are counted as services, and engaged in the concept of a service relationship between passengers (guests) and ground staff (hosts) which establishes the social role of ground staff in dealing with passengers.

25 According to Powers (1992), “service” is all of the actions and reactions that customers perceive they have purchased. In hospitality, service is performed for the guests by people or by systems. From the guest’s point of view, service is the performance of the organisation and its staff. In other words, the guest and the employee are personally involved in the service transaction. Moreover, Baker and Hayton (2001) defined that “hospitality” is a commercial contract to enter into a service relationship that involves supplying the amenities, comfort, conveniences, social interactions and experiences of shelter and entertainment that a guest or customer values.

It can be assumed that the core service for the air transportation industry is getting people from one place to another, domestically and internationally. As a result, the main task of the airline industry is to provide services to passengers that show hospitality relationship between passengers and staff.

Service delivery system: the airport

The service delivery system for air transportation is easily presented in a flow chart (Figure 3).

26

Sale and Marketing

Sales Process

Safety Rules

Check-in and Baggage

Security Screening

Catering

Agency or Airline Reservation System

Repeat Customers

In-flight Service

Boarding

Follow-up Processes

EXIT

Loading

Weather

Disembarkation and Baggage Pickup

Baggage Handling

Figure 3 Air Transportation Service System Source: Davidoff (1994)

About 85 percent of an airline company’s customers make their reservations and purchase their tickets from a travel agent. The remaining 15 percent purchase them from an airline reservation phone centre, an airline city ticket office, or at the airport. Therefore, most customers do not directly encounter airline personnel until they arrive at the airport.

The first process at the airport is usually check-in. Passengers wait in line inside an airport terminal to check in, receive seat assignments and boarding passes, check their baggage and learn from which gate their flight leaves. The next step that passengers take is to clear security screening which is actually accomplished by

27 employees who are contracted by the airport not the airline. The boarding process is itself complex process. In a span of 15 to 20 minutes one to four gate agents are responsible for loading anywhere from a few to a few hundred people onto an airplane. They have to field questions, take tickets and check them against the manifest and handle oversized carry-on luggage while dealing with new customers arriving at the gate close to departure time. If the plane is late, they must deal with irate customers and if a flight is overbooked, they have to deal with ‘bumping’ passengers. In-flight service is the exclusive domain of the flight crew composed of flight attendants and the cockpit crew. The only remaining steps of the airline service delivery system are the landing procedure, disembarkation, and baggage pick up. Again, there are many more opportunities to give passengers cause for dissatisfaction than satisfaction. Many more passengers may be stressed if their connection is tight. Airlines customer service representatives have to meet incoming planes to assist personally with connection information. Inevitably, of course, some passengers miss connections. For this case, customer-contact employees must deal with these very stressed (and sometimes angry) customers.

Just because customers have reached their final destination does not mean that their needs have been completely met. They still need to find their way to baggage claim and pick up their luggage. Customer-contact employees are there to handle complaints about lost or damaged luggage. It can be said that a half-hour wait for luggage can easily ruin the positive impressions built over an entire flight. Airlines also operate airport lounges (clubs) to serve business and first class passengers. Passengers may relax at a private bar, watch TV or get some work done. The lounges are usually staffed by employees who can provide private check-in for future travel. The lounges are often equipped with full office capabilities, including faxes, computers and telephones.

In a general sense, the airlines have the toughest job. Regarding the nature of their product, there are many more ways for them to generate dissatisfaction as customers (passengers) spend a relatively short time with the airline, and passengercontact employees must perform a large numbers of tasks with an equally large number of people in this short period of time. Many of these tasks are required by

28 government regulations as well as safety and security standards. There are some problems beyond the control of the company such as weather, air traffic control, delays etc., which will cause some passengers to be angry with the airline. Another problem is that passengers have their own needs and come to the airport with a variety of moods for a variety of reasons. They may need handicapped access and help, special meals (kosher, vegetarian, low-salt, etc.) and have special baggage requests (firearms, fragile, oversized, etc.). They may be in a good mood as they are on vacation or they may be depressed as they travel to a funeral. Each needs immediate attention.

As discussed above, it can be viewed that there are many service activities occurring in a service delivery system in the airport domain. At the same time, the challenges are also observed along with each step of services. For this case, airlines are regarded as a venue of hospitality business which mostly depends upon passengers who pay for services. Consequently, rendering services for passengers’ convenience and comfort is a vital task of ground staff. To achieve that goal, ground staff need to communicate with passengers to acquire their demands before taking further action and to convey messages in order that ground staff can handle everything correctly. At this step, they need to use various language functions and skills to communicate for particular purposes. In brief, essentially, understanding the characteristics of their job activities and social role will identify the proper language form and functions which ground staff use to facilitate services for passengers.

Communication purposes for airline ground personnel

Communication is absolutely critical to the success of any service encounter. Service, after all, is mostly just the movement and processing of information. Without communication, excellent service even, poor service can not be delivered. An act of communication comes in many forms: listening, speaking, reading and writing.

Davidoff (1994) identified the purposes for communication of customercontact employees as follows.

29 1. Information. Information communication is the most common use of service to serve customers and it is used by customers to communicate their needs. In a written form, it includes everything such as travel documents, itineraries, airline documents, telexes, procedure manuals, etc. In a spoken form, it can cover anything that customers need or want to know through various communicative channels such as face-to-face contact or telephone.

2. Emotion. Much of what people communicate contains emotional messages. When customers are frustrated or happy, they are likely to let someone know while customers-contact employees need to be very conscious of the emotional messages they are sending to their customers. Often, they need to communicate a sense of joy or excitement, or even empathise with customer’s frustration. As a consequence, customer-contact employees need to be prepared to deal with a full range of expressions in a professional manner.

3. Motivation.

Another purpose for communication is to motivate the

recipient to take some action. Customers are engaging in communication for which they are trying to motivate the customer-contact person to do something. They may be looking for routine service actions, special requests or to have a problem solved. Whatever the reason or request, customers want the customer-contact person to be motivated to meet their needs as quickly and inexpressively as possible.

4. Control. This purpose works to control the behavior of the recipients for example when an airline gate agent announces that the flight will be boarded from the rear of the plane first or pages for missing passengers to board the aircraft through a public announcement. There are many cases where a customer might be trying to control behavior of a customer-contact employee in an effort to secure an advantage that may be unfair (for example, through using veiled threats or other means of intimidation).

Therefore, it is probably wise for customer-contact employees to

ignore tactfully the attempt to be controlled or otherwise make it clear that they can not be influenced that way.

30 It can be inferred that ground staff’s communication with passengers tends to follow the above mentioned purposes. As ground staff are customer-contact employees or passenger service agents for an international airline industry, they need to use appropriate English language communication with passengers from all over the world in order to render services and interact with them properly. Moreover, English language functions used are also derived from job activities in the domain of the airport. This is to say that the features from job activities and communication purposes together with social relationships between passengers and ground staff are utilized to develop all items in four main skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing) of the questionnaire used in the main study (see items in the questionnaire in Appendix A).

In short, considering all concerned features finally results in the

appropriate English language use for ground staff in performing their jobs.

Related Studies

There has been a great amount of research conducted in the ESP field. However, for this study, only research conducted to investigate the needs of English usage for professional purposes is mentioned.

Sonsaardchit (1980) surveyed the needs for the use of English of government offices and government enterprises. The survey tried to investigate the degree of use in each skill and the level of English proficiency of those governmental personnel. The instruments used were a questionnaire and interview. The samples were 360 division heads of government offices and 45 department heads of state enterprises. It was found that most government offices and state enterprises used English to a moderate degree. Reading was used most while there was minimal use of translating.

Wongsothon (1982) conducted a survey of societal needs for using English. Both questionnaire and interview techniques were used to conduct the survey from government agencies, state enterprises and business sectors. The results revealed that government agencies and state enterprises used English moderately while business sectors used more English. Reading was used highest followed by writing, listening, speaking and translating respectively. English was used more for working purposes

31 than for social and personal purposes. Academicians were personnel using English most in all of those sectors.

Akkakoson (1994) carried out an examination of the use of English for business communication in top Thai companies. The subjects of the study were 17 human resource management representatives of 15 sampled companies divided into three levels: high-level companies, middle-level companies and low-level companies. The results of the study revealed that English was an important tool for business communication and English. All four skills were required. English was very useful for most of the employees. The human resource management representatives of the high status group thought that all four macro skills were also important to supervisory level staff while only listening and speaking skills were very important to junior level staff. The human resource management representatives of the middle status group thought that only listening and reading were of importance to the supervisory level whereas the human resource management representatives of the low status group considered that listening, speaking and writing were essential to the supervisory level.

Jiranapakul (1996) investigated the language needs for communication for Thai engineers, the major purpose of this study was to reveal the actual usage of English in engineering companies. The subjects were 21 operational engineers and 21 managerial engineers. The instrument was an interview schedule. The results revealed that both groups of subjects considered English was very useful for them since it was an additional factor in career advancement. The operational engineers needed listening and speaking most, whereas managerial engineers needed writing and speaking most.

Ketkeaw (1997) investigated cabin attendants’ needs of English of Thai Airways International. The data were collected by questionnaires and then analyzed by SPSS in terms of percentage of frequencies and chi-square. The study revealed that the use of English was highly important among cabin attendants. Listening and speaking skills were mostly needed. Problems of using the four skills were moderate

for cabin attendants. Air stewards and air stewardesses need to improve

32 their listening and speaking skills most; while air pursers and in-flight managers needed to improve all four skills in moderate to high level.

Chimroylarp (1998) performed a survey of English language needs of the overseas going Buddhist Missionary Monks. The purposes were to investigate the needs of the English language of the monks for daily use in living abroad and performing religious tasks in order to develop an ESP course outline for their orientation training. The results revealed that the monks evaluated themselves as moderate to low in using English. The most needs skills were listening and speaking. The most needed situation of English language use upon arrival was at immigration and customs of the countries they were going to be on duty.

Yutdhana (2000) conducted a survey of the English language needs of businesspersons in Chiang Mai for running their businesses. The study investigated the English needs of businesspersons in Chiang Mai by categorizing business into seven types: real estate and decoration, the tourism business, agriculture and agroindustries, finance and banking, handicraft and industries, health and education, and trading so as to reveal the role and importance of English in business circles in Thailand.

Kuen (2001) examined the communicative needs in sales in the Malaysian business context. The study looked at the communicative needs of sales personnel of a Malaysian owner-managers group of companies. More specifically, it focused on the productive skills of speaking and writing which sales personnel needed in their jobs, and the types of communicative events sales personnel were involved in and the communicative skills that they needed.

Meemark (2002) investigated the needs and problems of English language for tourist police. The results indicated that all sections of the tourist police strongly needed all four macro English language skills which are listening, speaking, reading and writing. Listening was considered the most important. The eleven groups of tourist police needed to improve all four English skills. As for specific English courses, most tourist police needed English training courses with the equal

33 proportions of Thai and English native teachers. The English training courses should emphasize listening and speaking skills, together with vocabulary.

Aunreun (2005) explored the English language needs of travel agents in Chiang Mai. The findings revealed that the English language was perceived as important for the travel agents. They thought of speaking as the skill they use most. Listening, writing and reading were also needed. Grammar and appropriate expressions and pronunciation were perceived as the lowest needs. They also felt that speaking was the skill with which they faced most problems followed by grammar and appropriate expression, listening and translation respectively. They hardly encountered problems in vocabulary in tourism and reading skills.

Dejkunjorn (2005) identified the English language needs of Thai pilots. The study revealed that most of the pilots assessed their English language abilities as “moderate”. They also rated English as highly important listening and speaking skills were mostly needed and the problems of using the four skills were moderate. Pilots needed to improve their listening and speaking skills most and made some mispronunciation during their flight duties.

As can be seen, the related research revealed the job needs of the use of English in various aspects according to the differences of the job field. For Thai Airways ground staff, the needs of English usage must be investigated to meet the needs of the staff in learning language and to give language knowledge in order that they can use the language in their real situations effectively and efficiently. This will finally help in designing the right course syllabus for “English for Ground Staff”.

CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

For this chapter, the researcher will review the methodology employed in this study.

