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LANGKAWI, Vol. 3 No. 1, April 2017

ISSN (p): 2460-2280; ISSN (e): 2549-9017

THE USE OF LANGUAGE ASPECT IN THE DISCOURSE OF POLITICAL ADVERTISING IN PADANG Alex Darmawan Universitas Andalas, Padang [email protected] ABSTRACT Political advertisement has its own phenomenon since it is presented at specific time. It commonly shows up at any specific time during the legislative (lawmakers) and executive (president, governor, regent, mayor) election. This research aims to describe the elements, the structure, and the use of linguistic aspects in political advertising in Padang. This research involves three stages; data provision, data analysis, and presentation of analysis results. At the first stage, data was collected by finding out clippings concerning political advertising in 2009. They were further photographed and recorded. The analysis applies contextual method based on theories of socio-pragmatics. The analysis results are presented in descriptive manners. The structures of political advertisements in Padang have been shaped by two components, which are categorized into main and explanatory components. Besides, the use of linguistic aspects of the political advertisement in the city comprises capital letters, repetition, abbreviations, acronyms, code switching, code mixing, rhymes, couplets, metaphors, and antithesis. Keywords: political advertising; advertising structure; language aspects. ABSTRAK Iklan politik memiliki fenomena tersendiri karena disajikan pada waktu tertentu. Ini biasanya muncul pada waktu tertentu selama pemilihan legislatif dan pemilihan eksekutif (presiden, gubernur, bupati, walikota). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan unsur, struktur, dan penggunaan aspek linguistik dalam periklanan politik di Padang. Penelitian ini melibatkan tiga tahap; yaitu penyediaan data, analisis data, dan penyajian hasil analisis. Pada tahap pertama, data dikumpulkan dengan mencari tahu kliping tentang iklan politik di tahun 2009. Foto-foto tersebut kemudian difoto dan direkam. Analisis menggunakan metode kontekstual berdasarkan teori sosio-pragmatik. Hasil analisis disajikan secara deskriptif. Struktur iklan politik di Padang telah dibentuk oleh dua komponen, yang termasuk dalam komponen utama dan penjelasan. Selain itu, penggunaan aspek linguistik dari iklan politik di kota ini terdiri dari huruf kapital, pengulangan, singkatan, akronim, kode switching, pencampuran kode, sajak, couplet, metafora, dan antitesis. Kata kunci: Iklan politik, struktur iklan, aspek bahasa INTRODUCTION In everyday life, people always use various forms of language to meet their life needs. People can fulfill their needs as inter-related social creatures by communicating to each other to express their thoughts as well as to cooperate. Language as a communication tool has very important role in human life because -1-

Alex Darmawan: The Use of Language Aspect… people are able to express anything by using certain language. Communication process not only involves one participant, but also the others. In order for participants to understand each other's intentions from the speech, there must be cooperation among them. The interlocutors and the listeners have to understand the conveyed messages when they are speaking to each other. If one does not understand what other speakers mean, it can lead to ambiguous interpretation and the message conveyed will be unacceptable. One of language uses in people’s life is in advertising. It is used for advertising purpose. Advertising is defined as a human endeavor in conveying ideas, products or services aimed at a particular target through mass media that expects certain benefits, and has clear sponsor. Advertisements use visual language that carries the shape of icons, symbols, and body language (mimic, gestures, signs, sounds, clothing and attitudes). Visual language often employs face to face communication. Substantially, advertisement has communication purpose and the main concept is to persuade people. In addition, it also has goals, supporting information, strategy formulation (theme, attraction, and action) and advertising appeal. Advertisers can come from companies, organizations, and individuals. They may be trading companies or services, organizations, communities, even people or organizations with political background. Advertisers who usually come from people or organizations with political background and purpose are called political advertising. Tinarbuko (2009: 1) explains that the nature of political advertising is as same as commercial advertising. All political parties want to win the competition. Tinarbuko’s statement is set out from the goal of political parties that want people to vote for their party. Thus, political advertising is classified as a commercial advertisement as well. Political advertising is done by politicians and political parties. The advertisement is often found especially in the run up to the general election, either presidential election, council members until the election of local officials. The content of political advertisement is primarily to shape the image, both organizations and individuals and invite the public to vote and support political organizations and politicians who create advertisements (Widyatama, 2005: 109). The reality of political advertising is a representation of real life with all sorts of complexity. Political advertising attempts to simplify some kind of complex life to be simple. Therefore, political advertising is not merely suggestive and persuasive but also manipulative. George Orwell (1946) in his famous essay entitled “Politics and the English Language” states that the political language in advertisements is largely composed of questionable opinions in political advertisements and unclear phrases. Political language is designed to make lies sound true and nonsense sounds convincing. This kind of language can also easily be found in political advertisements ahead of the election in banners and billboards in the middle or on the roadside, in the advertisement column, banner, in the newspapers and sometimes we can also meet in t-shirts and campaign striker. In Indonesia, elections are often referred to "democratic parties" which was held for the first time in 2004 to vote for president and vice president. The direct election seems to have encouraged many political parties to make more intensive political communication efforts than previous elections. Nevertheless, the electoral -2-