Chapter Three is composed of five parts:

1. Research Design 2. Population 3. Sampling 4. Data collection 5. Data analysis

Research Design

The present study utilised a quantitative approach which a survey technique was mainly used to identify the English needs for Thai Airways ground staff. For this study, the questionnaire was constructed adopted by the researcher as the instrument to collect the data from all respondents.

The questionnaire used in this study

consisted of five parts as follows:

Part I The general information of the respondents

This section contained the respondents’ information about age, sex, educational background, function, position, duration of work in their function, the importance of English in job area, the opinion about English courses sufficiency, the latest English courses attendance and the significance of English courses. This part was designed in the form of both close-ended and open-ended questions

Part II General opinions about language skills in using English: listening, speaking, reading and writing

35 1) The self-assessment of the respondents’ English ability in listening, speaking, reading and writing skills

There were five choices of a Likert scale for the respondents to rate their levels in all English skills as follows:

5

-

Excellent

4

-

Good

3

-

Fair

2

-

Poor

1

-

Very Poor

2) The English needs in all four skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing

The respondents were asked to rank their needs of English according to the five - point Likert scale as follows:

5

-

Extremely needed

4

-

Mostly needed

3

-

Moderately needed

2

-

Slightly needed

1

-

Least needed

3) The difficulties when using all four skills in English: listening, speaking, reading and writing

The respondents were asked to rate the difficulties with using each English skill in the form of a five-point Likert scale as follows:

36 5

-

Extremely difficult

4

-

Mostly difficult

3

-

Moderately difficult

2

-

Slightly difficult

1

-

Least difficult

Part III The needs of the English language functions for the ground staff

In this part of the questionnaire, the questions were divided into four main sections regarding four main language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. In each section, the questions covered various English language functions for ground staff. A five-point Likert scale was used for the respondents to rate as follows:

5

-

Extremely needed

4

-

Mostly needed

3

-

Moderately needed

2

-

Slightly needed

1

-

Least needed

Moreover, the form of open-ended question to obtain the respondents’ suggestions was presented at the end of each section.

Part IV The difficulties with using English language functions of four skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing

This part was divided into four main sections as four language elements. The details in each section were the same as those in Part III, which covered the essential language functions for ground staff. The respondents rated the difficult areas by employing a five-point Likert scale as follows:

37 5

-

Extremely difficult

4

-

Mostly difficult

3

-

Moderately difficult

2

-

Slightly difficult

1

-

Least difficult

The open-ended question of suggestion was also asked at the end of each section.

Part V The Useful Suggestions

This was the open-ended part consisting of two items to obtain the general opinions of the respondents which were about the importance of English in their job area and the general suggestions about the English courses.

Construction and development of the Questionnaire

The construction procedures of the questionnaire used in this study followed these steps:

1. Various related research, books and journals concerning need analysis, ESP, English language functions and job descriptions of ground staff were investigated.

2. Three senior supervisors and three supervisors were interviewed by telephone to elicit general information about the extent of their English language functions needs and difficulties when using English.

Also, they were asked to

evaluate their subordinates’ English needs and problems. Moreover, an observation was undertaken while the staff were working on duty. This was to observe the English language functions needs and problems.

38 3. The initial draft of questionnaire was constructed according to the information gathered from the above steps. The draft questionnaire was presented to thesis advisor, thesis committee and two ground staff (senior supervisors) to check and revise content, form, wording of the questionnaire before being modified for piloting.

4. A pilot study was conducted with 30 ground staff at the Domestic Airport Terminal in order to check the effectiveness of the questionnaire and content understanding before the questionnaire was used in the main study.

5. After piloting, the questionnaire was finally clarified and modified in some points under the approval of thesis advisor and thesis committee. The questionnaire was derived and prepared for distributing to the target respondents in the main study.

Validity and reliability of the questionnaire

Validity

As can be seen, the questionnaire was constructed and developed based on the relevant literature concerning needs analysis and ESP, the preliminary studies, books about English language functions and the Passenger Handling Manual providing the scope of job description.

Moreover, the unstructured interview with senior

supervisors and supervisors, including the non-participant observation was undertaken for more useful information in constructing the draft questionnaire. To ensure the validity, the face and content were checked and revised under the supervision of thesis advisor, thesis committee and senior supervisors. After piloting, the final draft of the questionnaire was clarified and developed for using in main study. Therefore, this can be said that the final draft of the questionnaire which was distributed to the target respondents in this study had both face and content validity.

39 Reliability

The pilot of the questionnaire was tested by distributing to 30 ground staff at the Domestic Airport Terminal. This aimed to check the content understanding of the respondents. After collecting all 30 tried out questionnaires, the questionnaire was calculated for the reliability coefficient by employing the Cronbach Alpha method. The result revealed that the reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.937 which was accepted for social research with high reliability.

Population

The population used in the research were 1,166 ground staff working for Thai Airways International Public Company Limited. They were from 3 main functions of Service Delivery Department (KZ) as follows:

1. Airport Customer Services (KP) -

859 staff

2. Special Services (LP)

-

236 staff

3. Baggage Services (LL)

-

71 staff

The ground staff from the mentioned functions were chosen because they mainly use English in their job duty and also have to communicate face to face with the passengers.

Sampling

In the present study, the researcher employed various techniques of sampling. The researcher firstly used the Yamane’s formula (Yamane, 1973: 1088) for computating the minimum sample size which represented the whole population as shown below

40 Yamane’s Formula

n

=

N 1 + Ne2

n

=

Sample size

N =

Population

e

Acceptable error which is 0.05

=

The calculation was as the following:

n

=

1166 1 + (.05)2

=

297.69

The sample size was 298.

Therefore, the number of the samples in each function was distributed by using proportional stratified random sampling, as can be seen below.

Function

Population

Sample size

Airport Customer Services (KP)

859

220

Special Services (LP)

236

60

71

18

1,166

298

Baggage Services (LL) Total

Next, the questionnaires were randomly distributed to the target respondents according to the sample size calculated and stratified from the population of each function.

41 Data Collection

The collection of data was as the following:

1. The Inter-Office Communication letter (IOC) introducing the researcher and the purposes of the study was submitted to the Office of the Managing Director of Ground Customer Services Department (DK) requesting for permission to conduct the thesis, for the organisational structure and for the total number of ground staff (see Appendix C). As the researcher is one of the employees of Thai Airways International, The Inter-Office Communication letter (IOC) is considered as an official letter for communicating within the company.

2. 298 copies of questionnaire were handed out to the target ground staff who were on duty at International Airport Terminal.

3. After checking the completion of the returned questionnaires, the rate of the completed questionnaires was 73.15% which was 218 questionnaires. Next, these 218 questionnaires were prepared for data analysis.

Data Analysis

After obtaining the 218 completed questionnaires, the statistical devices were used to analyse the data which were as follows.

1. Frequency Distribution and Percentage were used to analyse the answers concerning general background of the respondents (Part I).

2. A five-point Likert scale was employed to score the levels of English ability, English skill needs and difficulties and English language functions needs and difficulties (Part II, III and IV) based on the following criteria:

42 Part II

The ability of English background:

Scale

English ability

Mean range

5

Excellent

4.21 - 5.00

4

Good

3.41 - 4.20

3

Fair

2.61 - 3.40

2

Poor

1.81 - 2.60

1

Very Poor

1.00 - 1.80

The level of English skills needs and difficulties:

Scale

English needs

English difficulties

Mean range

5

Extremely needed

Extremely difficult

4.21 - 5.00

4

Mostly needed

Mostly difficult

3.41 - 4.20

3

Moderately needed

Moderately difficult

2.61 - 3.40

2

Slightly needed

Slightly difficult

1.81 - 2.60

1

Least needed

Least difficult

1.00 - 1.80

Part III and IV

The level of English language functions needs and difficulties:

Scale

English language

English language

Mean range

functions needs

functions difficulties

5

Extremely

Extremely

4.21 - 5.00

4

Mostly

Mostly

3.41 - 4.20

3

Moderately

Moderately

2.61 - 3.40

2

Slightly

Slightly

1.81 - 2.60

1

Least

Least

1.00 - 1.80

43 3. Arithemetic Mean ( X ) and Standard Deviation Mean (S.D.) were used to calculate the average level of English background ability, English skills needs and difficulties and English functions needs and problems.

CHAPTER IV

RESULTS

Chapter Four reveals the results analyses from the questionnaire collected from ground staff working at Bangkok International Airport. The results are tabulated showing statistical values which are frequency percentage, mean and standard deviation and also showing the meaning of the statistical values rated. In parenthesis, the findings are described along with each table.

The chapter is composed of five parts as follows:

Part I General Information

Part II General Opinions about Language Skills in Using English: Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing

Part III The Needs in Using English Language Skills: Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing

Part IV The Difficulties in Using English Language Skills: Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing

Part V Suggestions

Part I General Information

This part shows general information about the 218 ground staff who completed and returned the questionnaires. It is also divided into two sections. One shows the respondents’ personal information while the other displays opinions about the importance of English language and English courses for the present job.

45 1. Information about the respondents’ personal information.

Table 1 General Information about the Respondents Regarding Age, Gender, Educational Background, Functions, Positions and Duration of Work (n = 218) Frequency

Percentage (%)

20-29

12

5.5

30-39

171

78.4

40-49

34

15.6

50-59

1

0.5

Male

40

18.3

178

81.7

197

90.4

21

9.6

60

27.5

139

63.7

19

8.7

Staff

14

6.4

Senior Staff

74

33.9

Supervisor

49

22.5

Senior Supervisor

18

8.3

Check-In Agent

63

28.9

Range of age (Years)

Gender

Female

Educational background Bachelor’s degree Master’s degree

Functions LP (Special Services) KP (Airport Customer Services) LL (Baggage Services)

Positions

46 Table 1 (Continued) (n = 218) Frequency

Percentage (%)

23

10.6

170

77.9

25

11.5

Duration of work Less than 7 years 7-14 years Over 14 years

Table 1 shows that most of the respondents are between 30-39 years of age which is 78.4% of the total sample. 15.6% of the sample is between 40-49 years of age, 5.5 % is between 20-29 years of age and 0.5% is between 50-59 years of age.

Concerning the gender, females take a majority share in the sample which is 81.7% while the rest is male at 18.3%.

Regarding the educational background, Table 1 indicates that most of the respondents or 90.4% graduated with a bachelor’s degree whereas 9.6% of the respondents obtained a master’s degree.

Table 1 also shows that the respondents are employed in various functions of Thai Airways International. The largest group or 63.7% works in KP function. The following groups work in LP and LL functions, or 27.5% and 8.7% respectively.

As for the positions of the respondents attending in this study, there are five levels of positions shown in Table 1. Most of them or 33.9% are Senior Staff, 28.9% are Check-In Agents, 22.5% are Supervisors, 8.3% are Senior Supervisors and 6.4% identify themselves as Staff.

Moreover, from Table 1, duration of working is suggested by the number of working years. The majority of the respondents or 77.9% have been working for 7-14 years. The successive groups of 11.5% and 10.6% have been working for more than 14 years and less than 7 years respectively.

47 2. The opinions about the importance of English language and English courses for the present job

Table 2 The Opinions about the Importance of the English Language and English Courses for the Present Job (n = 218) Frequency Percentage (%) Importance of English on the present job - Yes

218

100.0

0

0

10

4.6

208

95.4

45

20.6

- 1-6 years

116

53.2

- 7-13 years

57

26.1

63

15.1

155

84.9

215

98.6

3

1.4

- No

Provision of English course - Adequate -Not Adequate

Last time attending the English course provided - Never or can not remember

The importance of an English training course - To get promoted in your career in the future - Not important for this matter

The importance of English training course - To improve all skills in English to communicate with passengers in English more fluently - Not important for this matter

48 Table 2 (Continued) (n = 218) Frequency Percentage (%) The importance of English training course - To access all English entertainment channels such as movies, music, magazines, etc - Not important for this matter

79

36.2

139

63.8

Table 2 presents that all respondents (100%) agree unanimously that English is important for their present job. Furthermore, it is advised in the table that 208 respondents or 95.4% indicate an inadequacy of the English courses provided while only 4.6% of them suggest that it is “adequate”. Moreover, 53.2% of the respondents reveal that the last time they attended an English course provided was 1-6 years ago. 26.1% attended 7-13 years ago and 20.6% of them have never attended an English course provided or can not remember when exactly they attended a course.

Table 2 also discloses the importance of an English training course for the respondents. 98.6% of them view that an English training course helps them improve all skills in English to communicate with passengers in English more fluently. Besides, 36.2% of them claim that an English training course helps them access all English entertainment channels such as movies, music, magazines, etc while only 15.1% considers that English training course helps them get promoted in their career in the future.

49 Part II General Opinions about Language Skills in Using English: Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing

This part is comprised of three sections: self-assessment of English language skills, level of English language skills needs and level of English language skills difficulties.

1. Self-assessment of English Language Skills

Table 3 Self-Assessment of English Language Skills (n = 218)

X

S.D.

Meaning

Listening

3.28

0.49

Fair

Speaking

3.17

0.55

Fair

Reading

3.23

0.56

Fair

Writing

2.97

0.64

Fair

3.16

0.56

Fair

Skills

Total

Table 3 illustrates that the ground staff consider their all skills “fair” which are Listening ( X = 3.28), Reading ( X = 3.23), Speaking ( X = 3.17) and Writing ( X = 2.97).

50 2. The Levels of English Language Skills Needs

Table 4 The Levels of English Language Skills Needs

(n = 218) Skills

X

S.D.

Meaning

Listening

4.33

0.72

Extremely needed

Speaking

4.22

0.73

Extremely needed

Reading

3.18

0.79

Moderately needed

Writing

2.67

0.95

Moderately needed

3.60

0.80

Mostly needed

Total

Table 4 displays that there are both “extremely needed” and “moderately needed” among skills. Listening ( X = 4.33) and speaking ( X = 4.22) are rated “extremely needed” skills. Further, reading skills ( X = 3.18) and writing skills ( X = 2.67) are viewed as “moderately needed”.

3. The Levels of English Language Skills Difficulties

Table 5 The Levels of English Language Skills Difficulties

(n = 218)

X

S.D.

Listening

3.43

0.93

Mostly Difficult

Speaking

3.40

0.89

Moderately Difficult

Reading

2.79

0.79

Moderately Difficult

Writing

2.94

0.92

Moderately Difficult

Total

3.14

0.88

Moderately Difficult

Skills

Meaning

As can be seen from Table 5, listening skills ( X = 3.43) are considered as “mostly difficult”. In additions, speaking skills ( X = 3.40), writing skills ( X = 2.94) and reading skills ( X = 2.79) are indicated “moderately difficult”.

51 Part III The Needs in Using English Skills: Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing

This part is responsible for presenting the findings about the needs in using English language functions regarding to the four main English language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. This part is divided into four sections according to the mentioned skills. Each section contains various items about various English language functions needed in job areas. First, the listening skills section contains 11 items of English language functions. Second, the speaking skills section consists of 25 items of English language functions. Third, the reading skills section contains 3 items of English language functions. Last, the writing skills section has 4 items of English language functions.

1. The ground staff’s needs of English language listening skills in their jobs

Table 6 The Ground Staff’s Needs of English Language Listening Skills in Their Jobs

(n = 218) Needs of Listening Skills

X.

S.D.

Meaning

4.36

0.69

Extremely needed

- Listening to passengers’ complaints

4.22

0.76

Extremely needed

- Listening to passengers’ satisfaction

4.06

0.76

Mostly needed

- Listening to personal details and

4.25

0.74

Extremely needed

- Listening to conversations by phone

4.03

0.83

Mostly needed

- Listening to idiomatic English

3.73

0.84

Mostly needed

- Listening to American English accent

376

0.81

Mostly needed

- Listening to British English accent

3.80

0.84

Mostly needed

- Listening to Australian English accent

3.75

0.94

Mostly needed

- Listening to Singaporean English accent

3.51

0.95

Mostly needed

- Listening to Indian English accent

3.57

0.93

Mostly needed

3.91

0.83

Mostly needed

- Listening to and understanding what passengers want

information

Total

52 From Table 6 above, it is found that there are three listening skills identified as “extremely needed”, which include listening to and understanding what passengers want ( X = 4.36), listening to personal details and information ( X = 4.25) and listening to passengers’ complaints ( X = 4.22).

Table 6 shows that “mostly needed” was recorded in many skills including listening to passengers’ satisfaction, listening to conversation by phone and listening to idiomatic English ( X = 4.06, X = 4.03 and X = 3.73 consecutively).

The level of “mostly needed” is also established in the aspect of listening to various accents. This includes listening to British, American, Australian, Indian, and Singaporean English accent ( X = 3.80, X = 3.76, X = 3.75, X = 3.57 and X = 3.51 respectively).

2. The ground staff’s needs of English language speaking skills in their jobs

Table 7 The Ground Staff’s Needs of English Language Speaking Skills in Their Jobs

(n = 218) Needs of Speaking Skills

X.

S.D.

Meaning

- Welcoming and greeting

3.96

0.89

Mostly needed

- Bidding farewell to passengers

3.76

0.95

Mostly needed

- Inquiring about passengers’

4.16

0.72

Mostly needed

- Making polite requests

4.06

0.79

Mostly needed

- Providing and explaining information

4.18

0.77

Mostly needed

- Offering assistance

3.97

0.80

Mostly needed

- Giving passengers directions

3.87

0.85

Mostly needed

- Collecting fees

3.41

0.97

Mostly needed

- Refusing politely

4.10

0.78

Mostly needed

- Offering options for passengers

4.06

0.75

Mostly needed

information and needs

about flight itineraries and other services

53 Table 7 (Continued)

(n = 218) Needs of Speaking Skills

X.

S.D.

Meaning

3.61

1.09

Mostly needed

- Conducting conversation by phone

3.79

0.97

Mostly needed

- Apologising when mistakes occur

4.21

0.77

Extremely needed

- Explaining the reason for mistakes

4.22

0.76

Extremely needed

- Negotiating for mutual interest

4.18

0.82

Mostly needed

- Expressing empathy

3.97

0.88

Mostly needed

- Expressing gratitude when passengers

3.82

0.88

Mostly needed

- Clarifying questions or confirming messages

3.99

0.81

Mostly needed

- Showing interest to encourage passengers

3.84

0.83

Mostly needed

- Making public address announcements

3.39

1.12

Moderately needed

- Pronouncing English consonant and

3.86

0.88

Mostly needed

- Speaking with appropriate word stress

3.74

0.93

Mostly needed

- Speaking with appropriate word intonation

3.78

0.90

Mostly needed

- Speaking using airline terminology correctly

3.90

0.86

Mostly needed

4.03

0.91

Mostly needed

3.91

0.87

Mostly needed

- Suggesting travel information (e.g. accommodation, culture, restaurant, tradition, tourist attractions, transportation etc.)

give compliments

to keep talking

vowel sounds

- Speaking politely according to grammatical rules and social etiquette Total

Table 7 indicates 25 items of the language functions needed. Two items, explaining the reason for mistake ( X = 4.22) and apologising when mistakes occur ( X = 4.21), are advised “extremely needed”.

54 In addition, the rest of the 22 language functions are counted as “mostly needed”, the table shows slightly different mean of each skill. Those language functions are negotiating for mutual interest ( X = 4.18), providing and explaining information about flight itineraries and other services ( X = 4.18), inquiring about passengers’ information and needs ( X = 4.16), refusing politely ( X = 4.10), offering options for passengers ( X = 4.06), making polite request ( X = 4.06), speaking politely according to grammatical rules and social etiquette ( X = 4.03), clarifying questions or confirming messages ( X = 3.99), expressing empathy ( X = 3.97), offering assistance ( X = 3.97), welcoming and greeting ( X = 3.96), speaking using airline terminology correctly ( X = 3.90), giving passengers directions ( X = 3.87), pronouncing English consonant and vowel sounds ( X = 3.86), showing interest to encourage passengers to keep talking ( X = 3.84), express gratitude when passengers give compliments ( X = 3.82), conducting conversation by phone ( X = 3.79), speaking with appropriate word intonation ( X = 3.78), bidding farewell to passengers ( X = 3.76), speaking with appropriate word stress ( X = 3.74), suggesting travel information ( X = 3.61) and collecting fees ( X = 3.41).

Only one item is viewed as “moderately needed”, that is making public address announcement ( X = 3.39).

3. The ground staff’s needs of English language reading skills in their jobs

Table 8 The Ground Staff’s Needs of English Language Reading Skills in Their Jobs

(n = 218) Needs of Reading Skills

X.

S.D.

Meaning

- Reading passengers’ travel documents

3.71

0.89

Mostly needed

- Reading telexes, faxes

3.69

0.91

Mostly needed

- Reading Passenger Handling Manuals

3.62

0.96

Mostly needed

3.67

0.92

Mostly needed

(PHM) and Ground Operation Manuals (GOM) Total

55 Considering the reading skills needed in Table 8, all skills, which are reading passengers’ travel documents, reading telexes, faxes and reading the Passenger Handling Manuals (PHM) and Ground Operation Manuals (GOM), are regarded as “mostly needed” ( X = 3.71, X = 3.69 and X = 3.62 respectively).

4. The ground staff’s needs of English language writing skills in their jobs

Table 9 The Ground Staff’s Needs of English Language Writing Skills in Their Jobs

(n = 218) Needs of Writing Skills

X ..

S.D.

Meaning

3.75

0.99

Mostly needed

- Writing daily reports

3.52

0.96

Mostly needed

- Writing messages for passengers

3.38

1.07

Moderately needed

- Issuing airline documents

3.38

1.19

Moderately needed

3.50

1.05

Mostly needed

- Conducting telexes correctly to aviation format

Total

It is stressed in Table 9 that conducting telexes correctly to aviation format ( X = 3.75) and writing daily reports ( X = 3.52) are two writing skills of the “mostly needed” level.

Writing messages for passengers and issuing airline documents are viewed as “moderately needed”. Both have the same mean of 3.38.

Part IV The Difficulties with Using English Skills: Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing

This part is responsible for presenting the findings about the difficulties in using English language functions regarding the four main English language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. This part is divided into four sections according to the mentioned skills. Each section contains various items about various English language functions needed in job areas. First, the listening skills section

56 contains 11 items of English language functions. Second, the speaking skills section consists of 25 items of English language functions. Third, the reading skills section contains 3 items of English language functions. Last, the writing skills section has 4 items of English language functions. All items in each section are like those in Part III.

1. The ground staff’s difficulties with English language listening skills in their jobs

Table 10 The Ground Staff’s Difficulties with English Language Listening Skills in

Their Jobs (n = 218) Difficulties with Listening Skills

X.

S.D.

Meaning

- Listening to and understanding what

3.35

0.86

Moderately difficult

- Listening to passengers’ complaints

3.35

0.94

Moderately difficult

- Listening to passengers’ satisfactions

3.22

0.89

Moderately difficult

- Listening to personal details and

3.36

0.91

Moderately difficult

- Listening to conversations by phone

3.34

0.85

Moderately difficult

- Listening to idiomatic English

3.48

0.88

Mostly difficult

- Listening to American English accent

3.24

0.84

Moderately difficult

- Listening to British English accent

3.34

0.86

Moderately difficult

- Listening to Australian English accent

3.35

0.92

Moderately difficult

- Listening to Singaporean English accent

3.22

0.86

Moderately difficult

- Listening to Indian English accent

3.38

0.88

Moderately difficult

3.33

0.88

Moderately difficult

passengers want

information

Total

Table 10 above substantiates two levels of skills difficulties, which are “mostly difficult” and “moderately difficult”, are found in listening skills.

In respect of “mostly difficult” level, only listening to idiomatic English ( X = 3.48) is suggested.

57 Indicating for “moderately difficult”, most listening skills are in this level. Those listening skills are listening to personal details and information, listening to and understanding what passengers want, listing to the passengers’ complaints, listening to conversation by phone and listening to passengers’ satisfaction ( X = 3.36, X = 3.35, X = 3.35, X = 3.34 and X = 3.22 respectively).

As for the difficulties of the skills in listening to different accents, Table 10 indicates “moderately difficult” was found in listening to Indian English accent, Listening to Australian English accent, listening to British English accent, listening to American English accent, and listening to Singaporean English accent ( X = 3.39,

X = 3.35, X = 3.34, X = 3.24 and X = 3.22 respectively).

2. The ground staff’s difficulties with English language speaking skills in their jobs

Table 11 The Ground Staff’s Difficulties with English Language Speaking Skills in

Their Jobs (n = 218)

X.