LANGKAWI, Vol. 3 No. 1, April 2017

ISSN (p): 2460-2280; ISSN (e): 2549-9017

atmosphere in 2004 only featured political party battles only. The pattern of campaigns undertaken by each party still uses the old pattern, namely gathering masses in open spaces, giving speech, and displaying entertainment. In addition, political parties spread leaflets about their candidates to the public. The role of printing and electronic mass media for the benefit of party and candidate image is still not maximized. With all the problems in Indonesia, the 2004 election is a manifestation of the successful democratization process in Indonesia ("Politics and Democratization in Indonesia" in politik.kompasiana.com). Leading to the 2009 election, there were quite a number of political parties participating in the election, which were 38 political parties. "The election of many parties in 2009 was indeed required every party to introduce their party entity and program respectively" (Tinarbuko, 2009: 3). This had resulted in many political party advertisements emerging; both in printed and electronic one that offer programs to address some problems. They wrapped themselves in polite language, offering ideas to solve the problem of our scared nation. In early January 2009, many legislative candidates started political campaigns by advertising their political messages in the printed media, leaflets, and billboards as well as on the radio. Each candidate who wants to sit in the legislative chair begins to figure out some ways to convince the voters to choose them with the advertising language they make. The language they display in advertisements varies in their various forms and ideologies. This is due to changes in the election system established through the decision of the Constitutional Court based on who obtains voters the most. This policy makes the legislative candidates change their strategy and become more competitive; not only to the opponent, but also to their fellows in the same party. The power of popularity becomes very important. Indeed it takes a surefire way to tell the audience about the figure. Through political advertisements posted in the mass media, politicians are competing to display their positive image. For instance, political advertisements in Padang illustrate the process of selfimage of legislative candidates. Many legislative candidates are using electronic media and newspapers to nominate themselves. With the limitations of electronic media, newspapers are great medium for them to advertise visually. Political advertisements displayed by legislative candidates, ranging from candidate images to the language used in advertisements have their own characteristics, and are unique phenomena. The uniqueness and peculiarity are seen through the use of language in advertisements. The purpose of language use in advertising, among others, is to shape perceptions, change attitudes, and ultimately influence the actions of readers/ viewers. Therefore, the language contained in the advertisement should be a careful process for the advertisements to achieve maximum results. Therefore, the utilization of linguistic aspects becomes very important for legislative candidates to image themselves, in terms of limited space in advertising. Aspects of language can include spelling, the variety of language use, the style of language, the use of words, phrases, and sentences. Utilization of language aspect is closely related to human creativity in using the language to bring the effects of beauty, emphasize something, create public opinion, and convey the ideology of particular person. -3-