S.D.

Meaning

- Welcoming and greeting

2.74

0.90

Moderately difficult

- Bidding farewell to passengers

2.67

0.92

Moderately difficult

- Inquiring about passengers’

3.01

0.88

Moderately difficult

- Making polite requests

3.08

0.90

Moderately difficult

- Providing and explaining information

3.07

0.90

Moderately difficult

- Offering assistance

3.02

0.86

Moderately difficult

- Giving passengers directions

2.93

0.92

Moderately difficult

- Collecting fees

2.74

0.95

Moderately difficult

- Refusing politely

3.27

0.94

Moderately difficult

Difficulties with Speaking Skills

information and needs

about flight itineraries and other services

58 Table 11 (Continued)

(n = 218) Difficulties with Speaking Skills

X.

S.D.

Meaning

- Offering options for passengers

3.28

0.92

Moderately difficult

- Suggesting travel information

3.22

0.94

Moderately difficult

- Conducting conversation by phone

3.18

0.87

Moderately difficult

- Apologising when mistakes occur

3.41

0.95

Mostly difficult

- Explaining the reason for mistakes

3.46

0.91

Mostly difficult

- Negotiating for mutual interest

3.51

0.92

Mostly difficult

- Expressing empathy

3.24

0.89

Moderately difficult

- Expressing gratitude when passengers

2.99

0.85

Moderately difficult

3.14

0.84

Moderately difficult

3.24

0.87

Moderately difficult

- Making public address announcements

2.90

0.92

Moderately difficult

- Pronouncing English consonant and

3.31

0.90

Moderately difficult

- Speaking with appropriate word stress

3.31

0.90

Moderately difficult

- Speaking with appropriate word

3.34

0.87

Moderately difficult

3.28

0.87

Moderately difficult

3.45

0.86

Mostly difficult

3.15

0.90

Mostly difficult

(e.g. accommodation, culture, restaurant, tradition, tourist attractions, transportation etc)

give compliments - Clarifying questions or confirming messages - Showing interest to encourage passengers to keep talking

vowel sounds

intonation - Speaking using airline terminology correctly - Speaking politely according to grammatical rules and social etiquette Total

59 Table 11 reveals the level of “mostly difficult” in four speaking skills which are negotiating for mutual interest, speaking politely according to grammatical rules and social etiquette, explaining the reasons for mistakes and apologising when mistakes occur ( X = 3.51, X = 3.46, X = 3.45 and X = 3.41 respectively).

Most speaking skills difficulties in Table 11 above are shown “moderately difficult” Those are speaking with appropriate word intonation ( X = 3.34), speaking with appropriate word stress ( X = 3.31), pronouncing English consonant and vowel sounds ( X = 3.31), offering options for passengers ( X = 3.28), speaking using airline terminology correctly ( X = 3.28), refusing politely ( X = 3.27), showing interest to encourage passengers to keep talking ( X = 3.24), expressing empathy ( X =3.24), suggesting travel information ( X = 3.22), conducting conversations by phone ( X = 3.18), clarifying questions or confirming messages ( X = 3.14), making polite requests ( X = 3.08), providing and explaining information about flight itineraries and other services ( X = 3.07), offering assistance ( X = 3.02), inquiring about passengers’ information and needs ( X = 3.01), expressing gratitude when passengers give compliments ( X = 2.93), giving passengers directions ( X = 2.93), making public address announcements ( X = 2.90), welcoming and greeting ( X = 2.74), collecting fees ( X = 2.74) and bidding farewell to passengers ( X = 2.67).

60 3. The ground staff’s difficulties with English language reading skills in their jobs

Table 12 The Ground Staff’s Difficulties with English Language Reading Skills in

Their Jobs (n = 218) Difficulties with Reading Skills

X.

S.D.

Meaning

- Reading passengers’ travel documents

2.88

0.78

Moderately difficult

- Reading telexes and faxes

3.00

0.83

Moderately difficult

- Reading Passenger Handling Manuals

3.09

0.87

Moderately difficult

2.99

0.83

Moderately difficult

(PHM) and Ground Operation Manuals (GOM) Total

As can be seen from Table 12, all reading skills are deemed as ‘moderately difficult’. Those concerned skills are reading Passenger Handling Manuals and Ground Operation Manuals ( X = 3.09), reading telexes and faxes ( X = 3.00) and reading passengers’ travel documents ( X = 2.88).

61 4. The ground staff’s difficulties with English language writing skills in their jobs

Table 13 The Ground Staff’s Difficulties with English Language Writing Skills in

Their Jobs (n = 218) Difficulties with Writing Skills

X.

S.D.

Meaning

- Conducting telexes correctly to

3.77

0.90

Mostly difficult

- Writing daily reports

3.09

0.84

Moderately difficult

- Writing messages for passengers

3.10

0.90

Moderately difficult

- Issuing airline documents

3.22

0.93

Moderately difficult

3.30

0.90

Moderately difficult

aviation format

Total

As shown in Table 13, conducting telexes correctly to aviation format ( X = 3.77) is only one of writing skills viewed as “mostly difficult”.

In addition, the writing skills suggested as “moderately difficult” are issuing airline documents, writing messages for passengers and writing daily reports ( X = 3.22, X = 3.10 and X = 3.09 consecutively).

62 Part V Suggestions

This part responds to two open-ended questions. The respondents may answer or express their opinions freely. The two questions are “How does English play important roles in your current job?” and “How do you want the company to arrange English courses to meet your needs?”.

Question 1: How does English play important roles in your current job?

In respect of Question 1, there are some interesting opinions expressed by the respondents as follows:

1) Very important, since the staff need to use English as a main medium to communicate with passengers.

2) The fluency and correctness in using English language imply ability and professionalism in dealing with all cases.

3) English as a universal language helps staff render services to passengers and conform working procedures with other stations dealing with documents and equipment.

Question 2: How do you want the company to arrange English courses to meet your needs?

Regarding Question 2, there are some significant points raised by the respondents as follows:

1) Establish English language aids or a special unit as references

2) Provide an English course on a three or six month basis

3) Set up a ‘brush-up’ course

63 4) Design practical and polite English courses or general and particular English courses

5) Provide special promotions for English proficient staff

6) Have a regular test for staff

7) Revamp existing English courses towards more case study modules

8) Issue certificates for those who graduate from the class with the highest score

9) Discuss about the problems experienced from intercultural communication

CHAPTER V

DISCUSSION

This chapter presents discussion about the findings which indicate ground staff’s perceptions about English language needs and difficulties. Implications of the study are also presented as a guideline contributing to course development. Moreover, the researcher recommends some interesting aspects for further study.

Discussion of the Study

For this section, the main points of interest revealed by the findings in the previous chapter will be discussed in detail.

Discussion of the findings is

demonstrated as follows:

The importance of the English language and English language training courses for ground staff

From the findings, all respondents perceived that English language competence is crucial for their present jobs. This is because they are working in the international airline industry which mainly depends upon the transportation of passengers and goods from countries all over the world. As English is the main medium in international business nowadays, and the ground staff are responsible for rendering all concerned services, they have to use English as a tool to communicate with passengers and render services. Crystal (1997) states that English has already become a global language, as it is used by more people than any other languages. Moreover, the language has achieved a genuinely global status and has developed a special role recognized in every country. It is a lingua franca, or a common language, in the world and is also a truly international medium. Scollon and Scollon (1997) also suggest that English is now used as the major language of international business and governmental communication. One consequence of this widespread use of English is that more than half of the speakers of English speak it as a second, learned (schooled)

65 language. In short, the ground staff need to use English in their job areas as a main medium to communicate with passengers from many countries.

Because of the importance of English courses, the majority of the respondents claimed that the English course provided is not sufficient to their needs. They also reasoned that an English training course is important for them as it helps them to improve the ability of all skills in the English language to communicate with passengers more fluently. Also, some of them indicated that the English course assists them to be promoted in their career in the future. The above reasons seem to be the consequential motivation and eagerness among ground staff to participate in English training courses. Gardner and Lambert (1972) introduce the notions of instrumental and integrative motivation.

Instrumental motivation refers to the

learner’s desire to learn a language for utilitarian purposes (such as employment, travel or exam purposes) in the context of language learning. On the other hand, integrative motivation refers to the desire to learn a language to integrate successfully into the target language community. Furthermore, Brown (2000) points out that learners rarely select one form of motivation when learning a second language, but rather a combination of both orientations, therefore, both integrative and instrumental motivations are not necessarily mutually exclusive.

On the whole, the ground staff would like the related organizations to arrange English training courses for them as they are useful for their job areas. It might be said that as a result of English courses, the ground staff may enhance their conversational skills and have more confidence in conversing in English. This may also lead to an opportunity for job promotion on their career paths.

The needs in using English language skills

Among the four element English skills, the ground staff identified that they extremely need to use listening and speaking skills, as their first consideration (the highest level of rating) while writing and reading skills are mostly and moderately needed respectively. This is similar to the findings of Ketkaew (1997) who surveyed

66 the cabin attendants’ needs of English and revealed that listening and speaking skills were the most needed (the highest level of rating).

It can be seen that the job fields concerning customer services especially faceto-face (bilateral) communication tend to employ listening and speaking skills as medium of communication most. This is to say that the ground staff need to conduct face-to-face communication with passengers most. The mediums in doing so are listening and speaking.

Listening skills

Among four main skills, listening is the greatest needs of the ground staff. Most of their duties concern contact with passengers face to face for facilitating services before departure and upon arrival of the flights. The ground staff need to listen to information from the passengers face-to-face which includes passengers’ wants, personal details and complaints as well as satisfaction. Apart from that, the ground staff have to conduct telephone conversations when passengers call for inquiries. They also need to listen to idioms in English. Besides, they need to listen to various accents of English which are British, American, Indian, and Singaporean (and other) accents. Therefore, those ground staff should have frequent opportunities to listen to a variety of different native speeches during normal conversation so that they can become familiar with different accents the speakers use as Sucompa (1998) suggests.

It can be concluded that listening is the skill that ground staff extremely need. This is because they regularly communicate with passengers face to face. Telephone conversation is one of the tasks they need to perform appropriately. In addition, they need to listen to various accents of passengers from other countries who are both native and non-native speakers of English. They also need to listen to idiomatic English.

67 Speaking skills

Speaking skills are regarded as the second highest need for the ground staff. In fact, listening and speaking should be integrated since ground staff regularly speak to passengers as much as they regularly listen to them. In the similar area of jobs, Aunruen (2005) found that listening and speaking skills were the greatest need for the travel agents in Chiang Mai when they communicate with foreign customers. In the current study, the ground staff need to speak English with the passengers in their daily routine jobs. The most frequent situations in which they use speaking skills are relevant to face-to-face conversations.

Explaining the reasons for mistakes and apologising when mistakes occur are extremely needed functions. This is to say that they need to use English to explain in case of flight irregularities such as a flight delay or cancellation or passenger denied a seat due to an overbooked flight, for instance. For this season, ground staff need to apologise when unpleasant or inconvenient incidents happened intentionally or unintentionally and explain what they can do or what will be done next. This seems to be a very sensitive issue in which it is necessary to negotiate tactfully with the passengers for mutual interest. They also need to provide general information about flight itineraries and other services. Importantly from the study, they need to learn how to conduct polite conversations in many points of view such as refusing, requesting, clarifying or confirming messages, expressing empathy, offering assistance or options for passengers and giving directions. Moreover, they need to learn how to conduct appropriate telephone conversations to perform their duties effectively. Ground staff also use telephone (as well as walkie-talkie) to communicate with other staff to facilitate services. For this case, in order to avoid misunderstanding and misinterpretation, the alphabet spellings laid down by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) are used when spelling out words or terms (see Appendix D). To increase the competence in their communication, they should have enough knowledge about the implementation of grammatical rules and vocabulary including airline terminology. They should also learn how to pronounce English consonant and vowel sounds, and how to speak appropriate word intonations and word stress, as a result, these will enhance their speaking skills. There should be a public address

68 announcement manual published as a reference when the ground staff need to make an announcement through a public address system

From the above mentioned points, it might be concluded that in most of their routine duties, they need to interact regularly face-to-face with passengers in many aspects concerning services. Considering social relationship between ground staff (hosts) and passengers (guests), the ground staff should follow the formal setting by using the polite communications in all manners with passengers.