Alex Darmawan: The Use of Language Aspect… Furthermore, political advertising as a discourse certainly has a certain structure as other discourses. The structure of the discourse was built with various elements that make the discourse intact. Based on the above description, this study focused on the elements that build advertising, advertisements’ structure, and the form of linguistic aspects in the discourse of political advertising in Padang. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Before this research was undertaken further, it is necessary to present an explanation of some theories and terminology that will be used as the basis for the discussion of this research. The theories and terminology include; a. Advertisement Simply advertisement is defined as a message that offers a product addressed to the community through a particular medium. Advertisements are typically called ads or advertising. Etymologically, Munawar (1997: 967) suggests that the word advertisement comes from the Arabic of I’laanun which means broadcasting or notification. Advertising is a notice to the general public about goods or services, so the public will be interested in following or buying what offered (KKBI, 2005: 421). According to Subakti et al. (2000: 19), advertisement has been known from the ancient Greeks used to broadcast slaves who fled from their masters or to announce the upcoming matches. At that time, the advertising media was very simple in the form of letter release. Riyanto (in Widyatama, 2007: 14) says that Soedardjo Tjokrosisworo, the national press figure in 1951, was the first person to introduce the term ‘advertisement’ (from Arabic) in Indonesia to replace the term ‘advertentie’ (from Dutch). The application of Arabic term is based on the rapid spread of Islam in Indonesia, so Arabic culture is more acceptable within community. Indonesian Advertising Society defines advertising as any form of message about a product or service delivered through a medium and addressed to some or all of society. According Widyatama (2007: 17), an advertisement contains six basic principles, namely; (1) existence of certain message, (2) done by communicator (sponsor), (3) done by non-personal, which means that advertisement is done through media, (4) submitted for certain audience, (5) need to pay for the advertisements, and (6) expecting any impacts after. b. Variety of Languages People are social human beings. They interact, work together, and establish social contact within society. In doing so, they need a means of communication in the form of language. Language allows people to form social groups as the fulfillment of their need to live together. In the social group, they are bound individually. The individual bounding in this group is seen as a self-identity within their group. Each individual is a member of a particular social group that is subject to a set of rules agreed within the group. One of the rules contained in it is a set of language rules. Language of every social environment of certain community is distinct. The existence of the social group causes the language used varies as well. The diversity of these languages arises as a result of the needs of speakers who choose the language to fit the situation of their social context. Therefore, the variety of languages arises not because of the rules of language, but because of the various social rules. -4-

LANGKAWI, Vol. 3 No. 1, April 2017

ISSN (p): 2460-2280; ISSN (e): 2549-9017

Poedjosoedarmo (1978: 11) defines the variety of languages as variations of language whose differences are determined by the existence of different language situations. This definition is in line with Joss in Chaer and Leony (2004: 70-72) who suggests that the variety of languages consists of five kinds. The five kinds are the variety of standard languages, official or formal language, business, consultations, casual, and intimate language. The standard language has fixed and unchangeable patterns and rules. This variety is used in laws, official letters, and solemn situations. In addition, Gleason (in Aslinda and Leni Syafyahya, 2007: 20) states that this standard variety is used in historical documents. Meanwhile, formal language also has a steady pattern and norm as a standard and used in official situations. The variety of business languages lies between the variety of formal and casual languages. The casual language variety is full with lexical dialect elements. Furthermore, the casual language commonly uses language codes that are personal, isolated and relatively fixed in the group. The variety of informal languages is used to follow and adapt the circumstances and situations where the communication takes place (Wijana and Rohmadi, 2005: 169). The communication situation refers to who, whom, what problem, and what is its purpose. Therefore in informal languages, we can easily find out some language aspects. Aspects of language that can be found in various advertisements, among others are informal languages in form of repetition, abbreviation, mixed code, metaphor, and so forth. Kridalaksana (1984: 142) also explains that the variety of languages is a variation of its use, which is distinguished by topic, the relations of the interlocutors, and the medium of expression. Thus, the variety of languages is the language variation based on its usage arising according to the circumstances and functions that allow for such variations. Variety of language according to the topic of conversation refers to the use of language in a particular field, such as the field of journalism, literature, government, and so forth. The variety of languages according to the interlocutors' relationship in speech or style of speech refers to a formal or informal situation. Medium of expression can be a means or way of using language, for example spoken language and written language. In languages variation, there are at least three noticeable things as follows; the same patterns, the patterns of language that can be analyzed descriptively, and the patterns limited by those meanings used by speakers to communicate. The variety of languages can also be seen from six aspects, such as, place, time, user, and situation, dialect associated with greetings, status and use of various languages (Pateda in Chaer, 1987: 52). Places can determine the use of different languages. Places in this case refer to physical environment as like on the street, in the mall, market, office and so forth. In terms of its usage, language can create diversity as well; the terms used herein are the person or speakers of the language in question. Furthermore, the variety of languages in terms of situations will give rise to formal and informal languages or formal and non-formal forms. RESEARCH METHODS -5-