Moreover,

conducting appropriate telephone conversations should be a part of English training courses which should provide sufficient skills to handle it. The English course should also facilitate adequate knowledge about grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, word intonation and word stress in order that ground staff are armed with appropriate communicative ability components to function their jobs with confidence. As a consequence, this would increase more or less the standard of their jobs performed and also fulfill the passengers’ satisfaction. The English language communication manuals and references should be developed as a standard tool that the ground staff can easily access when required.

Reading skills

In this study, reading skills are needed to a moderate extent among the ground staff. They need to read to obtain the information from passengers’ travel documents such as air tickets, passports, visa, baggage tag, hotel vouchers and recommendation letters. They regularly skim these kinds of documents to observe the restrictions before they decide to perform other next service procedures. In addition, ground staff need to read to get information about both regular and irregular cases of service from telexes sent in from other stations. The text structure and language used presented in the telexes tend to follow specific moves and steps generally used and understood among the personnel working at the airport in airline discourse community. If ground staff are familiar with standard telexes, it seems that they would produce standard telexes to be sent out to inform all cases to other stations as well. Furthermore, they read the Passenger Handling Manuals (PHM) and Ground Operation Manuals (GOM) as their sources of job procedure references. The ground staff might need to use them

69 just for a period at the beginning of the employment. After that they might learn by their experience or from senior staff about job procedures. They might use them again when they feel unsure about the procedures.

In general, the ground staff need to skim the travel documents such as air tickets, passports and visas for restrictions, name spelling, birthday, birth place and expiry date in order that they will know what they should follow to render services. Obtaining information from telexes is a crucial task that they should understand the text presented in a form of codes or abbreviations generally used in aviation industry in order to perform duties accordingly. The manuals about job procedures are rarely used but just a period of being a trainee.

Writing skills

Regarding writing skills, conducting telexes is regularly used to convey the messages about passengers’ services to other stations.

Codes and abbreviations

including text structure are specifically produced to reach the communication target which is to handle the services for passengers such as wheelchair passengers, VIP passengers, unaccompanied minors, young passengers, sitting or lying sick passengers, etc. The airlines use letter codes to identify cities (or airports), names of airlines, and so on. The identification of flights may be considered a number code which is a system of number or abbreviated words that is used to make communication easier (see Appendix C). Also, there should be an English course responding to how to write a successive daily report even how to write understandable messages for passengers. Furthermore, although they need to issue airline documents, most of the documents have specific form and format and the language used is just the same as in producing telexes in terms of codes, abbreviations and short words. Codes and abbreviations should be used with all types of messages in order to save communication cost.

On the whole, conducting standard telexes seems to be the most important task among those writing skills since they have to produce telexes regularly and they hope that telex will serve them well in conveying meaningful messages about passengers’

70 services. As their target, they should conduct telexes correctly to the international standard format. In addition, the style of writing and form of related documents should be taught and introduced in order that ground staff will handle all tasks precisely.

The difficulties with using English language skills

The findings of the study showed that the respondents assessed their English language proficiency in all four main language skills as fair.

Moreover, they

perceived that they have difficulties with those four language skills to some degrees. For this study, they viewed listening as “mostly difficult” and ranked down to speaking, writing and reading respectively. This is similar to Meemark (2002), she found that listening is regarded as the main problem of the majority of tourist police, followed by speaking, writing and reading respectively.

In spite of the fact that English is a foreign language learned at school and university level in a Thai context, Thai people rarely communicate in English in daily life. It may be the reason why they cannot listen to and speak English well. As a result, they may experience difficulty in some areas when they are entering into a jobrelated English language discourse. In this case, the ground staff revealed that they encounter difficulties in listening followed by speaking, writing and reading respectively.

Listening skills

Listening skills are perceived as the greatest difficulty for ground staff. In this study, listening and understanding English idioms is considered as mostly difficult among ground staff. Even though understanding and producing the second language idioms is very difficult, every language learner must be prepared to meet the challenge because idioms occur so frequently in spoken and written English and the learner has to understand them for communicative purpose. Cooper (1994) identifies that because of a lower level of linguistic competence in the target language, the second language learners are at a distinct disadvantage in understanding the second

71 language figurative expressions, yet they will meet idioms in all forms of discourse: in conversations, lectures, movies, radio broadcasts and television programs, etc. In other words, learning English idioms is essential to the second language or foreign language learners.

The ground staff also have moderate difficulties in listening to general face-toface conversations: listening to passengers’ desires, complaints, satisfactions and personal details and information. Furthermore, they added that there are moderate difficulties in conducting telephone conversations. Chaudron, (1990 as cited in Aunreun, 2005) commented that conducting a foreign language on the telephone is difficult because the telephone does not allow the speaker and his listener to use the visual components of normal face-to-face communication. The exact meaning of certain stress and intonation patterns might escape when he could not see the speaker. Moreover, the telephone is often noisy, causing interference and distortion of certain acoustic aspects of speech in characteristic ways. Sibilant and fricative sounds were easily confused. Chandron (1990) also adds that phone calls in a foreign language are almost always professionally or personally important, with high information content and little verbal redundancy. It could be embarrassing to ask for repetition, especially more than once.

The ground staff also face difficulties in listening to various accents which are Indian, Australian, British, American and Singaporean English accent respectively. Accents in English are the way English is pronounced by different people from different places. Some passengers are native speakers possessing a range of accents whereas others speak English with other ‘accents’ e.g. Chinese English or can use English a little or cannot use English at all. As a result, the ground staff may not understand various English accents accurately. This finding is consistent with that of Flowerdew (1994) who summarised several studies supporting the view that unfamiliar accents, both native and non-native, cause difficulty in listening comprehension for both native and non-native speakers of English.

72 In the main, the perceived difficulties with listening skills have signified some viewpoints in developing an English course to improve the staff’s ability. The course should emphasise providing discussion based on lists of idioms collected by the ground staff or supplied by the course developer. These lists should include idioms which are similar in Thai and English and are likely to cause interference. In addition, the ground staff should be also provided an opportunity for training to conduct a fluent and appropriate telephone interaction of various situations apart from a face-toface communication. Furthermore, the ground staff need to be trained to be familiar with different accents of both native and non-native speakers of English.

Speaking skills

There are some interesting communicative points of view revealed from the finding of speaking skill difficulties which may be applied for a purposeful English pedagogy. The ground staff mostly use face-to-face communication with passengers. They have to speak to negotiate, to get information or to answer inquiries. As they are non-native speakers of English and they have to speak fluently, accurately and appropriately to convey messages, they might encounter some challenges in using English. Moreover, they also face some problems in dealing with conversations which may show emotion from passengers because they have to deal with the mistakes by explaining the reasons and apologizing for those mistakes. Considering the formal setting, they mostly find grammatical difficulties in performing politeness in conversation. At this point, it may be viewed that the relationships between ground staff and passengers determine the communicative key which is the conversation showing politeness. Consequently, to produce polite sentences grammatically, the ground staff should have proficient language knowledge. Moreover, appropriate word intonation, word stress, English consonant and vowel pronunciation and airline terminology are generally difficult for them. It can be viewed that on a basis of communicative competence, all mentioned skills are essential for them to establish appropriate expressions in English because the ground staff need to speak English to communicate with foreign passengers on different occasions and situations such as greeting, offering options, refusing or requesting politely, expressing empathy and gratitude, suggesting travel information and so on. Canale and Swain (1980) identify

73 that an analysis of communicative competence relate to four dimensions. Firstly, grammatical competence refers to the domain of grammatical and lexical capacity. Secondly, Sociolinguistic competence refers to an understanding of the social context in which communication takes place, including role relationships the shared information of the participants and the communicative purpose of their interaction. Thirdly, discourse competence refers to the interpretation of individual message elements in terms of their interconnectedness and of how meaning is represented in relation to the entire discourse or text. Fourthly, strategic competence refers to the coping strategies that communicators employ to initiate, terminate, maintain, repair and redirect communication.

It can be concluded that to achieve the goal of communication, especially speaking, the ground staff should enhance their communicative competence. It means that they should comprehend adequate knowledge of grammatical rules, vocabulary especially specific vocabulary in the airline field and understand the roles of interaction between themselves and passengers in order to determine the style of politeness. They should also be able to interpret the meaning of messages conveyed from the passengers about their needs to evaluate the situations and finally they should establish the appropriate communications by employing the proper English language functions relevant to each situation. In addition, to enhance speaking skills, the ground staff should converse with understandable word intonation, word stress and pronunciation.

Writing and reading skills

In their routine duties, the ground staff have to send telexes to other stations for passengers’ service purposes, and they find some difficulties in conducting telexes correctly to aviation format. Telexes in the airline industry are internationally understood and the same format and language used are exactly applied for this task. Simultaneously, the ground staff need to read them to obtain information in order that they can take appropriate action. For this reason, they should understand the meaning of codes and briefs represented in the aviation standard telexes.

74 The ground staff also deal with a lot of airline documents. Most of the documents are printed forms that are needed to be filled in with codes or briefs. The language used in documents is the same as in telexes. In consequence, they should recognize the purpose of each document form in order to use the right form for a particular purpose. Further, for daily reports, the language used is the same style as in telexes, but the text might be longer. For writing messages to inform passengers, they should use standard English with comprehensive grammar and vocabulary as passengers are not in the airline discourse community and cannot, therefore, understand aviation language.

In addition, the ground staff have moderate difficulties with reading the Passenger Handling Manuals (PHM) and Ground Operation Manuals (GOM). As they use manuals as references for their service procedures, they might encounter a lot of specific vocabulary and terms in the airline field. They also need to observe personal details and information from passengers’ travel documents such as tickets, visas, passports, itineraries, etc.

Overall, the difficulties with writing and reading imply that there should be a course to instruct the ground staff about how to conduct telexes correctly to aviation standard format. The course should also advise not only the proper language used in telexes and airline documents such as codes, briefs and text structure, but also comprehensive grammar and airline-related vocabulary. Finally, this might bring about an increase in the ability of their writing and reading skills.

Implications of the Study

English for Specific Purposes (ESP) is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learner’s needs. On the other hand, ESP is defined to meet the specific needs of the learners (Evans and John, 1997). Therefore, to observe learners’ needs, needs analysis should be conducted. Ellis and Johnson (1994) claim that needs analysis is a method of obtaining a detailed description of learners’ or a group of learners’ needs. It takes into account the specific purposes for which the learner will use the language, the kind of language to

75 be used, the starting level, and the target level which is to be achieved. Information can be obtained from a range of different people such as company staff, trainers and the learners themselves. It will have implications for the future training approach.

With respect to this study, the findings suggest that English courses should conform to the actual needs of the ground staff who need to use English in their job areas. As a consequence, English courses should be designed to meet the specific needs of the staff related to their occupations. On the basis of this study, English language training course should be provided to the ground staff as all of them viewed that English is important for their jobs and almost all of them perceived that the existing English training courses provided is not sufficient. The training should focus on conversational interactions of various situations and occasions as ground staff mainly need listening and speaking skills to render all kinds of services face to face with the passengers. The course should raise an awareness of the importance of being able to communicate clearly and functionally in English at the same time showing politeness.

English course should also provide adequate knowledge about

grammatical rules, job-related vocabulary, understandable pronunciation, appropriate word intonation and word stress and idioms in order to equip ground staff with confidence to communicate. They should be trained to become inured to different accents of both native and non-native speakers of English. Furthermore, the ground staff should have an opportunity to be trained to conduct a fluent and appropriate telephone conversation. In terms of writing and reading skills, there should be a course instructing ground staff about how to conduct telexes correctly to aviation standard format at the points of language used, codes, briefs and text structure. This will also be beneficial when they deal with other airline documents because the style of language used is the same as conducting telexes. In addition, they need to skim passengers’ travel documents for personal information. They should learn to become accustomed to all concerned documents. The course should also provide knowledge about airline-related vocabulary and terms as they need to read the Passenger Handling Manuals (PHM) and Ground Operation Manuals (GOM) as their service references.