Alex Darmawan: The Use of Language Aspect… This research was conducted in three stages, namely the phase of data provision, data analysis, and data presentation. At the data presentation stage, the data was collected by clipping and recording the discourse of political advertisement on mass media in Padang during 2009-2010. After that, the data were analyzed based on contextual method which is by basing, calculating and linking the data to context (Rahardi, 2005: 16). According to Leech in Wijana (1999: 11), the context in linguistic research is all relevant physical and social settings of the speech. So the data analysis is done by determining factors apart from the language itself with reference to sociolinguistic theory. For data presentation was done descriptively. FINDING AND DISCUSSION Each discourse contains the elements which must exist in certain advertisement. These elements refer to discourse components. It is this shaping component that makes political advertising in Padang a complete advertisement. 1. Components of Political Advertising Discourse in Padang In political advertising in Padang, the structure is built by two components, namely the main component and the explanatory component. For more details, it will be described as follows. a. Main component The main component is a kind of must part of any political advertising structure in Padang. The main components consist of information containing the names of the legislative candidates, the level of representation, the election district, the illustrations of the legislative candidates, the figures and party numbers, the names of the parties, the candidate numbers and the slogans. b. Explanatory component This component is a number of information that serves to confirm the information contained in the main component parts. Its presence in the discourse of political advertising is optional which can be presented to add persuasive power or can be omitted. The component consists of various kinds of information, namely; statements of political promises, description of curriculum vitae of legislative candidates, description of how to vote for her/him, and persuasive statements. 1.

Components of Political Advertising Discourse in Padang Here is the discourse structure of political advertising in Padang. a. First Structure: (Introduction): Name of Legislative Candidate, (Body): Candidate Number + Representation Description + Description of Election Region + Candidate Illustration + Image and Party Number + Party Name, (Closing): Slogan b. Second Structure: (Introduction): Name of Legislative Candidate, (Body): Description of Representation + Description of election region + Illustration of the candidate + Image and Party Number + Party Name + Candidate Number + Curriculum vitae of the candidate, (Closing): Slogan. c. Third Structure: (Introduction): Legislative Candidate Name, (Body): Candidate Number + Representation Description + Description of Election -6-

LANGKAWI, Vol. 3 No. 1, April 2017

ISSN (p): 2460-2280; ISSN (e): 2549-9017

Region + Illustration of the candidate + Image and Party Number + Party Name + How to vote by ticking out, Order Description, (Closing): Slogan. d. Fourth Structure: (Introduction): Legislative Candidate Name, Candidate Name, Candidate Description of Representation + Description of Election Region + Illustration of the candidate + Image and Party Number + Party Name + Political Persuasive Description + Description on how to vote, persuasive Description, ( Closing): 2. The Use of Linguistic Aspects in the Discourse of Political Advertising in Padang From the study of the data, it can be seen that the various languages used are informal language and also found some forms of linguistic aspect used in the form of capital letter writing, repetition. The detail description can be seen below. a. Capital letter writing The use of capital letters in political advertisements in Padang is common and does not follow the rules contained in standardized spelling guideline (EYD). Capital letters made by legislative candidates in political advertising will be described as follows. Data. (1) READY TO SERVE PEOPLE, READY TO REPRESENT PEOPLE 1. DR. POEMPIDA HIDAYATULLOH The legislative candidate of DPR-RI Sumbar 1 No. 1 DO NOT FORGET TO PRAY AND READ QUR’AN In data (1), the legislative candidates used capital letter only on his name and political slogan while others are written with typically used of writing. It aims to give emphasis and attention to those elements; names and slogans. For legislative candidates, the readers are expected and led to pay more attention to the words with the capital letters he used. b. Repetition Repetition is a repetition of sounds, syllables, words or parts of a sentence that are considered important as the emphasis in an appropriate context (Keraf, 2007: 127). In the political ads in Padang, we found some repetitions. The following is the example. Data. (2) New Path, New Guide for INDONESIA RAYA (GERINDRA) Vote for Putra Daerah Sumatera Barat 1. H. FADLIZON, SS, MSc. The legislative candidate of DPR-RI West Sumatra 1 Padang, Kab.solok, Kab.Selatan, Kota Sawahlunto, Kab.Sijunjung Kab.Dharmasraya, Kab. Tanah Datar. Kab. Padang Panjang, Padang Panjang, Pesisir Selatan District. Kab.Mentawai The sample data (2) repeats the word "New". This word appears only twice. The repetition of the word emphasizes the word "new". New meaning itself relates to a -7-

Alex Darmawan: The Use of Language Aspect… fresh, good, and current, which is contrary to the word "old" which means 'obsolete, outdated'. The word "New Path" and “New Leader” inform that Indonesian state needs a new direction in its development and in developing the new direction we need new leader as well. The old path and the old leader must be abandoned. c. Abbreviation Simple abbreviation is a set of letters as a short form of a word or several words. Abbreviations are found in political advertisements in Padang. The most common form of abbreviations is the well-known one used by the public. The use of abbreviations is intended to make the advertisement easy to understand and draw attention and save space in the ads. More can be seen in the following data. Data. (3) It’s Time for Woman to Participate VOTE for DPR-RI PARTY NO.28 LEGISLATIVE CANDIDATE NO.3 SUMBAR 1 Hj. RAFNELLY RAFKI MARLON, SH, SE, MBA (NENENG RAFKI MARLON) From the data (3) above, there are some abbreviations found, as like DPR-RI, Hj, SH, SE, and MBA. The abbreviation of DPR-RI is the house of representation of Indonesia which is one of the state's high institutions in the Indonesian administration system which represents the people. The institution shall consist of members of political parties participating in elections elected from the general elections. DPR-RI has function in the legislation, budget management, and supervision on law and budget of state’s revenue and expenditure. The title Hj stands for Hajj. However, this Hj title for Muslim women who have successfully performed the pilgrimage. Furthermore, SH, SE, and MBA are academic degrees from Bachelor of Law namely Bachelor degree in Law, Bachelor of Economics, Bachelor degree in Economics, and Master of Business Administration that is master degree of professional in business management. An academic degree is lined up by a legislative candidate for the good image d. Acronym An acronym is a short form for a combination of letters or syllables or other parts written and pronounced as a meaningful word. In political advertisements in Padang, the candidates often use acronyms. The use of this acronym is due to space limitations so that the language used should be effective and efficient, as well as the common things in the language community (Wijana and Rohmadi, 2006: 186). Below, we will describe the acronyms used in political advertisements in Padang. Data. (4) It's Time for Young Generation to Make Changes 6. NEDYA FITRI GUSPARDI Caleg DPRD Sumbar, Dapil I. Padang-Mentawai CEO of Citra Swalayan Group Political advertisements based on data (4), the use of acronym is found, caleg, Sumbar, and Dapil. Caleg is an acronym of legislative candidate; a person nominating himself -8-