76 The ground staff also suggested that the company should establish English language aids and a special unit as references. The company should also provide an English course on a three or six month basis and, at the same time, set up a brush-up course. The ground staff recommended that the company should design practical and polite English courses or general or particular English courses and arrange a regular test of English proficiency for staff. The company should revamp existing English courses towards more case study modules. To motivate ground staff to learn, the company should issue certificates for those who graduate from class with the highest score and provide special promotions for English proficient staff. In addition, the problems experienced from intercultural communication with passengers, both verbal and non-verbal viewpoints, should be brought into discussion in classroom for more clarification among ground staff or be raised by course developers or teachers. This, finally, determines the guideline in dealing with passengers from different cultures. Apart from courses instructed by teachers or educators, the researcher strongly recommends that the application of technology in language classrooms should be supplemented as a tool for teaching for example film, radio, television, language labs with audio and videotapes or CDs, computers and interactive video or CD etc. Furthermore, with recent advances in multimedia technology, computer-assisted language learning (CALL) should be developed by concerned organizations to be a source in learning. This is to say that the integration of sound, voice interaction, text, video and animation will make it possible to create interactive learning environments which enhance the classroom model of language learning. Today, it seems that computer technology becomes more accessible. Interest in using computers as tools to support language learning is growing, both from the perspective of language teachers and that of language learners.

The ground staff perceived that English, as a global language, is very important since they need to use English as the main medium to communicate with passengers and to complete working procedures with other stations. Fluency and correctness in using the English language implies ability and professionalism in dealing with all cases. Consequently, the content in the English course training should be designed to be relevant to the specific needs of the ground staff. This will result in developing the English courses equipped with the essential skills and language

77 functions for them to contribute to passenger services and carry out their workplace duties. As a consequence, the English training courses will bring about the staff’s confidence in conversing in English and enhance their conversational and other skills. This leads to passenger satisfaction and improves the level of service and competitive ability of the company.

Recommendations for Further Research

In order to avoid unintentional boredom with a long questionnaire, the length of the questionnaire was controlled by focusing on English needs and problems of the respondents serving the main purpose of course contents. As in the piloting period, some respondents made complaints that there were too many items to answer. For this reason, the researcher should not add more items to investigate their preferred learning methods and the questionnaire was adjusted for the main study. For those who would like to express any interesting viewpoints about teaching methods, the open-ended questions of suggestion given by the respondents were provided in part five of the questionnaire. Therefore, the questionnaire used in the present study aimed at investigating the ground staff’s needs and problems when using English. The findings mainly provide the crucial information about course contents. Hence, future research should be conducted in the aspect of strategy analysis which will obtain the information about the teaching methodology that the staff prefer. Jordan (1997: 27) points out that strategy analysis focuses on an analysis of learning strategies. It involves not only methods of teaching, but also methods of learning. That is how learners best learn the language. Related areas of relevance in strategy analysis are preferences in terms of grouping size, extent of homework, learning in/out of class, correction preferences, use of audio/visual sources and method of assessment.

Moreover, the study mainly employed a questionnaire as a medium to collect data about English language needs and problems from the respondents. If the future research intends to identify the English needs or other languages needs in other occupations, or other related jobs, or similar jobs, it might extend some aspects of the present study and other data gathering techniques might be employed such as interviews and observations.

78 Furthermore, it should be noted that this study has examined only specific data from the ground staff about English usage. To extend the effectiveness and efficiency of English courses, passengers should participate in assessing the ground staff’s English language proficiency. Hence, the related organizations should conduct a survey to explore passengers’ satisfaction about the ground staff’s English language communication in both aspects of verbal and non-verbal. As a consequence, the data surveyed might be put into a part of English courses.

Conclusion

This is a quantitative study using a questionnaire as a main tool to collect data from 218 respondents.

Regarding the ground staff’s demographic data, it is found that the majority of respondents are females and the age is ranged between 30 - 39 years. For educational background, most of them have graduated with a bachelor’s degree. The majority of the ground staff participating in this study are from KP Function (Airport Customer Services) and senior staff are mostly identified. Apart from that, they have been working as ground staff for 7 – 14 years.

Importantly, all of them absolutely agree that English is essential for their present jobs and almost all of them viewed that the English course provided is not sufficient for them.

Furthermore, most stated that their last English course

participation was 1 – 6 years ago. The majority of them considered that an English training course helps them improve English skills to communicate with passengers more fluently. Some viewed that an English training course helps them get promoted in their career in the future.

In terms of English proficiency, the ground staff perceived their own English proficiency as fair in all four skills which are listening, speaking, reading and writing. Considering the needs in using English skills, listening and speaking skills are extremely needed while reading and writing skills are moderately needed. As for the

79 difficulties with English skills, listening skills are rated mostly difficult whereas speaking, reading and writing skills are seen moderately difficult respectively.

In terms of the needs of English language functions in all four main skills, the ground staff identified their needs as follows.

As for listening skills, the extremely needed functions are listening to and understanding what passengers want, listening to passengers’ complaints and listening to personal details and information. The mostly needed functions are listening to passenger satisfaction, listening to conversations by phone, listening to idiomatic English and listening to various English accents: British, American, Australian, Indian and Singaporean English accent respectively.

Regarding speaking skills, apologising when mistakes occur and explaining the reason for mistakes are extremely needed. Most of the English language functions are mostly needed which are negotiating for mutual interest, providing and explaining information about flight itineraries and other services, inquiring about passengers’ information and needs, refusing politely, offering options for passengers, making polite request, speaking politely according to grammatical rules and social etiquette, clarifying questions or confirming messages, expressing empathy, offering assistance, welcoming and greeting, speaking using airline terminology correctly, giving passengers directions, pronouncing English consonant and vowel sounds, showing interest to encourage passengers to keep talking, expressing gratitude when passengers give compliments, conducting conversations by phone, speaking with appropriate word intonation, bidding farewell to passengers, speaking with appropriate word stress, suggesting travel information and collecting fees. In addition, the ground staff moderately need skills in making public address announcement.

As regards reading skills, all English language functions are deemed as mostly needed: reading passengers’ travel documents, reading telexes & faxes and reading Passenger Handling Manuals and Ground Operation Manuals.

80 With regard to writing skills, conducting telexes correctly to aviation format and writing daily report are considered mostly needed while writing messages for passengers and issuing airline documents are moderately needed.

In terms of the difficulties with English language functions in all four main skills, the ground staff clarified their difficulties as follows.

Regarding listening skills, listening to idiomatic English is mostly difficult. Most of the listening skills, the ground staff encounter with the difficulties to moderate extent which are listening to personal details and information, listening to and understanding what passengers want, listing to the passengers’ complaints, listening to conversation by phone and listening to passengers’ satisfaction and listening to different accents: Indian, Australian, British, American and Singaporean English accent respectively.

As for speaking skills, apologizing when mistakes occur, explaining the reason for mistakes, negotiating for mutual interest and speaking politely according to grammatical rules and social etiquette are demonstrated mostly difficult. The rest of language functions of speaking skills are reflected moderately difficult which are speaking with appropriate word intonation, speaking with appropriate word stress, pronouncing English consonant and vowel sounds, offering options for passengers, speaking using airline terminology correctly, refusing politely, showing interest to encourage passengers to keep talking, expressing empathy, suggesting travel information, conducting conversation by phone, clarifying questions or confirming messages, making polite requests, providing and explaining information about flight itineraries and other services, offering assistance, inquiring about passengers’ information and needs, expressing gratitude when passengers give compliments, giving passengers directions, making public address announcements, welcoming and greeting, collecting fees and bidding farewell to passengers.

With respect to reading skills, all of them, reading the Passenger’s Handling Manuals (PHM) and Ground Operation Manuals (GOM), reading telexes and faxes and reading passenger’s travel documents, are considered as moderately difficult.

81 Concerning writing skills, only conducting telexes correctly to aviation format is perceived as mostly difficult whereas issuing airline documents, writing messages for passengers and writing daily reports are suggested to be moderately difficult.

Therefore, the findings from the present study provide useful sources for course contents from which a syllabus designer or course developer could benefit. The results are analyzed from data collected from ground staff, consequently, English courses development would serve the real needs of the ground staff in using the English language for their current jobs. This will increase the confidence of ground staff in conversing in English for handling all cases and performing their job duties. As a consequence, the proficient staff will lead to greater passengers’ service satisfaction and greater potential for competitiveness and success as a business.

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APPENDICES

Appendices A The Questionnaire

90 Part 1: General information of the ground staff Instruction: Please put X in the appropriate box or fill in the blanks provided.

1. Age……………………………years

2. Sex

Female

Male

3. Educational background Bachelor’s Degree Master’s Degree Doctoral’s Degree Others (please specify)……………………………………..……….

4. How many years have you been working as a ground staff? …………years: Your present Function on

LP

KP

LL

Position……..………………………………………………………....…….…..

5. Is English important for your present job?

Yes

No

6. Does the company provide adequate English courses for you? Yes

No

7. When was the last time you attended the English training course provided? (Please specify)…………………….months/years ago.

8. What reasons do you think that English training course is important for you? (You can make more than 1 choice) To get promoted in your career in the future To improve all skills in English to communicate with passengers in English more fluently. To access all English entertainment channels such as movies, music, magazines, etc. Others (Please specify)…………………………………………………….

91 Part 2: General Opinions about language skills in using English: listening, speaking, reading and writing Instruction: Please put X into the appropriate box.

1. How do you rate your listening skills in English? Excellent

Good

Fair

Poor

Very poor

Poor

Very poor

Poor

Very poor

Poor

Very poor

2. How do you rate your speaking skills in English? Excellent

Good

Fair

3. How do you rate your reading skills in English? Excellent

Good

Fair

4. How do you rate your writing skills in English? Excellent

Good

Fair

5. In your job, how often do you need to use the following language skills?

Skills

Most

A Lot

Somewhat

A Little

Least

Listening Speaking Reading Writing

6. In your job, what level of difficulty do you encounter for the following language skills?

Skills Listening Speaking Reading Writing

Most

A Lot

Somewhat

A Little

Least

92 Part 3: The needs in using English skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. Instruction: Please put X into the appropriate box.

1. To what extent do you need the following Listening Skills in your job?

Listening Skills - Listening to and understanding what passengers want. - Listening to passengers’ complaints - Listening to passengers’ satisfaction - Listening to personal details and information - Listening to conversations by phone - Listening to idiomatic English - Listening to American English accent - Listening to British English accent - Listening to Australian English accent - Listening to Singaporean English accent - Listening to Indian English accent

Extremely

Mostly

Moderately

Slightly

Least

93 2. To what extent do you need the following Speaking Skills in your job?

Speaking Skills - Welcoming and greeting. - Bidding farewell to passengers. - Inquiring about passengers’ information and needs. - Making polite requests. - Providing and explaining information about flight itineraries and other services. - Offering assistance. - Giving passengers directions. - Collecting fees. - Refusing politely. - Offering options for passengers. - Suggesting travel information (e.g. accommodation, culture, restaurants, tradition, tourist attractions, transportation, etc.).

- Conducting conversations by phone. - Apologising when mistakes occur. - Explaining the reason for mistakes.

Extremely

Mostly

Moderately

Slightly

Least

94 Speaking Skills - Negotiating for mutual interest. - Expressing empathy. - Expressing gratitude when passengers give compliments. - Clarifying questions or confirming messages. - Showing interest to encourage passengers to keep talking. - Making public address announcements. - Pronouncing English consonant and vowel sounds. - Speaking with appropriate word stress. - Speaking with appropriate word intonation. - Speaking using airline terminology correctly. - Speaking politely according to grammatical rules and social etiquette.

Extremely

Mostly

Moderately

Slightly

Least

95 3. To what extent do you need the following Reading Skills in your job?

Reading Skills

Extremely

Mostly

Moderately

Slightly

Least

- Reading passengers’ travel documents. - Reading telexes, faxes. - Reading Passenger Handling Manuals (PHM) and Ground Operation Manuals (GOM).

4. To what extent do you need the following Writing Skills in your job?

Writing Skills - Conducting telexes correctly to aviation format. - Writing daily reports. - Writing messages for passengers. - Issuing airline documents.

Extremely

Mostly

Moderately

Slightly

Least

96 Part 4: The difficulties in using English skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. Instruction: Please put X into the appropriate box.