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ISSN (p): 2460-2280; ISSN (e): 2549-9017

to be a member of the legislature at the city, provincial and national levels. The acronym of caleg is widely known because it is used in all regions of Indonesia that hold elections. Sumbar is an acronym of the name of the province of West Sumatra. Furthermore, dapil is an acronym of the election district. Election district is the representation area of legislative candidates. e. Code switching Suwito (in Chaer, 1995: 150) explains that code switching consists of two types, namely internal and external code switching. The internal code is a language fragment that takes place within our own language, like Indonesian with other local languages in Indonesia. While the external code is the language fragments contained in the speech that comes from foreign languages, such as the Indonesian switched to English. In political advertising in Padang, they do not do code switching a lot. The code is the internal one, namely Indonesian switched to local language. It can be seen as follows: Data. (5) Kalau balanjo ka pasa pagii Raminyo sampai pukua salapan Caleg demokrat untuak provinsi Vote for Rizal Moenir number eight 8. RIZAL MOENIR CHOOSE DEMOCRATIC PARTIES FOR WEST SUMATERA VOTE FOR NUMBER EIGHT The above advertisement shows code switching from local language to Indonesian. f. Code mixing Mixed-code is a mixing of two languages and more in one utterance. Nababan (1993: 7) defines mixed code with the term gado-gado for the use of mixed language between Indonesian and local languages. Furthermore, in formal language situations, there is rarely any code mixing. A prominent feature of this mix of codes is casualty in informal situation. Mixed code has several functions. According to Holmes (2001: 35-42) the mixed code function is expressing solidarity, showing certain group identities (tribes), making a certain distance, discussing certain topics, having affective functions, and doing rhetoric and borrowing certain terms. In political advertisement in Padang, there were mixed codes, namely Indonesian with Minang language and Indonesian language with English. Here is the detail description. Data. (6) LEGISLATIVE CANDIDATE OF DPRD OF PADANG ELECTION AREA IV OF PADANG Kec. Padang Timur, Padang Selatan and Bangus Teluk Kabung 6. HASNAH CENDRA DEWI PLEASE ALLOW AND SUPPORT ME, DUNSANAK -9-

Alex Darmawan: The Use of Language Aspect… In the example of a political data ad (6) above, there is a mixed code with the basic Indonesian language code with Minangkabau language. This can be seen from Dunsanak. Actually the word can be replaced with the word ‘family’. However, mixed codes done by legislative candidates certainly have a goal, which is to build a family relationship between speakers and interlocutors, in this case the people in Padang. g. Rhymes A rhyme is one of a kind of old poetry that is very widely known in the languages of the archipelago. All forms of rhymes consist of two parts. The first two lines are sampiran and the last two lines are the contents. Here is the rhymes data in political advertisement in Padang City. Data. (7) Kalau balanjo ka pasa pagii Raminyo sampai pukua salapan Caleg demokrat untuak provinsi Vote for Rizal Moenir number eight 8. RIZAL MOENIR CHOOSE DEMOCRATIC PARTIES FOR WEST SUMATERA VOTE FOR NUMBER EIGHT In the above political advertisement, the legislative candidate utilizes the linguistic aspect of rhymes to convey his intent and wishes to display the beauty of the language, as well as to reveal the identity of Malay. The rhyme used is ab-ab pattern, the first verse and both are sampiran, the third and fourth verses are the contents. h. Couplets Couplets is one form of old Malay poetry consisting of two lines of sentence with the same rhythm, which is a unified whole. Here the use of linguistic aspects of couplets on political advertising in the city of Padang. Data. (8) Kalau balanjo ka pasa pagii Raminyo sampai pukua salapan Caleg demokrat untuak provinsi Vote for Rizal Moenir number eight 8. RIZAL MOENIR PILIH PARTAI DEMOKRAT (CHOOSE DEMOCRATIC PARTY) UNTUK SEMATERA BARAT (FOR WEST SUMATERA) VOTE FOR NUMBER EIGHT Aspects of language in the form of couplets encountered its use in the example above that pilih partai democrat, untuk Sumatera Barat. The use of Couplets is used to embellish language users in advertisements. i. Metaphor Metaphor is a kind of analogy that compares two things directly, but in a short form (Keraf, 2006: 139), and Kridalaksana (2001: 136) says that metaphor is the use of words or other expressions for other objects or concepts based on figures or - 10 -

LANGKAWI, Vol. 3 No. 1, April 2017

ISSN (p): 2460-2280; ISSN (e): 2549-9017

similarities, for example, mountain foot, table legs are analogous to human feet. The following is the metaphorical data in political advertising in Padang. Data. (9) 1. H ZAILIS USMAN, SIP Legislative candidate of DPRD SUMBAR number 1 for PADANG AND MENTAWAI With Golkar Kita Bangun Jembatan Hati (we build heart bridge) The linguistic aspects of the metaphor can be observed in the example of data 9 above. Metaphors are characterized by the use of the phrase Bangun Jembatan Hati. The phrase Bangun Jembatan Hati is a figurative formation of building a familial relationship. j. Antithesis Antithesis is a style of language containing ideas that contradict the use of opposing words or groups (Keraf 1996: 126). Here is antithetical data in political advertisement in Padang. Data. (10) 5. INDRA MERDI (23 Golkar Party) Legislative candidate of DPRD of PADANG DAPIL IV: Padang Selatan, Padang Timur, Bungu and Teluk Kabung BERI BUKTI BUKAN JANJI (NOT ONLY PROMISE BUT A PROOF) The antithesis used in the example above lies in beri bukti bukan janji. This sentence is a contradictory notion of using the word bukan instead of a contrast between the word bukti (proof) and janji (promise). CONCLUSION Based on the analysis of data, the conclusions can be drawn based on the formulation of the problem as follows. 1. Political advertising in Padang consists of two major components if we see in term of its structure, namely main component and explanatory component. Each component is built by some information. The main components are constructed from the information on the names of the legislative candidates, the level of representation, the election district, the illustrations of candidates, consisting of party figures, party names, candidate number and slogan, while the explanatory component consists of political promises, curriculum vitae, and persuasive information. Each of the details in that component exists in the introduction of the advertisement, the body, and the closing as well. The pattern of political advertising structure is broadly divided into three parts, namely the introduction, body and closing. 2. There were four patterns of political advertisements structure, namely, a. First Structure: (Introduction): Name of Legislative Candidate, (Body): Candidate Number + Representation Description + Description of Election Region + Candidate Illustration + Image and Party Number + Party Name, (Closing): Slogan b. Second Structure: (Introduction): Name of Legislative Candidate, (Body): Description of Representation + Description of election region + Illustration - 11 -