1. Listening: To what extent do you encounter difficulties with the following Listening Skills?

Listening Skills - Listening to and understanding what passengers want. - Listening to passengers’ complaints - Listening to passengers’ satisfaction - Listening to personal details and information - Listening to conversations by phone - Listening to slang expressions - Listening to idiomatic English - Listening to American English accent - Listening to British English accent - Listening to Australian English accent - Listening to Singaporean English accent - Listening to Indian English accent

Extremely

Mostly

Moderately

Slightly

Least

97 2. Speaking: To what extent do you encounter difficulties with the following Speaking Skills?

Speaking Skills - Welcoming and greeting. - Bidding farewell to passengers. - Inquiring passengers’ information and needs. - Making polite requests. - Providing and explaining information about flight itineraries and other services. - Offering assistance. - Giving passenger directions. - Collecting fees. - Refusing politely. - Offering options for passengers.

- Suggesting travel information (e.g. accommodation, culture, restaurants, tradition, tourist attractions, transportation, etc.).

- Conducting conversations by phone. - Apologising when mistakes occur.

- Explaining the reason for mistakes.

Extremely

Mostly

Moderately

Slightly

Least

98 Speaking Skills - Negotiating for mutual interest. - Expressing empathy. - Expressing gratitude when passengers give compliments. - Clarifying questions or confirming messages. - Showing interest to encourage passenger to keep talking. - Making public address announcements. - Pronouncing English consonant and vowel sounds. - Speaking with appropriate word stress. - Speaking with appropriate word intonation. - Speaking using airline terminology correctly. - Speaking politely according to grammatical rules and social etiquette.

Extremely

Mostly

Moderately

Slightly

Least

99 3. Reading: To what extent do you encounter difficulties with the following Reading Skills?

Reading Skills

Extremely

Mostly

Moderately

Slightly

Least

- Reading passengers’ travel documents. - Reading telexes, faxes. - Reading Passenger Handling Manuals (PHM) and Ground Operation Manuals (GOM).

4. Writing: To what extent do you encounter difficulties with the following Writing Skills?

Writing Skills - Conducting telexes correctly to aviation format.

- Writing daily reports.

- Writing messages for passengers.

- Issuing airline documents.

Extremely

Mostly

Moderately

Slightly

Least

100 Part 5: Suggestions.

1. How does English play important roles in your current job? ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………

2. How do you want the company to arrange English courses to meet your needs? ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………

Appendices B The Questionnaire (Thai version)

102

แบบสอบถาม เรื่อง บทวิเคราะหความตองการในการใชภาษาอังกฤษของพนักงานตอนรับภาคพื้น บริษัท การบินไทยจํากัด (มหาชน) คําชี้แจง แบบสอบถามฉบับนี้มีวัตถุประสงคเพื่อทราบขอมูลเกี่ยวกับความตองการ และปญหา ใน การใชภาษาอังกฤษของพนักงานตอนรับภาคพื้น บริษทั การบินไทยจํากัด (มหาชน) ซึ่ง ขอมูลที่ไดจากทานจะเก็บไวเปนความลับ โดยจะนําเสนอผลที่ไดไปใชในการศึกษา เพือ่ หา แนวทางในการจัดทํา ปรับปรุง และพัฒนาหลักสูตรภาษาอังกฤษสําหรับพนักงานตอนรับ ภาคพื้น เพื่อใหสอดคลองกับความตองการของพนักงาน แบบสอบถามฉบับนี้แบงออกเปน 5 สวน ไดแก สวนที่ 1 ขอมูลทั่วไปของพนักงาน สวนที่ 2 ความคิดเห็นทัว่ ไปเกี่ยวกับทักษะการใชภาษาอังกฤษในดานการฟง พูด อาน เขียน สวนที่ 3 ความตองการในการใชภาษาอังกฤษในดานการฟง พูด อาน เขียน สวนที่ 4 ปญหาในการใชภาษาอังกฤษในดานการฟง พูด อาน เขียน สวนที่ 5 ขอเสนอแนะ ผูวิจัยใครขอความรวมมือจากทานในการตอบแบบสอบถามทุกขอ และขอใหทานไดแสดง ความคิดเห็นใหตรงกับความเปนจริงใหมากที่สุด และขอขอบคุณทานทีใ่ หความรวมมือในการตอบ แบบสอบถามเปนอยางดี ขอแสดงความนับถือ

นายธวัชชัย แตงเนียม นิสิตปริญญาโท สาขาภาษาอังกฤษเพื่อวัตถุประสงคเฉพาะ คณะมนุษยศาสตร มหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร

103

สวนที่ 1 ขอมูลทั่วไปของพนักงาน คําชี้แจง โปรดทําเครื่องหมาย X ลงใน ☐หนาขอความ หรือกรอกขอมูลใหครบทุกขอตามความ เปนจริงเกีย่ วกับตัวทาน 1. อายุ

☐20-29 ป ☐40-49 ป

☐30-39 ป ☐50-59 ป

2. เพศ

☐หญิง

☐ชาย

3. ระดับการศึกษา ☐ ปริญญาตรี ☐ ปริญญาโท ☐ ปริญญาเอก ☐ อื่น ๆ (ระบุ) ..................................................................................................... 4. ทานทํางานในแผนก ☐LP ☐KP ☐LL ตําแหนง............................................................ ระยะเวลาในการทํางาน........................ป 5. ทานคิดวาภาษาอังกฤษมีความสําคัญตองานของทานหรือไม

☐สําคัญ

☐ไมสําคัญ

6. ทานคิดวาการอบรมการใชภาษาอังกฤษที่บริษัทจัดใหมีความเพียงพอหรือไม ☐ ไมเพียงพอ ☐ เพียงพอ 7. ทานเขารับการอบรมภาษาอังกฤษที่ทางบริษัทจัดขึ้นครั้งลาสุดผานมาแลว................ป 8. ทานคิดวาการฝกอบรมภาษาอังกฤษมีความสําคัญตอทานอยางไร ☐ เพื่อใชประกอบในการพิจารณาเลื่อนขั้น ☐ เพื่อพัฒนาทักษะในการใชภาษาอังกฤษใหดีขึ้น เพื่อใชสื่อสารกับผูโดยสาร ☐ เพื่อความบันเทิงที่เปนภาษาอังกฤษเชน ภาพยนตร ฟงเพลง วารสารตาง ๆ ☐ อื่น ๆ (ระบุ) .......................................................................................................

104

สวนที่ 2 ความคิดเห็นทัว่ ไปเกี่ยวกับทักษะการใชภาษาอังกฤษในดานการฟง พูด อาน เขียน คําชี้แจง โปรดทําเครื่องหมาย X ลงใน ☐ ตามความ เปนจริงเกี่ยวกับตัวทาน 1. ความสามารถทางดานการฟง และเขาใจภาษาอังกฤษของทานอยูในระดับ ☐ดีมาก ☐ดี ☐ปานกลาง ☐นอย ☐นอยที่สุด 2. ความสามารถทางดานการพูดภาษาอังกฤษของทานอยูในระดับ ☐ดีมาก ☐ดี ☐ปานกลาง ☐นอย

☐นอยที่สุด

3. ความสามารถทางดานการอาน และเขาใจภาษาอังกฤษของทานอยูใ นระดับ ☐ดีมาก ☐ดี ☐ปานกลาง ☐นอย ☐นอยที่สุด 4. ความสามารถทางดานการเขียนภาษาอังกฤษของทานอยูในระดับ ☐ดีมาก ☐ดี ☐ปานกลาง ☐นอย

☐นอยที่สุด

5. ในการทํางานของทาน ทานใชทักษะภาษาอังกฤษดานตาง ๆ มากนอยเพียงใด ทักษะ การฟง การพูด การอาน การเขียน

มากที่สุด

มาก

ปานกลาง

นอย

นอยที่สุด

6. ในการทํางาน ทานพบปญหาในการใชทักษะภาษาอังกฤษดานตาง ๆ มากนอยเพียงใด ทักษะ การฟง การพูด การอาน การเขียน

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นอยที่สุด

105

สวนที่ 3 ความตองการในการใชภาษาอังกฤษในดานการฟง พูด อาน เขียน คําชี้แจง โปรดทําเครื่องหมาย X ลงใน ☐ ตามความเปนจริง 1. การฟง ทานตองการใชทกั ษะภาษาอังกฤษดานการฟงในการทํางานของทานมากนอยเพียงใด ความตองการใชทักษะการฟง ฟง และเขาใจความตองการทั่วไปของ ผูโดยสาร ฟง และเขาใจเมื่อผูโดยสารไมพอใจ

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ฟง และเขาใจเมื่อผูโดยสารพึงพอใจ ฟง และเขาใจรายละเอียดขอมูล ตาง ๆ ของผูโดยสาร ฟง และเขาใจบทสนทนาทางโทรศัพท ฟงและเขาใจคําสํานวนภาษาอังกฤษ (IDIOM) ฟงและเขาใจภาษาอังกฤษสําเนียง อเมริกัน ฟงและเขาใจภาษาอังกฤษสําเนียง อังกฤษ ฟงและเขาใจภาษาอังกฤษสําเนียง ออสเตรเลียน ฟงและเขาใจภาษาอังกฤษสําเนียง สิงคโปร ฟงและเขาใจภาษาอังกฤษสําเนียง อินเดียน

อื่น ๆ (ถามี)............................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................................................

106

2. การพูด ทานตองการใชทกั ษะภาษาอังกฤษดานการพูดในการทํางานของทานมากนอยเพียงใด ความตองการใชทักษะการพูด กลาวตอนรับ และทักทายผูโดยสาร กลาวอําลาผูโดยสาร สอบถามขอมูลความตองการของ ผูโดยสาร กลาวแสดงความตองการดวยความ สุภาพ ใหคําแนะนํา และบอกรายละเอียด เกี่ยวกับเที่ยวบิน และบริการอื่น ๆ เสนอความชวยเหลือ ใหคําแนะนําเกี่ยวกับทิศทางตาง ๆ การเรียกเก็บคาธรรมเนียมตาง ๆ พูดปฏิเสธไดอยางสุภาพ เสนอทางเลือกใหผูโดยสาร แนะนํา และใหขอมูลเกี่ยวกับการ เดินทาง เชน ที่พัก วัฒนธรรมประเพณี สถานที่ทองเที่ยวตาง ๆ เปนตน สนทนาโตตอบทางโทรศัพท แสดงการขอโทษเมื่อเกิดความ ผิดพลาดขึ้น อธิบายสาเหตุของความผิดพลาด เจรจาเพื่อทําความเขาใจ หรือตอรอง แสดงความเห็นใจ แสดงการตอบรับเมื่อผูโดยสารกลาวชม สอบถามหรือกลาวย้ําคําถามหรือ ขอความที่ไมเขาใจ พูดแสดงความสนใจเพื่อใหการ สนทนาดําเนินตอไป ประกาศทางเครื่องกระจายเสียง ออกเสียงสระ และพยัญชนะ ภาษาอังกฤษไดอยางถูกตอง (PRONUNCIATION)

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107

ความตองการใชทักษะการพูด ออกเสียงเนนคําหนักเบา (STRESS) พูดตามทวงทํานองที่ถูกตอง (INTONATION) พูด และเขาใจคําศัพทในแวดวงการบิน ไดอยางถูกตอง พูดสื่อสารไดอยางสุภาพตามหลัก ไวยากรณ และเหมาะสมตามมารยาท สังคม

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อื่น ๆ (ถามี)............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................. 3. การอาน ทานตองการใชทักษะภาษาอังกฤษดานการอานในการทํางานของทานมากนอยเพียงใด ความตองการใชทักษะการอาน อานขอมูลจากเอกสารการเดินทางของ ผูโดยสาร อานขอมูลจากเทเล็กซ อานเนื้อหาในการอานคูมือ ประกอบการทํางาน เชน PHM (Passenger Handling Manual), GOM (Ground Operation Manual)

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อื่น ๆ (ถามี)............................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................................................