Alex Darmawan: The Use of Language Aspect… of the candidate + Image and Party Number + Party Name + Candidate Number + Curriculum vitae of the candidate, (Closing): Slogan. c. Third Structure: (Introduction): Legislative Candidate Name, (Body): Candidate Number + Representation Description + Description of Election Region + Illustration of the candidate + Image and Party Number + Party Name + How to vote by ticking out, Order Description, (Closing): Slogan. d. Fourth Structure: (Introduction): Legislative Candidate Name, Candidate Name, Candidate Description of Representation + Description of Election Region + Illustration of the candidate + Image and Party Number + Party Name + Political Persuasive Description + Description on how to vote, persuasive Description, ( Closing): 3. The use of linguistic aspects encountered in political advertising in Padang is formal and informal languages which consist of capital letter writing, repetition, abbreviation, acronym, code transfer, code mix, rhymes, couplets, metaphor, and antithesis. 4. Political advertising in Padang also utilizes the function of language, namely expressive function, directive function, informative function and propaganda function. REFERENCES Aslinda., Leni Syafyahya. Pengantar Sosiolinguistik. Bandung: Refika Aditama. Abdul Rani dkk. (2006). Analisis Wacana; Sebuah Kajian Bahasa dan Pemakaian. Malang: Bayumedia Publishing Arifin. (1992). Pemakaian Bahasa Indonesia dalam Iklan Berita dan Papan Reklame. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Arifin, Bustamil., Abdul Rani. (2002). Prinsip-Prinsip Analisis Wacana. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Danial, Akhmad. (2009). Iklan Politik TV. Yogyakarta: PT.LKiS. Halliday, Ruqaiya Hasan. (1994). Bahasa, Konteks, dan Teks ; Aspek-aspek Bahasa dalam Pandangan Semiotik Sosial. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press. Jefkin. (1996). Periklanan. Terj. Aris Munanda. Jakarta: Erlangga. Kasiyan. (2008). Manipulasi dan Dehumanisasi Perempuan dalam Iklan. Yogyakarta: Ombak. Keraf, Gorys. (2001). Komposisi. Ende: Nusa Indah. -----------------. (1984). Diksi dan Gaya Bahasa. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Leech, Geoffey. (1993). Prinsip-Prinsip Pragmatik. M.D.D.OKA, MA. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia.

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Levinson, Stephen C. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ladyanna, Sonezza. (2008). ”Iklan Layanan Masyarakat di Kota Padang Tinjauaan Sosiopragmatik”. Tesis pada Program Studi Ilmu Linguistik Sekolah Pascasarjana Universitas Gadjah Mada. - 12 -

LANGKAWI, Vol. 3 No. 1, April 2017

ISSN (p): 2460-2280; ISSN (e): 2549-9017

Liliweri, A. (1992). Dasar-Dasar Komunikasi Periklanan. Bandung: PT Citra Aditya Bakti Mahsun. (2005). Metode Penelitian Bahasa Tahapan Strategi, Metode, dan Tekniknya. Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada. Mey, Jacob L. (1993). Pragmatics An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publisher. Mulyana. (2005). Kajian Wacana; Teori, Metode & Aplikasi Prinsip-prinsip Analisis Wacana. Yogyakarta: Tiara Wacana Nababan, P.W.J. (1991). Sosiolinguistik; Suatu Pengantar. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Nadar, F.X. (2009). Pragmatik dan Penelitian Pragmatik. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu. Oktavianus. (2006). Analisis Wacana Lintas Bahasa. Padang: Andalas University Press. Orwell, Goerge. (1946). Politics and the English Language. Poedjoesoedarmo, Soepomo. (1978). Kode dan Alih Kode. Yogyakarta: Balai Penelitian Bahasa. Pusat Bahasa Depertemen Pendidikan Nasional. (2005). Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka. Subakti, Baty, dkk. (2004). Reka Reklame Sejarah Periklanan Indonesia 1744-1984. Yogyakarta: Galang Press. Sudaryanto. (1993). Metode dan Aneka Teknik Analisis Bahasa. Yogyakarta: Duta Wacana University Press Sumarlam, dkk. (2003). Teori dan Praktik Analisis Wacana. Surakarta: Pustaka Cakra. Tinarbuko, Sumbo. (2009). Iklan Politik dalam Realitas Media. Yogyakarta: Jalasutra. Widyatama, Rendra. (2007). Pengantar Periklanan. Yogyakarta: Pustaka. Wijana, I Dewa Putu. (1996). Dasar-Dasar Pragmatik. Yogyakarta: Andi. Winardi. (1992). Promosi dan Reklame. Bandung: Mandar Maju.

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LANGKAWI, Vol. 3 No. 1, April 2017 ISSN (p): 2460-2280; ISSN (e): 2549-9017 THE USE OF LANGUAGE ASPECT IN THE DISCOURSE OF POLITICAL ADVERTISING IN ...

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