108

4. การเขียน ทานตองการใชทกั ษะภาษาอังกฤษดานการเขียนในการทํางานของทานมากนอย เพียงใด ความตองการใชทักษะการเขียน สงเทเล็กซทางคอมพิวเตอรใหสถานี ปลายทางไดอยางถูกตอง ตามหลักสากล เขียนรายงานประจําวัน เขียนขอความขาวสารถึงผูโดยสาร เขียน และออกเอกสารทางธุรกิจการบิน

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อื่น ๆ (ถามี)............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................. สวนที่ 4 ปญหาในการใชภาษาอังกฤษในดานการฟง พูด อาน เขียน คําชี้แจง โปรดทําเครื่องหมาย X ลงใน ☐ ตามความเปนจริง 1. การฟง ทานพบปญหาในการฟงภาษาอังกฤษในการทํางานของทานมากนอยเพียงใด ปญหาดานการฟง ฟง และเขาใจความตองการทั่วไปของ ผูโดยสาร ฟง และเขาใจเมื่อผูโดยสารไมพอใจ ฟง และเขาใจเมื่อผูโดยสารพึงพอใจ ฟง และเขาใจรายละเอียดขอมูล ตาง ๆ ของผูโดยสาร ฟง และเขาใจบทสนทนาทางโทรศัพท ฟงและเขาใจคําสํานวนภาษาอังกฤษ (IDIOM) ฟงและเขาใจภาษาอังกฤษสําเนียง อเมริกัน ฟงและเขาใจภาษาอังกฤษสําเนียง อังกฤษ

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ปญหาดานการฟง ฟงและเขาใจภาษาอังกฤษสําเนียง ออสเตรเลียน ฟงและเขาใจภาษาอังกฤษสําเนียง สิงคโปร ฟงและเขาใจภาษาอังกฤษสําเนียง อินเดียน

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อื่น ๆ (ถามี)............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................. 2. การพูด ทานพบปญหาในการพูดภาษาอังกฤษในการทํางานของทานมากนอยเพียงใด ปญหาดานการพูด กลาวตอนรับ และทักทายผูโดยสาร กลาวอําลาผูโดยสาร สอบถามขอมูลความตองการของ ผูโดยสาร กลาวแสดงความตองการดวยความ สุภาพ ใหคําแนะนํา และบอกรายละเอียด เกี่ยวกับเที่ยวบิน และบริการอื่น ๆ เสนอความชวยเหลือ ใหคําแนะนําเกี่ยวกับทิศทางตาง ๆ การเรียกเก็บคาธรรมเนียมตาง ๆ พูดปฏิเสธไดอยางสุภาพ เสนอทางเลือกใหผูโดยสาร แนะนํา และใหขอมูลเกี่ยวกับการ เดินทาง เชน ที่พัก วัฒนธรรมประเพณี สถานที่ทองเที่ยวตาง ๆ เปนตน สนทนาโตตอบทางโทรศัพท แสดงการขอโทษเมื่อเกิดความ ผิดพลาดขึ้น

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ปญหาดานการพูด อธิบายสาเหตุของความผิดพลาด

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เจรจาเพื่อทําความเขาใจ หรือตอรอง แสดงความเห็นใจ แสดงการตอบรับเมื่อผูโดยสารกลาวชม สอบถามหรือกลาวย้ําคําถามหรือ ขอความที่ไมเขาใจ พูดแสดงความสนใจเพื่อใหการ สนทนาดําเนินตอไป ประกาศทางเครื่องกระจายเสียง ออกเสียงสระ และพยัญชนะ ภาษาอังกฤษไดอยางถูกตอง (PRONUNCIATION) ออกเสียงเนนคําหนักเบา (STRESS) พูดตามทวงทํานองที่ถูกตอง (INTONATION) พูด และเขาใจคําศัพทในแวดวงการบิน ไดอยางถูกตอง พูดสื่อสารไดอยางสุภาพตามหลัก ไวยากรณ และเหมาะสมตามมารยาท สังคม

อื่น ๆ (ถามี)............................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................................................

111

3. การอาน ทานพบปญหาในการอานภาษาอังกฤษในการทํางานของทานมากนอยเพียงใด ปญหาดานการอาน อานขอมูลจากเอกสารการเดินทางของ ผูโดยสาร อานขอมูลจากเทเล็กซ

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อานเนื้อหาในการอานคูมือ ประกอบการทํางาน เชน PHM (Passenger Handling Manual), GOM (Ground Operation Manual)

อื่น ๆ (ถามี)............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................. 4. การเขียน ทานพบปญหาในการเขียนภาษาอังกฤษในการทํางานของทานมากนอยเพียงใด ปญหาดานการเขียน สงเทเล็กซทางคอมพิวเตอรใหสถานี ปลายทางไดอยางถูกตองตามหลักสากล เขียนรายงานประจําวัน เขียนขอความขาวสารถึงผูโดยสาร เขียน และออกเอกสารทางธุรกิจการบิน

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อื่น ๆ (ถามี)............................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................................................

112

สวนที่ 5 ขอเสนอแนะ คําชี้แจง โปรดกรอกขอความที่ทานเห็นสมควร และเปนประโยชนตอ การศึกษาวิจยั 1. ทานคิดวาภาษาอังกฤษมีความสําคัญตอการทํางานของทานอยางไร ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ 2. ขอเสนอแนะทัว่ ไป เกีย่ วกับการใชภาษาอังกฤษในการทํางานของทาน ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................

Appendices C The Inter-Office Communication Letter (IOC)

114

ศูนยลูกเรือ บริษัท การบินไทยจํากัด หลักสี่ กรุงเทพฯ 15 พฤศจิกายน 2548 เรียน DK เรื่อง ขอความอนุเคราะหขอมูลเกี่ยวกับพนักงานตอนรับภาคพื้นเพื่อทํางานวิจยั สิ่งที่สงมาดวย 1. แบบสอบถาม จํานวน 1 ฉบับ 2. สําเนาบัตรประจําตัวพนักงาน กระผม นายธวัชชัย แตงเนียม พนักงานตอนรับบนเครื่องบินยุโรป บริษัทการบินไทย จํากัด (มหาชน) สังกัด QV เลขประจําตัว 27996 ปจจุบันกําลังศึกษาอยูใ นระดับปริญญาโท สาขาวิชาภาษาอังกฤษเพื่อวัตถุประสงคเฉพาะ ภาควิชาภาษาตางประเทศ คณะมนุษยศาสตร มหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร ใครเรียนขอความอนุเคราะหเพือ่ ทําการเก็บขอมูลของพนักงานตอนรับภาคพื้น เพื่อดําเนินการทําวิทยานิพนธ ในหัวขอ “An Analysis of English Needs for Thai Airways Ground Staff” ในการทําวิทยานิพนธดังกลาว จําเปนตองเก็บรวบรวมขอมูลเกี่ยวกับการใชภาษาอังกฤษ ของพนักงานตอนรับภาคพืน้ แผนกตาง ๆ ทางดานปญหาในการใชภาษาอังกฤษ และความตองการ ที่จะศึกษาเพิ่มเติม หรือปรับปรุงการใชภาษาอังกฤษใหดียิ่งขึ้น โดยใชแบบสอบถาม และสัมภาษณ พนักงานในสังกัดของทาน ซึ่งผลจากการเรียบเรียงวิทยานิพนธในครั้งนี้ จะเปนประโยชนตอ หนวยงานที่มหี นาที่เกีย่ วของกับการจัดหลักสูตรภาษาอังกฤษของพนักงานตอนรับภาคพื้นตอไป จึงเรียนมาเพื่อโปรดใหความอนุเคราะหในการเก็บรวบรวมขอมูลดังกลาวดวย ขอแสดงความนับถือ

(นายธวัชชัย แตงเนียม) พนักงานตอนรับบนเครื่องบินยุโรป หมายเลขประจําตัว 27996

Appendices D The Alphabet Spellings

116 The Alphabet Spellings

Alphabet

ICAO Used

Commercial Used Hotel/Reservations

A

ALPHA

ABLE

B

BRAVO

BAKER

C

CHARLIE

CHARLIE

D

DELTA

DOG

E

ECHO

EASY

F

FOXTROT

FOX

G

GOLF

GEORGE

H

HOTEL

HOW

I

INDIA

ITEM

J

JULIET

JIMMY

K

KILO

KING

L

LIMA

LOVE

M

MIKE

MIKE

N

NOVEMBER

NAN

O

OSCAR

OBO

P

PAPA

PETER

Q

QUEBEC

QUEEN

R

ROMEO

ROGER

S

SIERRA

SUGAR

T

TANGO

TEAR

U

UNIFORM

UNCLE

V

VICTOR

VICTOR

W

WHISKEY

WILLIAM

X

X-RAY

X-RAY

Y

YANKEE

YOLK

Z

ZULU

ZEBRA

Source: English in Airline Business, Parasakul (2004) ICAO = International Civil Aviation Organization

Appendices E Codes and Abbreviations

118

1. Airline and city/airport codes Source: OAG Flight Guide Worldwide. May, 2006, Vol. 7, No. 11

119

120

121

122

123

124

125

126

127

128

129

130

131

132

133

134

135

2. Partial listing of abbreviation used with all types of messages

136 ABT

-

ABOUT

ACC

-

ACCORDING

ACFT

-

AIRCRAFT

ACK

-

ACKNOWLEDGE

ADIN

-

ADVISE INSTRUCTIONS

ADNO

-

ADVISE IF NOT OK

ADS

-

ADDRESS

AGN

-

AGAIN

AP

-

AIRPORT

APROX

-

APPROXIMATE

ARR

-

ARRIVE

ASAP

-

AS SOON AS POSSIBLE

AUTH

-

AUTHORIZE

AUX

-

AUXILIARY

AVBL

-

AVAILABLE

BFR

-

BEFORE

BKG

-

BOOKING

BLND

-

BLIND PASSENGER

CFM

-

CONFIRM

CFR

-

COMMUNICATION FAILURE

CGO

-

CARGO

CHD

-

CHILD

CHTR

-

CHARTER

CIS

-

CENTRAL INFO SYSTEM

CK

-

CHECK

CMA

-

COMMA

CNL

-

CANCEL

COM

-

COMMUNICATIONS

COND

-

CONDITION

CONT

-

CONTINUE

CONX

-

CONNECTION

COR

-

CORRECTION

CPY

-

COPY

CTC

-

CONTACT

CIP

-

COMERCIALLY

CTF

-

CORRECTION TO FOLLOW

IMPORTANT PERSON DAPO

-

DO ALL POSSIBLE

DEST

-

DESTINATION

DISP

-

DISPATCH

DIVT

-

DIVERT

DOC

-

DOCUMENT

DCT

-

DIRECT

EOA

-

END OF ADDRESS

ENRT

-

EN ROUTE

FAA

-

FEDERAL AVIATION

FAC

-

FACILITY

ADMINISTRATION FIG

-

FIGURE

FLT

-

FLIGHT

FLW

-

FOLLOW

FM

-

FROM

FYI

-

FOR YOUR INFORMATION

GA

-

GO AHEAD

HTL

-

HOTEL

IATA

-

INTERNATION AIR

ICAO

-

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL

TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION

AVIATION ORGANIZATION

IDENT

-

IDENITY

IFUN

-

IF UNABLE

IMDT

-

IMMEDIATELY

INCL

-

INCLUDE

INF

-

INFANT

INFO

-

INFORM

INOP

-

INOPERATIVE

MGR

-

MANAGER

MSG

-

MESSAGE

MTG

-

MEETING

NA

-

NEED SPACE ON SEGMENT

NIL

-

NONE/NOTHING

NOOP

-

NO OPERATION

NML

-

NORMAL

OFLD

-

OFFLOADED

NOSH

-

NO SHOW

SPECIFIED

137 ORIG

-

ORIGIN

OPS

-

OPERATION

OPTG

-

OPERATING

OVBK

-

OVERBOOK

POSS

-

POSSIBLE

PREP

-

PREPARE

PROC

-

PROCEDURE

PSGR

-

PASSENGER

PSN

-

POSITION

RE

-

REGARDING

REF

-

REFERENCE

REQ

-

REQUEST

RSVN

-

RESERVATION

RTNG

-

ROUTING

REYT

-

REFERENCE YOUR

SKED

-

SCHEDULE

TELEGRAM

SITA

-

SOCIETE INTERNATIONALE

TERM

-

TERMINATE

TLX

-

TELEX

TMW

-

TOMORROW

TRA

-

TRANSIT

TRBL

-

TROUBLE

TRVL

-

TRAVEL

UFN

-

UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE

UNK

-

UNKNOWN

US

-

UNSERVICEAGBLE

UM

-

UNACCOMPANIED MINOR

YP

-

YOUNG PASSENGER

AERONAUTIQUES

Source: Passenger Handling Manual (PHM), Thai Airways International

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